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1.  Level and Change in Alcohol Consumption, Depression and Dysfunctional Attitudes among Females Treated for Alcohol Addiction 
Aims: To examine whether individual changes in alcohol consumption among female alcoholics under treatment are predicted by level of and changes in depression and dysfunctional attitudes. Method: A total of 120 women who were treated for alcohol addiction at the Karolinska Hospital in Stockholm (Sweden) were assessed twice over a 2-year period using the Depression scale from the Symptom Checklist-90, the Alcohol Use Inventory and the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS). Latent growth curve analysis was used. Results: Decrease in alcohol consumption, depression and dysfunctional attitude variables were found at group level. The results also showed significant individual variation in change. Changes in alcohol consumption were predicted by baseline alcohol drinking, as well as by level and changes in depression. Stronger reduction in depression was related to higher level of depression at baseline, and with reduction in dysfunctional attitudes. Different DAS sub-scales resulted in different magnitude of the model relations. Good treatment compliance was related to lower baseline level in depression, but also with higher baseline level in dysfunctional attitudes, and predicted stronger reduction in alcohol consumption. Conclusion: This paper shows the importance of incorporating both individual level and change in depression as predictors of change in alcohol consumption among subjects treated for alcohol addiction. Also, dysfunctional attitudes are both indirectly and directly related to treatment outcome. By incorporating alcohol consumption, depression and dysfunctional attitudes as targets of intervention, treatment compliance and outcome may be enhanced.
PMCID: PMC3080241  PMID: 21414951
2.  Early Treatment for Women with Alcohol Addiction (EWA) Reduces Mortality: A Randomized Controlled Trial with Long-Term Register Follow-up 
Aims: To compare the mortality of female alcoholics randomly assigned to the woman-only programme ‘Early treatment for Women with Alcohol Addiction’ (EWA) versus those who received mixed gender ‘Treatment As Usual’ (TAU). Methods: Randomized controlled trial involving 2-year follow-up by personal interview and mortality register data through 27 years of 200 women first time treated for alcohol use disorder (AUD; EWA, n = 100 and TAU, n = 100), who were consecutively recruited during 1983–1984. Data from the Causes of Death Register were used to test for mortality differences related to group interaction predictors such as age, inpatient versus outpatient status at intake and 2-year drinking outcome. Results: Significantly lower mortality was found among younger women who participated in EWA compared with those who received TAU. This difference lasted nearly 20 years after intake to treatment. For women who only needed outpatient treatment, reduced mortality was found in the EWA group, even for older women. Increased mortality was found for TAU women who did not attend the 2-year follow-up compared with those who attended; no such difference was found for EWA women. This indicates different attrition mechanisms in the two groups. Thus, previously reported treatment effects may have been underestimated. EWA was a more comprehensive programme than TAU while also being single gender. Conclusions: EWA, specifically developed to meet a broad spectrum of problems among women with AUDs, was more effective than TAU, a mixed gender programme. It was not possible to separate whether this was in part because it was a more comprehensive programme, as well as being single gender.
PMCID: PMC3042276  PMID: 21273301

Results 1-2 (2)