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1.  Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Ethanol Extract of Ficus Iteophylla Leaves in Rodents 
This study was undertaken to investigate the leaf part of the plant for analgesic and anti-inflammatory. The ethanol extract of Ficus iteophylla leaves (100, 200, and 400mgkg−1, i.p) was evaluated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The analgesic effect was studied using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and hot plate test in mice, while the anti-inflammatory effect was investigated using carrageenan induced paw oedema in rats. The ethanol extract at 100mgkg−1, 200mgkg−1, and 400mgkg−1 significantly (P< 0.05) inhibited acetic acid induced writhes by 1.50 ± 0.43, 3.0 ± 0.82 and 1.0 ± 0.82 respectively. It also exhibited significantly (P< 0.05) anti-inflammatory by 0.11 ± 0.02, 0.11 ± 0.03, 0.08 ± 0.01 respectively. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, steroids, tannins and saponins while the effect of flavonoids, steroids and tannins on analgesic and inflammatory has been reported. The intraperitoneal median lethal dose (LD50) value of the extract was found to be 3807.8 mgkg−1 body weights. The result obtained from this study shows that the extract of Ficus iteophylla contained phytochemical constituents with analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities, therefore the leaf part of the plant could be used in the management of pain and inflammatory conditions.
PMCID: PMC3218457  PMID: 22654227
Ficus iteophylla; analgesic; anti-inflammatory; intraperitoneal
2.  Phytochemical, Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Ethylacetate Extract of the Leaves of Pseudocedrella Kotschyii 
Phytochemical screening was carried out on the ethylacetate portion of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Pseudocedrella kotschyii and then evaluated for its analgesic (acetic acid-induced writhing) and anti-inflammatory (raw egg albumin-induced oedema) activities in mice and rats respectively. Phytochemical screening of the ethylacetate partition portion of ethanolic extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, glycosides and tannins as major chemical constituents. Alkaloids saponins, cardiac glycosides, steroids were not dictated in the extract. The ethylacetate extract (50 and 100 mg/kg i.p) exhibited significant activity (p<0.05) against acetic acid-induced writhing in a dose dependent manner. In the anti-inflammatory activity the ethylacetate extract (50 and 100 mg/kg i.p.) caused a slight effect against the raw egg albumin-induced oedema. The effect was however observed not to be dose dependent. All these effects were compared with standard drug piroxicam (20 mg/kg i.p.).
PMCID: PMC2816590  PMID: 20162060
Acetic acid-induced writhing; Analgesic; Anti-inflammatory; Meliaceae; Oedema; Phytochemistry; Pseudocedrella kotschyii
3.  Anti-Diarrheal Activity of the Leaf Extracts of Daniellia Oliveri Hutch and Dalz (Fabaceae) and Ficus Sycomorus Miq (Moraceae) 
The leaves of the plants Daniellia oliveri (Fabaceae) and Ficus sycomorus (Moraceae) used in diarrhea treatment in Hausa ethnomedicine of Northern Nigeria were investigated. The study was carried out on parfused isolated rabbit jejunum and castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice. The n-butanol extracts: NBD and NBF (0.16–3.2mg/ml) caused a dose-dependent relaxation of isolated rabbit jejunum. The acute toxicity test for NBD and NBT in mice established an i.p LD50 of > 4000mg/kg for D. oliveri and 1131.4mg/kg for F. sycomorus. In castor oil-induced diarrhea, 80% protection was observed for D. oliveri at doses of 200mg/kg and 60% protection was observed at 100mg/kg and 50mg/kg respectively. For F. sycomorus 100% protection was observed at doses of 120mg/kg and 60mg/kg, for the n-butanol extract. The antidiarrheal activity was comparable to loperamide 5mg/kg. The result revealed that the extracts have pharmacological activity against diarrhea.
PMCID: PMC2816518  PMID: 20161921
Anti-diarrhea; castor oil; n-butanol extracts; tissue relaxation

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