Nigella Sativa (NS) seeds have been used for medicinal purposes for centuries both as herbs and its oil. In Islam it is regarded as one of the greatest forms of healing medicine included in the medicine of prophet Mohammed. Huge number of studies have been carried out in recent years on the pharmacological effects of these seeds and also the possible relationship with their constituents. A number of these investigations emphasized the antimicrobial effect of them by using different extracts. In our study we have tried to use the normal human mechanism in digestion by using the ground seeds. A modified paper disc diffusion method was used to test the antibacterial effect of NS seeds. Clear inhibition of the growth of Staphylococcus aureus was observed by concentration of 300mg/ml with distilled water (D.W.) as control , this inhibition was confirmed by using the positive control Azithromycin. The inhibition obtained was higher with Nigella sativa ground seeds from Hadramout (HNSGS) than with Nigella sativa ground seeds from Ethiopia (ENSGS). No inhibition was found in the growth of E.Coli and Enterobacter. This was emphasized by using the positive control Ciprofloxacin. The positive inhibition may be attributed to the two important active ingredients of NS, Thymoquinone and melanin.
Nigella Sativa; antibacterial effect; Staphylococcus aureus; paper disc-diffusion method
Respiratory tract infections have gained worldwide recognition especially due to the increased incidence of HIV/AIDS. The bacteria responsible for these infections have also become increasingly resistant to chemotherapeutic agents in lower respiratory infections in Kibwezi in Kenya. Interviews were conducted using semi-structured questionnaires and detailed discussions with respondents. During the field surveys direct observations were made on how these plants are used. From the ethnobotanical survey the modes of preparation used included chewing and boiling. The plant parts used were mostly bark and root, which implies that the main methods of harvesting these plants are destructive in nature. Water and methanolic extracts of the three most popular plants, Acacia nilotica, Strychnos heninngsii and Microglossa densiflora were tested against three test organism: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Escherichia coli for their antimicrobial properties. The efficacy of the extracts was tested by bioassay method using the disk diffusion test. It was interesting to note that none of the tested water extracts showed any activity against the test organisms. This is despite the fact that about 83% of the local people used water for extraction. Methanolic extracts of Acacia nilotica and Strychnos heninningsii showed efficacy against S. aureus, S. pneumoniae and E. coli. The findings of this research indicate that A. nilotica and S. heninngsii have antimicrobial properties and further work especially using mammalian models is recommended.
Medicinal plants; lower respiratory infections; antimicrobial growth inhibitory potential
The anthelmintic effect of acetone leaf extract and fractions of Anogeissus leiocarpus was investigated to determine the relative efficacy of the components as anthelmintic against Haemonchus contortus (Rudolphi). The fractions were obtained by solvent-solvent group separation of the leaf extract. The fractions were evaluated for ovicidal and larvicidal activity by egg hatch inhibition assay and larval development viability assay. Best-fit LC50 values for egg hatch test were 0.360, 0.316, 0.093, 0.219 and 0.196 mg/ml for the crude acetone extract, hexane, chloroform, butanol, and 35% water in methanol fractions, respectively. While the best-fit LC50 values for larval development and viability test were 0.509, 0.162, 0.186, 0.288 and 0.130 mg/ml for the crude acetone extract, hexane, chloroform, butanol, and 35% water in methanol fractions, respectively. The 35% water in methanol fractions was the more active on larvae, although differences in activity between fractions were not significant (p>0.05). A. leiocarpus leaf extracts could find application in anthelmintic therapy in veterinary practice.
