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1.  Assessment of synthetic glucocorticoids in asthmatic sputum 
Allergy & Rhinology  2011;2(1):33-35.
Nonadherence with anti-inflammatory treatment is a frequent cause of continued symptoms in asthmatic patients. Clinical assessments including patient-reported medication administration may provide the asthma specialist incomplete information regarding actual adherence to anti-inflammatory medications. The objective of this report was to describe the first case where adherence to inhaled asthma therapy was assessed by direct analysis of glucocorticoids in induced sputum. The patient's blood, urine, and sputum were tested for synthetic corticosteroids using mass spectrometry. To evaluate a clinical suspicion of poor adherence, sputum, urine, and blood were used to assess for current compliance to medication use. We report a case where asthma specialists attributed poorly controlled asthma to nonadherence to medical therapy. After modification of the medical regimen, adherence with oral and inhaled steroids was assessed—via examination of the urine, blood, and sputum. Direct analysis of glucocorticoids in sputum is feasible and in theory could provide a novel tool to document current medication adherence. Concomitant assessment of glucocorticoids and eosinophils in the same induced sputum specimen could provide insight into possible steroid resistance in select referral patients with difficult asthma.
doi:10.2500/ar.2011.2.0002
PMCID: PMC3390127  PMID: 22852112
Adherence; asthma; budesonide; drug monitoring; fluticasone propionate; methylprednisolone; prednisolone; prednisone; steroids; steroid dependent
2.  Skull base defect in a patient with ozena undergoing dacryocystorhinostomy 
Allergy & Rhinology  2011;2(1):36-39.
Ozena, which is often used interchangeably with atrophic rhinitis or empty nose syndrome, is a progressive and chronically debilitating nasal disease that results in atrophy of the nasal mucosa, nasal crusting, fetor, and destruction of submucosal structures. Although the etiology is not completely understood, infection with Klebsiella ozaenae is widely believed to contribute to the destructive changes. We present a case of a patient with ozena secondary to K. ozaenae with extensive destruction of bony structures of the nasal cavity undergoing elective dacryocystorhinostomy. An extensively thinned skull base secondary to the disease process resulted in an unforeseen complication in which the skull base was entered leading to a cerebrospinal fluid leak. Patients with known history of ozena or atrophic rhinitis often have extensive destruction of the lateral nasal wall and skull base secondary to progression of disease. Submucosal destruction of these bony structures mandates the need for extreme caution when planning on performing endoscopic intervention at or near the skull base. If physical examination or nasal endoscopy is suspicious for atrophic rhinitis or a patient has a known history of infection with K. ozaenae, we recommend preoperative imaging for surgical planning with careful attention to skull base anatomy.
doi:10.2500/ar.2011.2.0007
PMCID: PMC3390128  PMID: 22852113
Atrophic rhinitis; cerebrospinal fluid leak; cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea; CSF; dacryocystorhinostomy; DCR; empty nose syndrome; endoscopic sinus surgery; ozena; Klebsiella ozaenae; skull base; skull base defect
3.  Temporal lobe abscess in a patient with isolated sphenoiditis 
Allergy & Rhinology  2011;2(1):40-42.
A 74-year-old immunocompetent man admitted for severe retro-orbital headache was diagnosed with isolated sphenoiditis. At the time of scheduled surgery, the patient was mildly obtunded, and a head CT revealed a temporal lobe abscess. The patient underwent a left temporal craniectomy and a bilateral endoscopic sphenoid sinusotomy, which revealed gross fungal debris. The patient made a full recovery with resolution of abscess and sinus findings. Suspicion for intracranial infection should be raised in any sinus patient with neurological changes. Early diagnosis with imaging studies is extremely important for surgical drainage before permanent neurological sequelae.
doi:10.2500/ar.2011.2.0001
PMCID: PMC3390129  PMID: 22852114
Abcess; allergic sinusitis; fungal infection; headache; sinonasal; sphenoiditis; temporal lobe
4.  Allergic reaction to mint leads to asthma 
Allergy & Rhinology  2011;2(1):43-45.
