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1.  Alcohol History and Smoking Cessation in Nicotine Replacement Therapy, Bupropion Sustained Release and Varenicline Trials: A Review 
We conducted a review of published reports of smoking cessation pharmacotherapy trials in order to address the following: 1) the generalizability of findings to smokers with a history of alcohol problems; 2) the extent to which alcohol use affects smoking cessation overall and the efficacy of pharmacotherapy specifically and 3) the effect of smoking cessation on alcohol use.
We located published reports of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion sustained release (SR) and varenicline clinical trials using an approach based on prior Cochrane reviews. The reports were searched for alcohol-related inclusion/exclusion criteria and for findings related to alcohol.
The present review included 212 published reports from 149 trials. Alcohol-related exclusion criteria appeared frequently (41.6% of trials)—45/125 NRT trials (36%), 15/22 bupropion SR trials (68.2%) and 3/3 varenicline trials—and most commonly involved exclusion of participants with either current or recent alcohol problems. Most studies failed to provide any baseline alcohol-related characteristics. Eleven trials reported on the relationship between alcohol history and likelihood of smoking cessation. In the majority of these studies, smokers with a past history of alcohol problems were not at a disadvantage, although contrary findings exist. Only two studies examined the potential influence of smoking cessation on alcohol use.
Smokers with alcohol problems, particularly those with current or recent problems, are underrepresented in studies of approved pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. Future trials should assess alcohol use at baseline and during treatment and examine reciprocal influences between alcohol consumption and smoking cessation.
PMCID: PMC2696890  PMID: 17526629
alcohol; bupropion SR; co-morbidity; nicotine replacement therapy; smoking cessation; varenicline
2.  Impaired Control and Undergraduate Problem Drinking 
Impaired control, one of the hallmarks of addiction, is also one of the earliest dependence symptoms to develop. Thus impaired control is particularly relevant to undergraduates and other young adults with relatively brief drinking histories. The main goal of this study was to determine whether impaired control predicted heavy episodic drinking and alcohol-related problems cross-sectionally in an undergraduate sample after controlling for gender, family history of alcohol and drug problems and several other established predictor variables from the undergraduate alcohol literature.
A sample of first-year undergraduates (N = 312) completed Part 2 of the Impaired Control Scale (ICS; Heather et al., 1993) and other measures related to alcohol use as part of a larger study on problem drinking in undergraduates.
Scores on Part 2 of the ICS predicted heavy episodic drinking and alcohol-related problems cross-sectionally even after controlling for all other predictor variables. Notably, impaired control was a stronger predictor of alcohol-related problems than overall weekly alcohol consumption. Part 2 of the ICS was found to be a reliable and valid measure for use with undergraduates.
These findings support the notion that impaired control is one of the earliest dependence symptoms to develop. The ICS is an effective tool for identifying young adults at risk for problem drinking.
PMCID: PMC2430104  PMID: 17142826
Impaired control; undergraduate drinking; alcohol-related problems; heavy episodic drinking

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