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jtitle_s:("Age (dodr)")
1.  Age- and calorie restriction-related changes in rat brain mitochondrial DNA and TFAM binding 
Age  2012;35(5):1607-1620.
Aging markedly affects mitochondrial biogenesis and functions particularly in tissues highly dependent on the organelle’s bioenergetics capability such as the brain’s frontal cortex. Calorie restriction (CR) diet is, so far, the only intervention able to delay or prevent the onset of several age-related alterations in different organisms. We determined the contents of mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and the 4.8-kb mtDNA deletion in the frontal cortex from young (6-month-old) and aged (26-month-old), ad libitum-fed (AL) and calorie-restricted (CR), rats. We found a 70 % increase in TFAM amount, a 25 % loss in mtDNA content, and a 35 % increase in the 4.8-kb deletion content in the aged AL animals with respect to the young rats. TFAM-specific binding to six mtDNA regions was analyzed by mtDNA immunoprecipitation and semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), showing a marked age-related decrease. Quantitative real-time PCR at two subregions involved in mtDNA replication demonstrated, in aged AL rats, a remarkable decrease (60–70 %) of TFAM-bound mtDNA. The decreased TFAM binding is a novel finding that may explain the mtDNA loss in spite of the compensatory TFAM increased amount. In aged CR rats, TFAM amount increased and mtDNA content decreased with respect to young rats’ values, but the extent of the changes was smaller than in aged AL rats. Attenuation of the age-related effects due to the diet in the CR animals was further evidenced by the unchanged content of the 4.8-kb deletion with respect to that of young animals and by the partial prevention of the age-related decrease in TFAM binding to mtDNA.
PMCID: PMC3776104  PMID: 22945739
Aging rat frontal cortex mitochondria; Calorie restriction diet; TFAM amount; mtDNA content; mtDNA 4.8-kb deletion content; mtDNA–TFAM binding
2.  The hydrogen sulfide signaling system: changes during aging and the benefits of caloric restriction 
Age  2010;32(4):467-481.
Hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) is a putative signaling molecule that causes diverse effects in mammalian tissues including relaxation of blood vessels and regulation of perfusion in the liver, but the effects of aging on H2S signaling are unknown. Aging has negative impacts on the cardiovascular system. However, the liver is more resilient with age. Caloric restriction (CR) attenuates affects of age in many tissues. We hypothesized that the H2S signaling system is negatively affected by age in the vasculature but not in the liver, which is typically more resilient to age, and that a CR diet minimizes the age affect in the vasculature. To investigate this, we determined protein and mRNA expression of the H2S-producing enzymes cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), H2S production rates in the aorta and liver, and the contractile response of aortic rings to exogenous H2S. Tissue was collected from Fisher 344 × Brown Norway rats from 8–38 months of age, which had been maintained on an ad libitum (AL) or CR diet. The results demonstrate that age and diet have differential effects on the H2S signaling system in aorta and liver. The aorta showed a sizeable effect of both age and diet, whereas the liver only showed a sizeable effect of diet. Aortic rings showed increased contractile sensitivity to H2S and increased protein expression of CSE and CBS with age, consistent with a decrease in H2S concentration with age. CR appears to benefit CSE and CBS protein in both aorta and liver, potentially by reducing oxidative stress and ameliorating the negative effect of age on H2S concentration. Therefore, CR may help maintain the H2S signaling system during aging.
PMCID: PMC2980601  PMID: 20502969
H2S; Gasotransmitter; Aging; Caloric restriction; Aorta; Liver
3.  Revealing system-level correlations between aging and calorie restriction using a mouse transcriptome 
Age  2009;32(1):15-30.
Although systems biology is a perfect framework for investigating system-level declines during aging, only a few reports have focused on a comprehensive understanding of system-level changes in the context of aging systems. The present study aimed to understand the most sensitive biological systems affected during aging and to reveal the systems underlying the crosstalk between aging and the ability of calorie restriction (CR) to effectively slow-down aging. We collected and analyzed 478 aging- and 586 CR-related mouse genes. For the given genes, the biological systems that are significantly related to aging and CR were examined according to three aspects. First, a global characterization by Gene Ontology (GO) was performed, where we found that the transcriptome (a set of genes) for both aging and CR were strongly related in the immune response, lipid metabolism, and cell adhesion functions. Second, the transcriptional modularity found in aging and CR was evaluated by identifying possible functional modules, sets of genes that show consistent expression patterns. Our analyses using the given functional modules, revealed systemic interactions among various biological processes, as exemplified by the negative relation shown between lipid metabolism and the immune response at the system level. Third, transcriptional regulatory systems were predicted for both the aging and CR transcriptomes. Here, we suggest a systems biology framework to further understand the most important systems as they age.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11357-009-9106-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC2829640  PMID: 19590981
Aging; Calorie restriction; Systems biology; Transcriptome analysis
4.  Changes in lipid distribution during aging and its modulation by calorie restriction 
Age  2009;31(2):127-142.
Adipogenesis and ectopic lipid accumulation during aging have a great impact on the aging process and the pathogenesis of chronic diseases with age. However, at present, information on the age-related molecular changes in lipid redistribution patterns and their potential nutritional interventions is sparse. We investigated the mechanism underlying age-related lipid redistribution and its modulation using 5-, 17-, and 24-month-old male Fischer 344 rats fed ad libitum (AL) or a 3-week-long CR (40% less than AL) diet. Results revealed that the activities of adipogenic transcription factors were decreased in the white adipose tissue (WAT) of aged AL rats. In contrast, the skeletal muscle of aged AL rats showed increased fat accumulation through decreased carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 activity, which was blunted by short-term CR. This study suggests an age-related shift in lipid distribution by reducing the adipogenesis of WAT while increasing intramyocellular lipid accumulation, and that CR can modulate age-related adipogenesis and ectopic lipid accumulation.
PMCID: PMC2693731  PMID: 19277901
Aging; Calorie restriction; Lipid accumulation; Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors; Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1; Skeletal muscle

Results 1-4 (4)