Anogeissus leiocarpus; anthelmintic; Haemonchus contortus; eggs; larvae
The status of glycoconjugates (protein bound hexose, hexosamine, sialic acid and fucose) in plasma or serum serve as potential biomarkers for assessing tumor progression and therapeutic interventions. Aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of two major soy isoflavones, genistein and daidzein, in combination on the status of glycoconjugates in plasma, erythrocyte membrane and mammary tissues during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced mammary carcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats. A single subcutaneous injection of DMBA (25 mg rat−1) in the mammary gland developed mammary carcinoma in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Elevated levels of plasma and mammary tissue glycoconjugates accompanied by reduction in erythrocyte membrane glycoconjugates were observed in rats bearing mammary tumors. Oral administration of genistein + daidzein (20 mg + 20 mg kg−1 bw/day) to DMBA treated rats significantly (p< 0.05) brought back the status of glycoconjugates to near normal range. The present study thus demonstrated that genistein and daidzein in combination protected the structural integrity of the cell surface and membranes during DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis.
Mammary carcinoma; Glycoconjugates; Membrane integrity; Genistein; Daidzein; DMBA
Diabetes mellitus is a growing problem in South Africa and of concern to traditional African health practitioners in the Nelson Mandela Metropole, because they experience a high incidence of diabetic cases in their practices. A collaborative research project with these practitioners focused on the screening of Bulbine frutescens, Ornithogalum longibracteatum, Ruta graveolens, Tarchonanthus camphoratus and Tulbaghia violacea for antidiabetic and cytotoxic potential. In vitro glucose utilisation assays with Chang liver cells and C2C12 muscle cells, and growth inhibition assays with Chang liver cells were conducted. The aqueous extracts of Bulbine frutescens (143.5%), Ornithogalum longibracteatum (131.9%) and Tarchonanthus camphoratus (131.5%) showed significant increased glucose utilisation activity in Chang liver cells. The ethanol extracts of Ruta graveolens (136.9%) and Tulbaghia violacea (140.5%) produced the highest increase in glucose utilisation in C2C12 muscle cells. The ethanol extract of Bulbine frutescens produced the most pronounced growth inhibition (33.3%) on Chang liver cells. These findings highlight the potential for the use of traditional remedies in the future for the management of diabetes and it is recommended that combinations of these plants be tested in future.
Diabetes mellitus; Cytotoxicity; Collaborative research; Chang liver cells; C2C12 muscle cells
The study is to investigate the effectof Taraxacum officinale extracts (TOE) supplementation on physical fatigue based on the forced swimming capacity in mice. Forty Kunming male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups, i.e., normal control (NC) and three doses of TOE treated group (High-dose, Middle-dose and Low-dose). Three TOE treated groups were treated by oral TOE with 10, 30 and 100mg/kg b.w respectively for a period of 42 days. The normal control group was given a corresponding volume of sterile distilled water. After 6 weeks, the forced swimming capacity and blood biochemical parameters in mice were measured, and the result showed that TOE had an anti- physical fatigue effect. It enhanced the maximum swimming capacity of mice, effectively delayed the lowering of glucose in the blood, and prevented the increase in lactate and triglyceride concentrations.
Taraxacum officinale extracts; forced swimming capacity; mice
Chinese herbal drugs have been proved to be effective agents in myocardial protection by preventing ischemia-reperfusion injury. The underlying mechanisms as to how these agents work were however poorly elucidated. Studies on the monomers or on the single drugs have highlighted the possible rationales, leading to a better understanding of the pharmaceutical effects of the active parts of the herbs. These agents have been found to be structure-sensitive while they play the role of a protective ingredient. Polysaccharides of Chinese herbal medicine have pharmaceutical effects in immune modulation, anti-inflammation, anti-virus, anti-tumor, anti-aging mechanisms, with an anti-oxidative effect being a commonly recognized mechanism. Saponins are prone to alleviate calcium overload. As bioflavonoids commonly contain active phenolic hydroxy group, they have good anti-oxidant property. Those containing effective lignanoids and essential oils can result in a reduced nitric oxide secretion of the endothelial cells and an increased intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression. Alkaloids may resist free radical injuries. Most importantly, modern in-depth research revealed that myocardial infarction is typically associated with apoptosis, and herbal medicine containing carbohydrates and glycosides showed cardioprotective effects by way of inhibiting apoptosis of myocytes. As a supplement to cardioplegia, some Chinese herbal drugs have become especially valuable in myocardial protection in open heart surgery by preserving metabolic energy. In conclusion, the classification of Chinese herbal medicine made according to their main active ingredients has facilitated the expression of their functioning mechanisms. Chinese herbal drugs play an important role in cardioprotection via many different mechanisms, the most recent and important finding being the inhibition of apoptosis.
