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jtitle_s:("Age (dorer)")
1.  Hippocampal M1 receptor function associated with spatial learning and memory in aged female rhesus macaques 
Age  2010;33(3):309-320.
Of the acetylcholine muscarinic receptors, the type 1 (M1) and type 2 (M2) receptors are expressed at the highest levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus, brain regions important for cognition. As equivocal findings of age-related changes of M1 and M2 in the nonhuman primate brain have been reported, we first assessed age-related changes in M1 and M2 in the PFC and hippocampus using saturation binding assays. Maximum M1 receptor binding, but not affinity of M1 receptor binding, decreased with age. In contrast, the affinity of M2 receptor binding, but not maximum M2 receptor binding, increased with age. To determine if in the elderly cognitive performance is associated with M1 or M2 function, we assessed muscarinic function in elderly female rhesus macaques in vivo using a scopolamine challenge pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging and in vitro using saturation binding assays. Based on their performance in a spatial maze, the animals were classified as good spatial performers (GSP) or poor spatial performers (PSP). In the hippocampus, but not PFC, the GSP group showed a greater change in T2*-weighted signal intensity after scopolamine challenge than the PSP group. The maximum M1 receptor binding and receptor binding affinity was greater in the GSP than the PSP group, but no group difference was found in M2 receptor binding. Parameters of circadian activity positively correlated with the difference in T2*-weighted signal intensity before and after the challenge, the maximum M1 receptor binding, and the M1 receptor binding affinity. Thus, while in rhesus macaques, there are age-related decreases in M1 and M2 receptor binding, in aged females, hippocampal M1, but not M2, receptor function is associated with spatial learning and memory and circadian activity.
PMCID: PMC3168603  PMID: 20890730
M1 receptor; Scopolamine phMRI; Spatial maze
2.  Age-related decreases in SYN levels associated with increases in MAP-2, apoE, and GFAP levels in the rhesus macaque prefrontal cortex and hippocampus 
Age  2010;32(3):283-296.
Loss of synaptic integrity in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) may play an integral role in age-related cognitive decline. Previously, we showed age-related increases in the dendritic marker microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP-2) and the synaptic marker synaptophysin (SYN) in mice. Similarly, apolipoprotein E (apoE), involved in lipid transport and metabolism, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a glia specific marker, increase with age in rodents. In this study, we assessed whether these four proteins show similar age-related changes in a nonhuman primate, the rhesus macaque. Free-floating sections from the PFC and hippocampus from adult, middle-aged, and aged rhesus macaques were immunohistochemically labeled for MAP-2, SYN, apoE, and GFAP. Protein levels were measured as area occupied by fluorescence using confocal microscopy as well as by Western blot. In the PFC and hippocampus of adult and middle-aged animals, the levels of SYN, apoE, and GFAP immunoreactivity were comparable but there was a trend towards higher MAP-2 levels in middle-aged than adult animals. There was significantly less SYN and more MAP-2, apoE, and GFAP immunoreactivity in the PFC and hippocampus of aged animals compared to adult or middle-aged animals. Thus, the age-related changes in MAP-2, apoE, and GFAP levels were similar to those previously observed in rodents. On the other hand, the age-related changes in SYN levels were not, but were similar to those previously observed in the aging human brain. Taken together, these data emphasize the value of the rhesus macaque as a pragmatic translational model for human brain aging.
PMCID: PMC2926858  PMID: 20640549
Aging; Nonhuman primate; MAP-2; Synaptophysin; apoE
3.  Novel image–novel location object recognition task sensitive to age-related cognitive decline in nondemented elderly 
Age  2011;34(1):1-10.
Traditional tests used in the clinic to identify dementia, such as the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), are useful to identify severe cognitive impairments but might be less sensitive to detect more subtle age-related cognitive changes. Previously, the novel image–novel location (NINL) object recognition test was shown to be sensitive to detect effects of apolipoprotein E4, a risk factor for developing age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease, in nondemented elderly. In the present longitudinal study, performance on the MMSE and the NINL tests were compared over a 4-year period. Individual NINL scores over this period were highly correlated. In addition, while MMSE scores did not change over the 4-year period, NINL scores did. In a final testing session of a subset of the participants, NINL scores correlated with logical memory and word recall lists, cognitive tasks used to detect dementia in the clinic, as well as clinical dementia rating scales. These results support that the NINL might be a valuable tool to assess age-related cognitive decline.
PMCID: PMC3260359  PMID: 21234692
Cognitive aging; Object recognition; Dementia

Results 1-3 (3)