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1.  A FACTOR ANALYSIS OF THE IMPORTANT PEOPLE INVENTORY 
Aims
For well over a decade, the Important People Inventory (IP, Clifford and Longabaugh, 1991; Clifford et al., 1992) has been used to collect a wide range of valuable information regarding network support for alcohol use. However, because of psychometric limitations and varied adaptations of the IP, the following study performed factor analyses to develop a more structurally consistent model of the scale as compared to the existing model.
Methods
A first principal components analysis (Varimax rotation) was run on the indices of the IP using data from a national investigation of residents within a recovery community (N = 897). Next, a second principal components analysis was run using data collected from participants recruited from inpatient treatment settings (N = 150).
Results
Results indicated a nine-index, three-factor model, which explained about two thirds of the common variance. These three factors included: Support for Drinking from Network Members (3 items), Drinking Behaviours of Network Members (3 items), and General Social Support (3 items).
Conclusions
Results of both studies suggest that the IP fits a multi-component structure. It is recommended that Drinking Behaviours of Network Members be examined for predictive validity and that General Social Support be removed from the scale or have additional items added.
doi:10.1093/alcalc/agm012
PMCID: PMC3014731  PMID: 17510103
2.  Alcohol History and Smoking Cessation in Nicotine Replacement Therapy, Bupropion Sustained Release and Varenicline Trials: A Review 
Aims
We conducted a review of published reports of smoking cessation pharmacotherapy trials in order to address the following: 1) the generalizability of findings to smokers with a history of alcohol problems; 2) the extent to which alcohol use affects smoking cessation overall and the efficacy of pharmacotherapy specifically and 3) the effect of smoking cessation on alcohol use.
Methods
We located published reports of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion sustained release (SR) and varenicline clinical trials using an approach based on prior Cochrane reviews. The reports were searched for alcohol-related inclusion/exclusion criteria and for findings related to alcohol.
Results
The present review included 212 published reports from 149 trials. Alcohol-related exclusion criteria appeared frequently (41.6% of trials)—45/125 NRT trials (36%), 15/22 bupropion SR trials (68.2%) and 3/3 varenicline trials—and most commonly involved exclusion of participants with either current or recent alcohol problems. Most studies failed to provide any baseline alcohol-related characteristics. Eleven trials reported on the relationship between alcohol history and likelihood of smoking cessation. In the majority of these studies, smokers with a past history of alcohol problems were not at a disadvantage, although contrary findings exist. Only two studies examined the potential influence of smoking cessation on alcohol use.
Conclusions
Smokers with alcohol problems, particularly those with current or recent problems, are underrepresented in studies of approved pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. Future trials should assess alcohol use at baseline and during treatment and examine reciprocal influences between alcohol consumption and smoking cessation.
doi:10.1093/alcalc/agm022
PMCID: PMC2696890  PMID: 17526629
alcohol; bupropion SR; co-morbidity; nicotine replacement therapy; smoking cessation; varenicline
3.  TIMEVARYING PREDICTORS OF SMOKING CESSATION AMONG INDIVIDUALS IN TREATMENT FOR ALCOHOL ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE: FINDINGS FROM PROJECT MATCH 
Aims
Individuals in treatment for alcohol use disorders are more likely to die from cigarette use than from alcohol consumption. Advanced statistical methodologies that increase study power and clinical relevance have been advocated to examine the timevarying nature of substance use relapse and abstinence, including drinking and smoking. The purpose of this investigation was to examine timevarying factors that are associated with smoking cessation among smokers in the general population, including alcohol use, self-efficacy, and depression, to determine if they were also related to smoking cessation during and after treatment for alcohol use disorders.
Methods
Data were garnered from Project MATCH, a longitudinal prospective study of the efficacy of three behavioural treatments for alcohol use disorders. Timevarying covariate analyses were conducted to examine future smoking cessation.
Results
Results showed that greater self-efficacy regarding resisting temptations to drink and lower levels of depression were independently associated with increased likelihood of stopping smoking. In contrast, drinks per drinking day and confidence regarding not drinking did not demonstrate such associations.
Conclusions
Clinical implications of these findings suggest that interventions to help alcoholics in recovery avoid temptations to drink, as well as decrease depression, may be warranted. By using advanced statistical techniques, these results can help clinicians and organizations working with smokers in treatment for alcohol use disorders to make informed decisions regarding how best to use limited resources.
doi:10.1093/alcalc/agm026
PMCID: PMC2483245  PMID: 17526633
4.  A longitudinal study of alcohol use and antisocial behaviour in young people 
Aims: To examine the direction of causation between young people's antisocial behaviour and alcohol (mis)use in the longer and shorter term, together with their joint effects on alcohol-related trouble. Methods: A longitudinal study (2586 pupils) supplied data, allowing exploration of the causal effects of alcohol (mis)use and antisocial behaviour between ages 11 and 15, using structural equation models of longer and shorter-term relationships and joint-effects models in respect of alcohol-related trouble at age 15. This method allowed us to evaluate which of three hypotheses, described as ‘disinhibition’ [alcohol (mis)use causes or facilitates antisocial behaviour], ‘susceptibility’ [antisocial behaviour causes alcohol (mis)use] or ‘reciprocal’ [alcohol (mis)use causes antisocial behaviour and the reverse] receives most support, both overall and by gender, social class, and drinking context. Results: Overall, the results support the susceptibility hypothesis, particularly in the longer-term models. There is no support for ‘pure’ disinhibition. However, in the shorter-term and joint-effects models (i.e. as the time lag becomes shorter), there is evidence that in some gender, social class, or drinking contexts, in addition to antisocial behaviour causing alcohol (mis)use, the reverse also applies. Conclusions: Antisocial behaviour is the main predictor of alcohol (mis)use and alcohol-related trouble, with alcohol (mis)use impacting only modestly on antisocial behaviour and alcohol-related trouble in the shorter term.
doi:10.1093/alcalc/agm147
PMCID: PMC2367698  PMID: 17977868
5.  IS CIGARETTE SMOKING RELATED TO ALCOHOL USE DURING THE 8 YEARS FOLLOWING TREATMENT FOR ADOLESCENT ALCOHOL AND OTHER DRUG ABUSE? 
Aims
The present study examined the relationship between cigarette smoking and alcohol use outcomes over an 8-year period following treatment for adolescent alcohol and other drug (AOD) use disorders.
Methods
The present study was based on a sample of 166 adolescents recruited during inpatient AOD abuse treatment. Included in this study were 123 (74% of the full sample) participants, of whom 41% were female, 81% identified themselves as White and who averaged 15.9 years of age (SD = 1.3) when entering treatment. Data for the present study were drawn from interviews conducted at the time of treatment and 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-years post-treatment.
Results
Twenty six percent of participants had quit smoking for >1 year at the 8-year assessment, while 44% reported persistent smoking over time. Overall smoking rates decreased significantly over time. Subjects associated with the highest alcohol involvement trajectory reported significantly greater likelihood of persistent smoking as well as higher current smoking and cigarette consumption across time points.
Conclusions
The significant declines observed in smoking from adolescence into young adulthood were contrary to expectations, indicating that this behaviour may be less stable than previously thought among adolescent AOD abusers. Smoking involvement over time was greater within the highest alcohol use trajectory, consistent with previous evidence for a positive relationship between these behaviours. However, when compared with the general population smoking rates remained very high regardless of alcohol involvement. Thus, individuals treated for AOD abuse as adolescents remained at elevated risk for tobacco related disease regardless of post-treatment AOD use outcomes.
doi:10.1093/alcalc/agm025
PMCID: PMC1931416  PMID: 17526632

Results 1-5 (5)