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1.  Examining Alcohol's Contribution to the US African-American/White Cirrhosis Mortality Differential from 1950 to 2002 
Aims: The aim of this study was to estimate the overall impact of alcohol on US race- and sex-specific age-adjusted cirrhosis mortality rates and to consider beverage-specific effects that represent changes in drinking patterns over time, comparing states with large and small African-American/White cirrhosis mortality differentials. Methods: Using series data from 1950 to 2002, the effects of per capita alcohol consumption on cirrhosis mortality for African American and White men and women were estimated using generalized least squares panel models on first-differenced data. Granger causality tests explored geographic patterning of racial differences in cirrhosis mortality. Results: Cirrhosis mortality was significantly positively related to apparent consumption of alcohol, with an overall impact of 8–14%/l of ethanol. This effect was driven by spirits which were more strongly associated with mortality for African-American women and for African-American men in states with larger mortality differentials. This disparity first emerged in New York and spread through the Northeast and into Midwestern states. Conclusion: Differences in the contribution of alcohol to cirrhosis mortality rates suggest variation by race and gender in life-course patterns of heavy consumption, illicit liquor and spirits use, as well as birth cohort effects.
doi:10.1093/alcalc/agt031
PMCID: PMC3746804  PMID: 23558110
2.  Energy Intake Estimates of Respondent-Measured Alcoholic Beverages 
Aim:
The aim of this study was to demonstrate a methodology for estimating detailed energy intake from alcoholic beverages.
Methods:
Participants were 315 monthly drinkers who completed a drink-measuring exercise. Energy intake from alcohol and non-alcohol ingredients was calculated for all beverages consumed.
Results:
Measured alcoholic beverages had on average 140 kilocalories, with 26% of the energy coming from non-alcohol ingredients. The average monthly kilocalorie intake, from all alcoholic beverage types, was 6423 kilocalories. Self-measured wine and spirits drinks contained more energy than reference standards for size and ethanol concentration.
Conclusions:
Amount and sources of kilocalories differ by drink type, gender, age, education and BMI. Researchers and consumers should be aware of this variation and its sources.
doi:10.1093/alcalc/agn081
PMCID: PMC2605517  PMID: 18845529
3.  Energy Intake Estimates of Respondent-Measured Alcoholic Beverages 
Aim: The aim of this study was to demonstrate a methodology for estimating detailed energy intake from alcoholic beverages. Methods: Participants were 315 monthly drinkers who completed a drink-measuring exercise. Energy intake from alcohol and non-alcohol ingredients was calculated for all beverages consumed. Results: Measured alcoholic beverages had on average 140 kilocalories, with 26% of the energy coming from non-alcohol ingredients. The average monthly kilocalorie intake, from all alcoholic beverage types, was 6423 kilocalories. Self-measured wine and spirits drinks contained more energy than reference standards for size and ethanol concentration. Conclusions: Amount and sources of kilocalories differ by drink type, gender, age, education and BMI. Researchers and consumers should be aware of this variation and its sources.
doi:10.1093/alcalc/agn081
PMCID: PMC2605517  PMID: 18845529

Results 1-3 (3)