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1.  Evaluation of the Essential Oil of Foeniculum Vulgare Mill (Fennel) Fruits Extracted by Three Different Extraction Methods by GC/MS 
Background
Hydrodistillation (HD) and steam-distillation, or solvent extraction methods of essential oils have some disadvantages like thermal decomposition of extracts, its contamination with solvent or solvent residues and the pollution of residual vegetal material with solvent which can be also an environmental problem. Thus, new green techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction and microwave assisted techniques, are potential solutions to overcome these disadvantages.
Materials and Methods
The aim of this study was to evaluate the essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare subsp. Piperitum fruits extracted by three different extraction methods viz. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using CO2, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and hydro-distillation (HD) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS).
Results
The results revealed that both MAE and SFE enhanced the extraction efficiency of the interested components. MAE gave the highest yield of oil as well as higher percentage of Fenchone (28%), whereas SFE gave the highest percentage of anethol (72%).
Conclusion
Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) not only enhanced the essential oil extraction but also saved time, reduced the solvents use and produced, ecologically, green technologies.
PMCID: PMC4202632  PMID: 25435608
Foeniculum vulgare subsp. Piperitum; microwave-assisted extraction (MAE); Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE); Essential Oils; Anethol; Fenchone; Limonene; Pinene; GC/MS
2.  Isolation and Characterization of Antineoplastic Alkaloids from Catharanthus Roseus L. Don. Cultivated in Egypt 
Vinblastine and vincristine (the antileukemic agents) were isolated, in a pure form, from Catharanthus roseus L. Don., cultivated in Egypt, by several chromatographic techniques. Five modified methods for the preparation of total alkaloids were carried out. All the isolated mixtures were evaluated by HPLC and HPTLC analyses. The antineoplastic alkaloids; vinblastine and vincristine, were isolated by the use of vacuum liquid chromatographic column on silica gel : aluminium oxide (1:1) mixed bed vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC), Charcoal column, and finally purified by centrifugally accelerated radial chromatography (Chromatotrone).
PMCID: PMC2816563  PMID: 20209002
Catharanthus roseus L.; Apocyanaceae; Vinblastine; Vincrisitine; Antileuckemic alkaloids; VLC; HPLC; HPTLC
3.  Lipid Fraction Constituents and Evaluation of Anti-Anaphylactic Activity of Prunus Mahaleb L. Kernels 
The lipid fraction constituents as well as evaluation of anti-anaphylactic activity of Prunus mahaleb L. Kernels were studied. Prunus mahaleb L. kernels were obtained from the local market in Cairo, Egypt. Investigation of the fatty acids revealed that oleic and linoleic acids are the major constituents. 12 compounds were identified from the hydrocarbon fraction. The sterol fraction comprises of cholesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol and campesterol. The pharmacotoxicity studies were carried out on total and defatted ethanolic extracts as well as the oil fraction. The oil fraction proved to be extremely safe and free from any acute lethal toxicity in intraperitoneal (i.p.) and oral doses up to 100 ml/kg. Invivo assessment of prophylactic efficacy was afforded by 7 days course of daily medication schedule of sensitized adult male guinea pigs against ovalbumin bronchospasm. The prophylactic anti-inflammatory activity of the total ethanolic extract was higher than that of the defatted ethanolic extract. In addition, the lipid fraction of Prunus mahaleb L. kernels evoked complete anti-inflammatory efficacy among the survival animals receiving low and medium doses.
PMCID: PMC2816478  PMID: 20161891
Prunus mahaleb L.; Rosaceae; lipids; fatty acids; toxicity; antianaphylactic activity
4.  Naphthaquinones of Alkanna Orientalis (L.) BOISS 
The roots of Alkanna orientalis (L.) Boiss yielded α- methyl-n-butyl alkannin (compound 1) and alkannin acetate (compound 2). The compounds were identified by UV, MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. Quantitative determination of α- methyl-n-butyl alkannin and alkannin acetate in Alkanna orientalis (L) Boiss roots was established by TLC densitometry.
PMCID: PMC2816436  PMID: 20162072
Alkanna orientalis; naphthaquinones; NMR; α- methyl-n-butyl alkannin; alkannin acetate; TLC densitometry

Results 1-4 (4)