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1.  New Nucleophilic Mechanisms of Ros-Dependent Epigenetic Modifications: Comparison of Aging and Cancer 
Aging and Disease  2013;5(1):52-62.
It has been shown that ROS (reactive oxygen species, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide) regulate major epigenetic processes, DNA methylation and histone acetylation, although the mechanism of ROS action (ROS signaling) is still unknown. Both DNA methylation and histone acetylation are nucleophilic processes and therefore ROS signaling through typical free radical processes, for example hydrogen atom abstraction is impossible. However, being “super-nucleophile” superoxide can participate in these reactions. Now we propose new nucleophilic mechanisms of DNA methylation and histone modification. During DNA methylation superoxide can deprotonate the cytosine molecule at C-5 position and by this accelerate the reaction of DNA with the positive-charged intermediate S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM). Superoxide can also deprotonate histone N-terminal tail lysines and accelerate the formation of their complexes with acetyl-coenzyme A (AcCoA), the supplier of acetyl groups. In cancer cells ROS enhance DNA methylation causing the silencing of tumor suppressor and antioxidant genes and enhancing the proliferation of cancer cells under condition of oxidative stress. ROS signaling in senescent cells probably causes DNA hypomethylation although there are insufficient data for such proposal.
PMCID: PMC3901614  PMID: 24490117
ROS; DNA Methylation; Histone Modification; Nucleophilic Mechanisms
2.  Signaling and Damaging Functions of Free Radicals in Aging—Free Radical Theory, Hormesis, and TOR 
Aging and Disease  2010;1(2):75-88.
Harman’s Free Radical Theory of Aging has been considered as a major theory of aging for more than 50 years. In 1956 Dr. Harman proposed that the accumulation of free radicals with the age causes the damage of biomolecules by these reactive species and the development of pathological disorders resulting in cell senescence and organismal aging. His hypothesis was supported by numerous experimental studies demonstrated an increase in free radical levels in cells and living organisms with aging. In subsequent years important discoveries of new physiological free radicals superoxide and nitric oxide have been made that led to understanding of other important functions of free radicals. It has been shown that superoxide and nitric oxide together with their diamagnetic reaction products hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite (all are now named reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, ROS and RNS) function as signaling species in many physiological enzymatic/gene processes. Furthermore, the disturbance of ROS and RNS physiological signaling can be an origin of various pathologies and aging. These discoveries demanded to widen original free radical theory of aging and to consider the damaging ROS signaling as an important, maybe major route to cell senescence and organismal aging. However, some experimental findings such as the extension of lifespan by calorie restriction of yeast, flies, worms, and mice, and favorable effects of physical exercises stimulated criticism of free radical theory because the expansion of lifespan accompanied in some cases by increasing oxidative stress. On these grounds such theories as Hormesis and Target of rapamycin (mTOR) theories refute the role of ROS and oxidative stress in aging. Accordingly, a major purpose of this review to show that ROS signaling is probably the most important enzyme/gene pathway responsible for the development of cell senescence and organismal aging and that ROS signaling might be considered as further development of free radical theory of aging. In spite of apparent contradictions the Hormesis or TOR theories are also describing processes of aging development regulated by ROS signaling.
PMCID: PMC3295029  PMID: 22396858
ROS and RNS signaling; senescence; aging
3.  Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling in Cancer: Comparison with Aging 
Aging and Disease  2010;2(3):219-230.
This work considers reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling in solid tumors. Most (probably all) cancer cells are characterized by ROS overproduction that is they exist under conditions of incessant oxidative stress. For example ROS overproduction has been shown in prostate, pancreatic, melanoma, and glioma cells. ROS overproduction has been also demonstrated in breast, liver, bladder, colon, and ovarian cancers. Although these examples probably do not incorporate all the described data concerning ROS overproduction in cancer cells, they clearly support a proposal about enhanced oxidative stress in these cells. Therefore the mechanisms of ROS signaling in the survival and death of cancer cells and comparison with ROS signaling in senescent cells ought to be considered. It might be suggested that ROS overproduction in cancer cells is a major origin of their survival and resistance to anticancer treatment while the enhanced oxidative stress responsible for aging development. However it is of particular interest that additional ROS production by prooxidants can induce apoptosis in cancer cells. We suggest that moderate oxidative stress can stimulate proliferation and survival of cancer sells by conditioning mechanism while the enhancement of ROS overproduction by prooxidants under severe oxidative stress results in apoptosis and cell death. Aging development is always characterized by harmful ROS overproduction although the moderate increase in ROS formation in senescent cells might be not dangerous. Similar double-edged sword effects of ROS might be observed during the development of other pathologies for example diabetes mellitus.
PMCID: PMC3295056  PMID: 22396874
ROS; signaling; cancer; aging

Results 1-3 (3)