Respiratory and cutaneous adverse reactions to mint can result from several different mechanisms including IgE-mediated hypersensitivity, delayed-type hypersensitivity (contact dermatitis), and nonimmunologic histamine release. Reactions to cross-reacting plants of the Labiatae family, such as oregano and thyme, as well as to the chemical turpentine, may clue the clinician in on the diagnosis of mint allergy. Contact dermatitis can result from menthol in peppermint. Contact allergens have been reported in toothpastes, which often are mint-flavored. Allergic asthma from mint is less well-recognized. A case of a 54-year-old woman with dyspnea on exposure to the scent of peppermint is presented in whom mint exposure, as seemingly innocuous as the breath of others who had consumed Tic Tac candies, exacerbated her underlying asthma. This case highlights the importance of testing with multiple alternative measures of specific IgE to mint, including skin testing with mint extract, and skin testing with fresh mint leaves. Additionally, this cases suggests that asthma can result from inhaling the scent of mint and gives consideration to obtaining confirmatory pre- and postexposure pulmonary function data by both impulse oscillometry and spirometry.
doi:10.2500/ar.2011.2.0008
PMCID: PMC3390130  PMID: 22852115
Allergic asthma; allergy; asthma; contact dermatitis; IgE; mint; mint leaves; peppermint; skin test
5.  Local repair of stoma prolapse: Case report of an in vivo application of linear stapler devices 
Introduction
One of the most common late complications following stoma construction is prolapse. Although the majority of prolapse can be managed conservatively, surgical revision is required with incarceration/strangulation and in certain cases laparotomy and/or stoma reversal are not appropriate. This report will inform surgeons on safe and effective approaches to revising prolapsed stomas using local techniques.
Presentation of case
A 58 year old female with an obstructing rectal cancer previously received a diverting transverse loop colostomy. On completion of neoadjuvant treatment, re-staging found new lung metastases. She was scheduled for further chemotherapy but incarcerated a prolapsed segment of her loop colostomy. As there was no plan to resect her primary rectal tumor at the time, a local revision was preferred. Linear staplers were applied to the prolapsed stoma in step-wise fashion to locally revise the incarcerated prolapse. Post-operative recovery was satisfactory with no complications or recurrence of prolapse.
Discussion
We detail in step-wise fashion a technique using linear stapler devices that can be used to locally revise prolapsed stoma segments and therefore avoid a laparotomy. The procedure is technically easy to perform with satisfactory post-operative outcomes. We additionally review all previous reports of local repairs and show the evolution of local prolapse repair to the currently reported technique.
Conclusion
This report offers surgeons an alternative, efficient and effective option for addressing the complications of stoma prolapse. While future studies are needed to assess long-term outcomes, in the short-term, our report confirms the safety and effectiveness of this local technique.
Highlights
•Local repair of stoma prolapse avoids the consequences of a major laparotomy.•Step-wise application of linear staplers effectively repairs prolapsed stomas.•Patient outcomes are satisfactory after local repairs.
doi:10.1016/j.amsu.2016.08.018
PMCID: PMC5024141  PMID: 27668078
Stoma; Prolapse; Local revision; Stapler; Case report
6.  End stage renal disease caused by thromboangiitis obliterans: a case report 
Introduction
Thromboangiitis obliterans or Buerger’s disease is a nonatherosclerotic, segmental, inflammatory vasculitis that is strongly associated with tobacco products and commonly affects the small- and medium-sized arteries of the upper and lower extremities. However, the disease can, rarely, involve large central or visceral arteries. We report here the case of end stage renal disease due to renal artery thrombosis caused by thromboangiitis obliterans.
Case presentation
A 51-year-old Korean man who had previously required amputation of both great toes due to thromboangiitis obliterans presented with left flank pain and oliguria. Both his renal arteries were occluded on contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography and abdominal angiography. He also had abdominal angina. He had no risk factor of thromboembolism from cardiac origin, atherosclerosis except for tobacco abuse, collagen diseases or hypercoagulable disorders. Renal failure and mesenteric ischemia associated with thromboangiitis obliterans progression was diagnosed.
Conclusions
Renal failure due to renal artery thrombosis and mesenteric ischemia represents an unusual manifestation of thromboangiitis obliterans. But once it occurs, it can be life-threatening. When we care for a patient with thromboangiitis obliterans, we should pay attention to this rare disease course, and encourage cessation of the smoking of tobacco products.
doi:10.1186/s13256-015-0659-8
PMCID: PMC4541743  PMID: 26286269
End stage renal disease; Infarction; Kidney; Mesenteric ischemia; Thromboangiitis obliterans

Results 1-6 (6)