apoptosis; Chinese herbal drugs; myocardial ischemias
Mangiferin-mediated down-regulation of NFκB showed potential for chemotherapeutic agent-mediated cell death, suggesting a role in combination therapy for cancer. In this study the combined mechanism of the anticancer action of oxaliplatin and mangiferin was investigated. MTT dose response curves, trypan blue staining, caspase 3 assays as well as DNA cell cycle analyses were performed on HeLa, HT29 and MCF7 cancer cell lines, with and without the addition of 10 µg/ml mangiferin. Mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA fragmentation, resistance induction studies and NFκB assays were performed on HT29 cells only. Addition of 10 µg/ml mangiferin reduced oxaliplatin IC50 values in HT29 (3.4 fold) and HeLa (1.7 fold) cells in the MTT assay while reducing trypan blue staining. This was accompanied by increased caspase 3 activation and DNA fragmentation and a delay in the S-phase of the cell cycle. Mitochondrial membrane permeabilization was not enhanced in the combination treatment. Mangiferin was shown to cause a reduction of NF-κB activation in HT29 cells rendered resistant to oxaliplatin. The present study indicates that mangiferin in combination with oxaliplatin favours apoptotic cell death and thereby improves the efficacy of oxaliplatin in vitro. In addition, combination therapy with mangiferin may also counteract the development of resistance in cancer cell lines.
Oxaliplatin; Mangiferin; Combination treatment; Apoptosis; Drug resistance
Eugenia uniflora, used ethnomedically in some tropical countries as an anti-infective, has shown anti-malarial and anti-trypanocidal activities. Therefore using bioactivity guided fractionation, anti-trichomonal activity of E. uniflora leaf was investigated. Anti-trichomonal activities of leaf methanol extract and its fractions against Trichomonas gallinae as well as their cytotoxicities using an in vitro haemaglutination assay were determined. Anti-trichomonacidal activities of the extract improved on purification up to a stage. Subfractions E2–5 had LC50 and LC90 values of 4.77 – 5.28, 18.49 – 25.00 and 4.53 – 5.18, 18.32 – 19.07 µg/ml at 24 and 48 hrs, respectively that were better than those of metronidazole. Further purification of E2–5 led to loss of activity suggesting that the active components were probably working synergistically and additively. Demonstration of low haemaglutination titre values of 0.00 – 5.33 by methanolic extract and its partition fractions suggested their low toxicity profile. The established safety of the leaf indicated that its anti-trichomonal activity was not due to non-specific cytotoxicity, hence could be used in ethnomedicine as an anti-trichomonal agent.
