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1.  CSACI position statement: systemic effect of inhaled corticosteroids on adrenal suppression in the management of pediatric asthma 
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that affects a growing number of children and adolescents. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the mainstay of treatment in persistent asthma, with a stepwise approach to increasing doses of ICS depending on asthma severity and control. ICS have known local and systemic side effects, of which adrenal suppression is still under-recognized. The latter is associated with chronic exposure and higher doses, although it has rarely been reported in children receiving low doses for a short period of time. The Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (CSACI) therefore recommends that physicians screen for adrenal suppression in children receiving high doses for more than 6 months and to consider screening those on medium dose if the risk is deemed higher by factors that increase an individual’s systemic corticosteroid exposure. Morning serum cortisol level can be used as a screening tool and abnormal results or normal results with a high index of suspicion should be confirmed with low-dose ACTH stimulation tests.
doi:10.1186/s13223-015-0075-z
PMCID: PMC4369840  PMID: 25802532
Asthma; Inhaled corticosteroids; Fluticasone; Adrenal suppression
2.  IgE-Mediated allergy to wheat in a child with celiac disease – a case report 
Introduction
Celiac disease and immediate type hypersensitivity to wheat are immune responses with different pathogenic mechanisms. Both diseases are well known entities but their coexistence in the same patient is rarely reported. This is a unique case presentation of a patient with celiac disease who developed concomitant IgE-mediated wheat allergy and presented with immediate symptoms in two body systems.
Case presentation
We report the case of a girl with celiac disease who subsequently developed IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to wheat. The patient is a Caucasian female who was diagnosed with celiac disease at 18 months of age after presenting with recurrent vomiting and failure to thrive. Her anti-tTG antibody level was greater than 200 E.U. and biopsy results from endoscopy were consistent with celiac disease. Specific IgE antibody to wheat was negative at 2 years of age. Around seven years of age, she developed immediate symptoms of urticaria, cough and shortness of breath with accidental exposures to wheat. Specific IgE antibody testing was repeated and positive to wheat (42.5 kU/L), as well as rye (33.9 kU/L), barley (53.4 kU/L) and oat (11.3 kU/L). At 9 years of age, skin prick testing was positive to wheat, barley and rye but negative to oat. The patient has subsequently tolerated an open oral food challenge to oat. She continues to avoid wheat, rye and barley and carries an epinephrine autoinjector at all times.
Conclusion
To our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with celiac disease and concomitant IgE-mediated allergy to wheat presenting with immediate symptoms in two body systems. Although the pathophysiology of these diseases is different, this case demonstrates that they are not exclusive of one another. In patients who develop unexplained symptoms consistent with IgE-mediated allergy, an allergy assessment should be considered.
doi:10.1186/1710-1492-10-56
PMCID: PMC4363205  PMID: 25788950
Celiac disease; Allergy; Wheat
3.  Dietary exposures and allergy prevention in high-risk infants: a joint position statement of the Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the Canadian Paediatric Society 
Allergic conditions in children are a prevalent health concern in Canada. The burden of disease and the societal costs of proper diagnosis and management are considerable, making the primary prevention of allergic conditions a desirable health care objective. This position statement reviews current evidence on dietary exposures and allergy prevention in infants at high risk of developing allergic conditions. It revisits previous dietary recommendations for pregnancy, breastfeeding and formula-feeding, and provides an approach for introducing solid foods to high-risk infants. While there is no evidence that delaying the introduction of any specific food beyond six months of age helps to prevent allergy, the protective effect of early introduction of potentially allergenic foods (at four to six months) remains under investigation. Recent research appears to suggest that regularly ingesting a new, potentially allergenic food may be as important as when that food is first introduced. This article has already been published (Paediatr Child Health. 2013 Dec;18(10):545–54), and is being re-published with permission from the original publisher, the Canadian Paediatric Society.
doi:10.1186/1710-1492-10-45
PMCID: PMC4407306  PMID: 25908933
Allergy prevention; Atopic dermatitis; Breastfeeding; Food allergy; Formula feeding; Solid food introduction
6.  What are the beliefs of pediatricians and dietitians regarding complementary food introduction to prevent allergy? 
Background
The timing of complementary food introduction is controversial. Providing information on the timing of dietary introduction is crucial to the primary prevention of food allergy. The American Academy of Pediatrics offers dietary recommendations that were updated in 2008.
Objective
Identify the recommendations that general pediatricians and registered dietitians provide to parents and delineate any differences in counselling.
Methods
A 9-item survey was distributed to pediatricians and dietitians online and by mail. Information on practitioner type, gender, length of practice and specific recommendations regarding complementary food introduction and exposure was collected.
Results
181 surveys were returned with a 54% response rate from pediatricians. It was not possible to calculate a meaningful dietitian response rate due to overlapping email databases. 52.5% of all respondents were pediatricians and 45.9% were dietitians. The majority of pediatricians and dietitians advise mothers that peanut abstinence during pregnancy and lactation is unnecessary. Dietitians were more likely to counsel mothers to breastfeed their infants to prevent development of atopic dermatitis than pediatricians. Hydrolyzed formulas for infants at risk of developing allergy were the top choice of formula amongst both practitioners. For food allergy prevention, pediatricians were more likely to recommend delayed introduction of peanut and egg, while most dietitians recommended no delay in allergenic food introduction.
Conclusions
In the prophylaxis of food allergy, pediatricians are less aware than dietitians of the current recommendation that there is no benefit in delaying allergenic food introduction beyond 4 to 6 months. More dietitians than pediatricians believe that breastfeeding decreases the risk of atopic dermatitis. Practitioners may benefit from increased awareness of current guidelines.
doi:10.1186/1710-1492-8-3
PMCID: PMC3337797  PMID: 22436326
Food allergy; Children; Survey; Prevention; Dietary advice

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