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1.  Kidney Function Decline in the Elderly: Impact of Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 
American Journal of Nephrology  2011;34(6):512-518.
Background: Whether lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) levels are associated with kidney function decline has not been well studied. Methods: We investigated associations of Lp-PLA2 antigen and activity with kidney function decline and rapid decline over 5.7 years in the Cardiovascular Health Study (n = 4,359). We estimated kidney function by cystatin C (eGFRcys) in repeated measures, and defined rapid decline as ≥3 ml/min/1.73 m2 per year. We stratified by baseline preserved GFR (≥60 ml/min/1.73 m2). Results: Mean age was 72 ± 5 years. Average eGFRcys decline was −1.79 ml/min/1.73 m2 (SD = 2.60) per year. Among persons with preserved GFR, compared to the lowest quartile of Lp-PLA2 antigen, eGFRcys decline was faster among persons in the second, β −0.31 (95% CI −0.52, −0.10), third −0.19 (–0.41, 0.02) and fourth quartiles −0.26 (–0.48, −0.04) after full adjustment. Persons in the highest quartile of Lp-PLA2 antigen had increased odds of rapid decline 1.34 (1.03, 1.75), compared to the lowest. There was no significant association between levels of Lp-PLA2 activity and eGFRcys decline or rapid decline. Associations were not statistically significant among persons with low eGFR (<60 ml/min/1.73 m2) at baseline. Conclusion: Higher levels of Lp-PLA2 antigen but not activity were significantly associated with faster rates of kidney function decline. These findings may suggest a novel vascular pathway for kidney disease progression.
doi:10.1159/000333045
PMCID: PMC3225232  PMID: 22056971
Chronic kidney disease; Elderly; Estimated GFR; Kidney decline; Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2
2.  Change in Cardiovascular Risk Factors with Progression of Kidney Disease 
American Journal of Nephrology  2008;29(4):334-341.
Background
Prior studies evaluating the relationship of kidney disease with cardiovascular risk factors have been limited by their cross-sectional design. We evaluated the change in lipids, inflammatory and procoagulant biomarkers with decline in kidney function in a nested case-cohort study in the Cardiovascular Health Study, a community-based study of adults aged >65 years.
Methods
Individuals with an increase in serum creatinine ≥0.3 mg/dl (baseline to 3 years later, n = 207) were matched to controls of similar age, race, gender, diabetes and baseline serum creatinine, but whose change in creatinine was <0.3 mg/dl. Baseline and change in risk factors were analyzed with conditional logistic regression.
Results
Changes in C-reactive protein were similar. In contrast, cases had larger increases in fibrinogen (OR 1.38 per standard deviation, 95% confidence interval 1.08–1.76) and factor VIII [1.38 (1.10–1.72)] and larger decreases in HDL [OR 0.80 (0.64, 1.00)]. Change in interleukin-6 was greater in cases than controls, but this did not persist after multivariate adjustment. However, in linear regression, change in interleukin-6 was correlated with change in creatinine.
Conclusion
Cardiovascular risk factors and kidney function may change concurrently. This could lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease as kidney function worsens.
doi:10.1159/000166598
PMCID: PMC2786019  PMID: 18948687
Cardiovascular risk factors; Chronic kidney disease; Disease progression; Inflammation; Lipids
3.  Chronic Kidney Disease Is Often Unrecognized among Patients with Coronary Heart Disease: The REGARDS Cohort Study 
American Journal of Nephrology  2008;29(1):10-17.
Introduction
Individuals with kidney disease are at increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) and CHD is associated with an increased prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Awareness of CKD may potentially influence diagnostic decisions, life-style changes and pharmacologic interventions targeted at modifiable CHD risk factors. We describe here the degree to which persons with CHD are aware of their CKD.
Methods
The Reasons for Geographical and Racial Difference in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort study, a population-based sample of US residents aged 45 and older. We included in our analyses 28,112 REGARDS participants recruited as of June 2007. We estimated GFR (eGFR) using the MDRD equation, defined CKD as a GFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2, and ascertained awareness of chronic kidney disease and coronary heart disease through self-report. We used the odds ratio to compare the association between awareness of kidney disease, as measured by GFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2, among individuals with and without self-reported CHD by both the presence of CKD and the severity of impaired kidney function.
Results
Coronary heart disease was reported by 3,803 (14.1%) of subjects, and 11.3% of subjects had CKD by eGFR. Among all individuals with a GFR <60 ml/min/ 1.73 m2, 9.6% reported having been told by a physician that they had kidney disease. Among those with CHD and CKD, 5.0% were aware of their CKD compared to 2.0% in those without CHD [OR (95% CI) = 2.57 (2.08, 3.28)]. This difference persisted after controlling for the level of kidney function [aOR (95% CI) = 1.87 (1.43, 2.41)].
Conclusion
There was a high prevalence of CKD and a low prevalence of awareness of kidney disease among older adults in the US population with or without coronary heart disease. These findings support recent recommendations that patients with cardiovascular disease be systematically screened for and educated about CKD.
doi:10.1159/000148645
PMCID: PMC2786017  PMID: 18663284
Screening; Cardiovascular disease; Chronic kidney disease

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