Eugenia uniflora; leaf extract; Trichomonas gallinae; in vitro
The present study was aimed to evaluate the wound healing activity of extract of bark part of Mimusops elengi. It is well-known plant in Indian traditional medicines. On the basis of traditional use and literature references, this plant was selected for wound healing potential. A methanolic extract of bark parts of Mimusops elengi was examined for wound healing activity in the form of ointment in three types of wound models on mice: the excision, the incision and dead space wound model. The extract ointments showed considerable response in all the above said wound models as comparable to those of a standard drug Betadine ointment in terms of wound contracting ability, wound closure time, tensile strength and dry granuloma weight. Histological analysis was also consistent with the proposal that Mimusops elengi bark extract exhibits significant wound healing
Mimusops elengi; Wound healing; Betadine; methanolic extract
The study assessed the effect of Chinese herbs of Shenghe Powder (SHP) on the repair capacity of gamma-radiation-induced DNA damage in rat glioma cells (C6) compared with normal human astrocytes (NHA). C6 and NHA Cells treated with SHP and irradiated with 2Gy of gamma radiation. Cells growth inhibition were analysed by MTT assay, DNA damage and repair were evaluated using phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX) at the appointed time. Apoptosis was observed by flow cytometry, and the expression of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and surviving proteins were assessed by Western blot analysis. SHP depressed the radiation-induced DNA double-strand break and enhanced the DNA repair capacity in NHA, which correlated with promotion of DNA-PK phosphorylation. In contrast, SHP enhanced radiosensitivity of C6 cells, the pre-treatment with SHP resulted in reduced numbers of γH2AX foci in irradiated C6 cells, and decreased the expression of DNA-PK and survivn(P<0.005). It significant effect on inhibition of C6 cell proliferation and induced C6 cells apoptosis in a time-depdendent manner than radiation alone (P<0.001). SHP showed a novel bidirectional function to improve the radioresistance of NHA and enhanced radiosensitivity of C6 cells. This implies that SHP can protect the NHA from radiant damage and enhanced the sensitivity of C6 cells to radiation, which could be attributed to the alteration of survivin DNA-PK in DNA repair processes.
DNA repair; radiation; glioma; astrocyte; Chinese herbs
An outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) affecting 95 (57.2%) out of 166 cattle occurred in a medium-scale dairy farm in Kikuyu district, Kenya. Ethnoveterinary remedies of natural Soda ash solution (97% sodium bicarbonate), honey and finger millet flour were used to manage the FMD lesions. The lesions were washed with soda ash solution to remove the necrotic tissue after which raw honey and finger millet flour were applied to the cleaned lesions. The lesions were examined daily and those with necrotic material washed again with the Soda ash solution. Honey and finger millet flour were applied daily for three days. There was rapid healing of the lesions with the animals resuming feeding after three days. The fast healing of the lesions vindicates the use of these cheap, locally available and easy to apply products in the management of FMD lesions. However, more studies are needed to evaluate further their potencies.
Foot and Mouth Disease lesions; Ethnoveterinary remedies; Soda ash; Honey; Finger millet
The present study determined the anti-inflammatory activity of Wissadula amplissima var rostrata (Schum. & Thonn.), and calculated the total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity of the plant in an attempt to justify the traditional uses of the plant in the Ashanti region of Ghana for the management of spider,wasps and bee stings. Powdered dried leaves of Wissadula amplissima were Soxhlet extracted with Petroleum Ether (PWA, yield: 1.46% w/w); Chloroform (CWA, yield: 1.18% w/w) and Methanol (MWA, yield: 3.39% w/w). These fractions were tested for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced foot edema in 7 day old chicks. The effect before the induction of inflammation (pre-emptive protocol) paradigm was used for the assessment. Oral administration of PWA, CWA and MWA (30 – 300 mg/kg) dose dependently reduced edema with maximal effects of 68.25±2.03%, 77.83±0.81% and 62.21±2.61% respectively. Similarly the NSAID, Diclofenac (10 – 100 mg/Kg, i.p) and the steroidal anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone (0.3 – 3 mg/Kg, i.p) used as positive controls, dose-dependently inhibited the edema with maximal effect of 87.96±1.11% and 67.47±3.51% respectively. The potencies exhibited by all three extracts were comparable to that shown by Diclofenac but higher than that of Dexamethasone. Phenols were detected in all three extracts with the highest concentration in the MWA. The extracts also scavenged DPPH with EC50 values of 0.9784, 0.9096 and 0.2767 for PWA, CWA, MWA respectively. The results of this study give scientific credence to the local use of Wissadula amplissima to modulate inflammation induced by stings of animals.
