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1.  Qualitative Phytochemical Screening and In Vitro Antimicrobial Effects of Methanol Stem Bark Extract of Ficus Thonningii (Moraceae) 
The methanolic stem bark extract of Ficus thonningii (Moraceae) was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro antimicrobial tests. The phytochemical tests was carried out using standard methods of analysis and these investigations revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, carbohydrates, flavonoids, saponins and tannins. The antimicrobial activity of the plant extract was assayed using the agar plate disc diffusion and nutrient broth dilution techniques. Test micro organisms were: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi (Gram-negative), Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus spp. (Gram-positive). The extracts inhibited the growth of all the test organisms at different concentrations especially against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus spp. which had mean inhibition zone of 33.33±7.33 mm and 32.33±2.51 mm respectively. The results showed the MIC of 10 mg ml−1 against pseudomonas and 1.25 against remaining organisms tested. The MBC against Staphylococcus aureus was 2.5 mg ml−1 and that of Streptococcus spp. was found to be 0.625mg ml−1. The extracts showed varied inhibitory activity against the organisms studied.
PMCID: PMC2816454  PMID: 20448855
Antibacterial; stembark; in vitro; phytochemical; Ficus thonningii; Moraceae
2.  Phytochemical, Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Ethylacetate Extract of the Leaves of Pseudocedrella Kotschyii 
Phytochemical screening was carried out on the ethylacetate portion of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Pseudocedrella kotschyii and then evaluated for its analgesic (acetic acid-induced writhing) and anti-inflammatory (raw egg albumin-induced oedema) activities in mice and rats respectively. Phytochemical screening of the ethylacetate partition portion of ethanolic extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, glycosides and tannins as major chemical constituents. Alkaloids saponins, cardiac glycosides, steroids were not dictated in the extract. The ethylacetate extract (50 and 100 mg/kg i.p) exhibited significant activity (p<0.05) against acetic acid-induced writhing in a dose dependent manner. In the anti-inflammatory activity the ethylacetate extract (50 and 100 mg/kg i.p.) caused a slight effect against the raw egg albumin-induced oedema. The effect was however observed not to be dose dependent. All these effects were compared with standard drug piroxicam (20 mg/kg i.p.).
PMCID: PMC2816590  PMID: 20162060
Acetic acid-induced writhing; Analgesic; Anti-inflammatory; Meliaceae; Oedema; Phytochemistry; Pseudocedrella kotschyii
3.  Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Effects of Chrozophora Senegalensis 
The in vitro antimicrobial activities of the whole plant extract (ethanolic-CEE) of Chrozophora senegalensis and its fractions (ethyl acetate-EAA, n-butanol-NBE, aqueous-AQE) were assayed using the agar plate diffusion and nutrient broth dilution methods. Test microorganisms were Bacillus subtilis (NCTC 8326 B76), Escherichia coli (ATCC 11775), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 10145), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 021001). Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Salmonella typhi - laboratory isolates. CEE, EAA and NBE inhibited all the test bacterial organisms and a fungus-Aspergillus flavus. AQE inhibited only Salmonella typhi and Bacillus subtilis. None of the extracts had activity on other 3 fungal organisms tested. CEE and EAA showed minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of 0.390 and 3.125 mg/ml against S. typhi and E. coli, while NBE and AQE had MIC of 3.125 and 1.563 mg/ml against S. typhi respectively. NBE had an MIC of 12.500 mg/ml against E. coli. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of CEE and EAA was found to be <0.098 against S. typhi. The MBC of AQE was 12.5 mg/ml against E. coli and S. aureus, and 6.25 mg/ml towards P. aeruginosa. CEE and EAA exhibited similar antibacterial activities, followed by AQE. The extracts revealed the presence of carbohydrates, tannins, saponins, sterols determined by utilizing standard methods of analysis.
This study has justified the traditional use of the plant for treating diarrhea, boils and syphilis.
PMCID: PMC2816503  PMID: 20161917
Antimicrobial activity; Chrozophora senegalensis; Extracts; Phytochemical Screening; Euphorbiaceae
4.  Phytochemical and In Vitro Antimicrobial Assay of the Leaf Extract of Newbouldia Laevis 
The methanolic leaf extract of Newbouldia laevis was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening and in-vitro antimicrobial tests. The extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, terpenes, steroidal and cardiac glycosides. The antimicrobial activity of the plant extract was assayed by the agar plate disc diffusion and nutrient broth dilution techniques. Test microorganisms were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella spp. and Candida albicans; all the organisms were laboratory isolates. The extract inhibited the growth of all the test organisms especially against Klebsiella spp. and S. aureus which had mean inhibition zone of 42.3±1.5 and 32.3±1.5 mm respectively. The results showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 1.563 mg/ml against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. and 3.125 mg/ml against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. The minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was 0.39 mg/ml. This study has justified the traditional use of this plant for the treatment of stomach discomfort, diarrhea, dysentery and as a remedy for wound healing whose causative agents are some of the organisms used in this study.
PMCID: PMC2816502  PMID: 20161915
Antimicrobial; Leaf Extracts; In vitro; Phytochemical; Newbouldia leavis

Results 1-4 (4)