Wissadula amplissima; anti-inflammatory; carrageenan; antioxidant capacity
Cissus populnea has been used locally to treat many ailments such as venereal, stomach and skin infections; and also used as laxative or purgative. Economically it has been used as binder in food and in lining dye pits. This work aims at determining the type of anthraquinones from the stem bark of C. populnea which might be a potential source of drugs (laxative/cathartic) using thin layer chramatograpy (TLC) and senna leaf as reference. The analysis showed the stem bark anthroquinone extract to contain physcion and chrysophanol.
Cissus populnea; stem bark; anthraquinones; TLC
The aim of this study is to evaluate Chinese herbs' efficacy on adhesive properties of Escherichia coli (E. coli). The effects of Chinese herbal solution on the hemagglutination and adhesion by E. coli strain were studied. E. coli C16 was isolated from a patient with urinary tract infection. The MIC value of herbal solution for the E. coli C16 was 0.1g/ml. The MBC value was 0.2g/ml. The effects of herbal solution on the hemagglutination abilities of E. coli C16 were dependent on the herbal solution used. The strain C16 lost half of its hemagglutination abilities when the herbal solution concentration was at MIC (0.05g/ml). Herbal solution decreased the adherence of strain C16 in a dose-dependent way. The numbers of adherent bacteria were reduced to 45% of the control values after growth with herbal solution at MIC. The results show that anti-adhesion is one mode of action for Chinese herbs used against pathogens.
Chinese herbs; Escherichia coli; Adhesion; Hemagglutination
Aqueous extract of Cochlospermum planchonii Hook. Ef. x Planch rhizome was investigated for its toxic effects in albino rats using some liver and kidney functional indices as ‘markers’. Thirty six albino rats weighing 200.08 ± 10.21 were randomly assinged into six groups (A–F) of six animals each. Animals in groups A–E were orally administered on daily basis with 1 ml of the extract corresponding to 50 mg/kg body weight of the extract for 1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 days while those in the control group received orally 1 ml of distilled water. Rats in all the groups were sacrificed 24 hours after the completion of their respective doses. The extract significantly (P<0.05) decreased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities in the liver leading to 80.95% loss by the end of the experimental period. While there was no consistent pattern in the kidney ALP activity and serum bilirubin level, the serum enzyme compared well (P>0.05) with the control value. There was no effect (P>0.05) on the acid phosphatase activity of the tissues and serum of the animals. The extract also reduced the urea, albumin and creatinine content in the serum of the animals. The alterations in the biochemical parameters by the aqueous extract of Cochlospermum planchoni may have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the liver and kidney of the animals. Therefore, the 50 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous extract of Cochlospermum planchoni rhizome may not be completley safe as an oral remedy.
Cochlospermum planchonii; Cochlospermaceae; functional indices; liver; kidney
This study was to determine the effectiveness (CD4 count and viral load) of a safe herbal concoction, α-Zam used by clients seeking herbal remedy for treatment of HIV infection in Nigeria. 51 patients taking α-Zam as complementary and alternative therapy through the herbal therapist were studied for a period of 16 months. Preliminary medical and laboratory examinations using WHO and CDC criteria were done after confirmation of HIV infection by Western blotting in the nearest teaching hospitals to the residence of the patients. Regular visits were paid to the patients after commencement of the α-Zam to assess the side-effects, drug interactions, toxicity and effectiveness of the herbal remedy. There was a statistical significance (P<0.05) between pre-treatment and post-treatment CD4 count. 4 (7.8%) of the patients had average increase in CD4 count of 262±16 cell/µL, 23 (45.1%) patients with average increase 310±16 cell/µL, 16 (31.4%) patients with average increase 456±25 cell/µL and 8 (15.7%) patients with average increase 510±36 cell/µL( %) were at WHO staging I , II, III and IV respectively within 4 months on herbal therapy. There was very marked reduction in viral (HIV-RNA) load with 41 (80.4%) and10 (19.6%) HIV infected patients had undetectable viral load and <1000 copies/ml respectively after the therapy. All symptoms and signs associated with HIV infection in all patients fully subsided within 4 weeks of commencement of α-zam therapy and there was no evidence of negative drug interaction in those HIV patients using both the herbal and highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). The study is in progress to determine periodic immunological outcomes of post therapy in all patients.
Delonix regia (Fabaceae) leaf is used in folk medicine of Bangladesh for the treatment of diabetes, but so far no scientific study has been done which may support its use in traditional medicine. The present study was carried out to evaluate the possible glucose tolerance efficacy of methanolic extract of Delonix regia leaf using glucose-induced hyperglycemic mice. The extract at different doses was administered one hr prior to glucose administration and blood glucose level was measured after two hrs of glucose administration (p.o.) using glucose oxidase method. The statistical data indicated significant oral hypoglycemic activity on glucose-loaded mice at every dose. Maximum anti-hyperglycemic activity was showed at 400 mg/kg which was comparable to that of a standard drug, glibenclamide (10 mg/kg). The methanolic extract of leaf of Delonix regia had beneficial effects in reducing the elevated blood glucose level of hyperglycemic mice.
Delonix regia; Hypoglycemic activity; Serum glucose level; Glibenclamide
Natural products from medicinal plants, either as pure compounds or as standardized extracts, provide unlimited opportunities for new drug leads because of the unmatched availability of chemical diversity. Due to an increasing demand for chemical diversity in screening programs, seeking therapeutic drugs from natural products, interest particularly in edible plants has grown throughout the world. Botanicals and herbal preparations for medicinal usage contain various types of bioactive compounds. The focus of this paper is on the analytical methodologies, which include the extraction, isolation and characterization of active ingredients in botanicals and herbal preparations. The common problems and key challenges in the extraction, isolation and characterization of active ingredients in botanicals and herbal preparations are discussed. As extraction is the most important step in the analysis of constituents present in botanicals and herbal preparations, the strengths and weaknesses of different extraction techniques are discussed. The analysis of bioactive compounds present in the plant extracts involving the applications of common phytochemical screening assays, chromatographic techniques such as HPLC and, TLC as well as non-chromatographic techniques such as immunoassay and Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) are discussed.
Bioactive compound; Plant Extraction; Isolation; Herbal preparations; Natural products
The present study was conducted to investigate the in vitro antimalarial activity of Flacourtia flavescens Willd. (Flacourtiaceae) and Rytigynia canthioides (Benth.) Robyns (Rubiaceae). These two plants are used in Benin folk medicine to treat malaria and fever. Antimalarial activity was assayed on fresh clinical isolates of chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum using the in vitro semi-microtest. The results revealed that the IC50 varied from 1.55 to 22.36µg/ml. F. flavescens hydro methanol extract was more active than R. canthioides. The study demonstrated scientific rationale behind the traditional usage of these plants, however further bioactivity guided phytochemical analyses are necessary to identify the active principles.
Flacourtia flavescens; Rytigynia canthioides; Plasmodium falciparum; antiplasmodial
Neolamarckia cadamba (Rubiaceae) leaf is used in folk medicine of Bangladesh for the treatment of diabetes, but so far no scientific study has been done which may support its use in traditional medicine. The present study was carried out to evaluate the possible glucose tolerance efficacy of methanolic extract of Neolamarckia cadamba leaf using glucose-induced hyperglycemic mice. The extract at different doses was administered one hour prior to glucose administration and blood glucose level was measured after two hours of glucose administration (p.o.) using glucose oxidase method. The statistical data indicated significant oral hypoglycemic activity on glucose-loaded mice at the two highest doses of 200 and 400 mg extract per kg body weight. Maximum anti-hyperglycemic activity was shown at 400 mg per kg body weight, which was comparable to that of, glibenclamide (10 mg/kg). The methanolic extract of leaf of Neolamarckia cadamba had beneficial effects in reducing the elevated blood glucose level of hyperglycemic mice.
Neolamarckia cadamba; Hypoglycemic activity; Serum glucose level; Glibenclamide
The antioxidant principles isolated from the various parts of the plant are verminoside (leaf, stem bark and flowers; EC50 = 2.04 µg/ml), Specioside (flowers; EC50 = 17.44 µg/ml), Kampeferol diglucoside (leaf; EC50 = 8.87 µg/ml) and Caffeic acid (leaf and fruits). The non anti-oxidant components isolated in the study include ajugol (stem bark and fruits) and phytol (leaf).
Spathodea campanulata; Bignoniaceae; Verminoside; Specioside; Ajugol; Kaempeferol diglucoside; Caffeic acid; antioxidant activity; DPPH
In this study we evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanol extract of stem bark of Diospyros cordifolia (MEDC) Roxb. The analgesic effects of the stem bark of the plant was assessed in mice using the tail-flick method while carrageenan, histamine and dextran induced paw oedema was used to study the antiinflammatory effects in rats. The MEDC exhibited significant (p<0.01) analgesic effects comparable to the reference drug diclofenac sodium. MEDC also was evaluated for its anti-inflammatory potential against carrageenan, histamine and dextran induced rat paw edema. The methanol extract (25 and 50 mg / kg body weight) exhibited significant (p<0.01) activity against all phlogistic agents used in a dose dependent manner. All these effects were compared with reference drug phenylbutazone (100 mg/kg body weight).
Diospyros cordifolia; analgesic; anti-inflammatory
Water extracts from pawpaw seed have been reported to reversibly decrease the testicular weight and to suppress spermatogenesis, and fertility of Wistar rats. The reversible changes become evident, 30 – 45 days after the withdrawal of the extract. The possible effect of this extract on the activities of steroidogenic enzymes of the testis has not been investigated. Water extract of papaya seeds was administered to male Sprague Dawley rats ad libitum for 84 days. Following the discontinuation of the extracts, ten rats each were sacrificed on days 0, 10, 20 and 30 after the withdrawal. Their testes were quickly dissected out and frozen. Cryostat sections, 10µm thick were cut. These sections were used for immunohistochemical stains for side chain cleavage enzyme and aromatase, and for histochemical stains for 17-β Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 3-β Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. We conclude that the water extract of papaya seed suppresses the activities of steroidogenic enzymes in the testis of Sprague Dawley rats, and that this may contribute to reversible suppression of spermatogenesis, a property that gives a possible male contraceptive potential.
carica papaya seed extract; steroidogenic enzyme histochemistry
Four medicinal plants Acacia nilotica, Bombax buonopozense, Terminalia avicennioides and Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides traditionally used for treatment of sleeping sickness in Nupeland were investigated for in vivo antitrypanosomal activity. Methanol extracts of different parts of each plant (stem barks and fruits) were obtained and evaluated for their in vivo antitrypanosomal activities against Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Phytochemical screening of the methanol extracts of each plant were performed by standard procedures. Methanol extracts of A. nilotica (stem bark), B. buonopozense (stem bark), T. avicennioides (round fruit) and Z. zanthoxyloides (stem bark) were effective on trypanosomes. The extracts of A. nilotica and B. buonopozense exhibited antitrypanosomal effects at 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight respectively. Doses were able to clear the parasites from circulation within 6 and 7 days of treatment respectively with prolonging survival period of up to 30 days. While the extracts of T. avicennioides and Z. zanthoxyloides showed trypanostatic effects and could not clear the parasites completely. The methanol extracts of these plants contain metabolites that are associated with antitrypanosomal effects; therefore, these medicinal plants may be sources of new compounds that may be active against T. b. brucei. This study has also justified the claim that some medicinal plants of Nupeland possess antitrypanosomal activity and could be useful in the management of trypanosomiasis.
Antitrypanosomal activity; Ethnomedicinal plants; Nupeland; Sleeping sickness; Trypanosomiasis; Trypanostatic effect