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1.  Proapoptotic, Anti-Cell Proliferative, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Angiogenic Potential of Carnosic Acid during 7,12 Dimethylbenz[a]Anthracene-Induced Hamster Buccal Pouch Carcinogenesis 
The present study has investigated the modulating effect of carnosic acid on the expression pattern of cell proliferative (proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) cyclin D1 and a transcription factor c-fos), apoptotic (p53, Bcl-2, Bax caspase -3 and 9), inflammatory (Nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX- 2) and angiogenic (vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) markers during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Oral tumors were developed in the hamsters buccal pouches by painting with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin three times a week for 14 weeks. Hundred per cent tumour formation (well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma) accompanied by deregulation in the above mentioned molecular markers was noticed in hamsters treated with DMBA alone (tumour bearing hamsters). Oral administration of carnosic acid at dose of 10mg/kg bw to hamsters treated with DMBA not only completely prevented the tumour formation, but also corrected the abnormalities in the expression pattern of molecular markers. The present study suggests that carnosic acid might have inhibited the tumour formation by exerting anti-cell-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and apoptotic potential during DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.
PMCID: PMC3746363  PMID: 24082331
oral cancer; apoptosis; angiogenesis; inflammation; cell proliferation
2.  Genistein and Daidzein, in Combination, Protect Cellular Integrity during 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) Induced Mammary Carcinogenesis in Sprague-Dawley Rats 
The status of glycoconjugates (protein bound hexose, hexosamine, sialic acid and fucose) in plasma or serum serve as potential biomarkers for assessing tumor progression and therapeutic interventions. Aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of two major soy isoflavones, genistein and daidzein, in combination on the status of glycoconjugates in plasma, erythrocyte membrane and mammary tissues during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced mammary carcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats. A single subcutaneous injection of DMBA (25 mg rat−1) in the mammary gland developed mammary carcinoma in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Elevated levels of plasma and mammary tissue glycoconjugates accompanied by reduction in erythrocyte membrane glycoconjugates were observed in rats bearing mammary tumors. Oral administration of genistein + daidzein (20 mg + 20 mg kg−1 bw/day) to DMBA treated rats significantly (p< 0.05) brought back the status of glycoconjugates to near normal range. The present study thus demonstrated that genistein and daidzein in combination protected the structural integrity of the cell surface and membranes during DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis.
PMCID: PMC3252688  PMID: 22238489
Mammary carcinoma; Glycoconjugates; Membrane integrity; Genistein; Daidzein; DMBA
3.  Protective Role of Withaferin-A on Red Blood Cell Integrity During 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene Induced Oral Carcinogenesis 
The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of Withaferin-A on red blood cell integrity during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced oral carcinogenesis. The protective effect of Withaferin-A was assessed by measuring the status of glycoconjugates, membrane bound enzyme activity and red blood cell osmotic fragility. Oral squamous cell carcinoma was induced in the buccal pouch of Syrian golden hamsters by painting with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin thrice a week for 14 weeks. The levels of glycoconjugates, membrane bound enzyme activity, osmotic fragility and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were analyzed by using specific colorimetric methods. We observed 100% tumor formation in DMBA painted hamsters. Increase in plasma glycoconjugates at the expense of red blood cell membrane glycoconjugates levels were observed in DMBA painted hamsters as compared to control hamsters. Erythrocytes from DMBA painted hamsters were more fragile than those from control hamsters. The activity of membrane bound enzyme (Na+ K+ ATPase) decreased whereas TBARS level was increased in DMBA painted hamsters as compared to control hamsters. Oral administration of Withaferin-A at a dose of 20mg kg−1 bw significantly prevented the tumor formation as well as normalized the biochemical variables in DMBA painted hamsters. Our results thus demonstrate the protective effect of Withaferin-A on red blood cell integrity during DMBA induced oral carcinogenesis.
PMCID: PMC2816520  PMID: 20162047
DMBA; Withaferin-A; Oral cancer; glycoconjugates; osmotic fragility
4.  Protective Effect of Withaferin-A on Micronucleus Frequency and Detoxication Agents During Experimental Oral Carcinogenesis 
Our aim was to investigate the effect of Withaferin-A on bone marrow micronucleus frequency and buccal mucosa detoxication agents during 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Oral squamous cell carcinoma was developed in hamsters' buccal pouches by painting 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin, three times per week for 14 weeks. We observed 100% tumor formation in DMBA painted hamsters. Elevated frequency of bone marrow micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs) and decrease in buccal mucosa phase II detoxication agents were noticed in tumor bearing hamsters. Oral administration of Withaferin-A significantly reduced the micronucleus frequency and brought back the status of phase II detoxication agents in DMBA painted hamsters. Our study thus demonstrated the protective effect of Withaferin-A on DMBA-induced micronucleus frequency in the bone marrow of golden Syrian hamsters. Also, Withaferin-A maintained the status of buccal mucosa detoxication agents during DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.
PMCID: PMC2816519  PMID: 20162035
Withaferin-A; DMBA; Oral cancer; Micronucleus; Detoxication
5.  Clerodendron Inerme Protects Cellular Integrity during 7,12-Dimethylbenz[A]-Anthracene Induced Hamster Buccal Pouch Carcinogenesis 
Aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of Clerodendron inerme on cellular integrity by measuring the status of glycoconjugates, lipids, osmotic fragility, and membrane bound enzyme activity in 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA)-induced oral carcinogenesis. Oral squamous cell carcinoma was induced in the buccal pouch of Syrian golden hamsters by painting with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin thrice a week for 14 weeks. The levels of glycoconjugates, lipids, osmotic fragility and membrane bound enzyme activity were analyzed by using specific colorimetric methods. We observed 100% tumor formation in DMBA painted hamsters. Altered glycoconjugates and lipid pattern were observed in DMBA painted hamsters as compared to control hamsters. Erythrocytes from DMBA painted hamsters were more fragile than those from control hamsters. The activity of membrane bound enzyme (Na+ K+ ATPase) decreased in DMBA painted hamsters as compared to control hamsters. Oral administration of aqueous leaf extract of Clerodendron inerme (CiALet) at a dose of 500mg/kg body weight significantly prevented the tumor formation and histopathological abnormalities as well as normalized the above said biochemical variables in DMBA painted hamsters. Our results thus demonstrate the protective effect of Clerodendron inerme on cellular integrity during DMBA induced oral carcinogenesis.
PMCID: PMC2816544  PMID: 20161940
Oral cancer; DMBA; hamster; Clerodendron inerme; osmotic fragility; lipids; glycoconjugates
6.  Antigenotoxic Effect of Ferulic Acid in 7,12-Dimethyl Benz(a)-Anthracene (DMBA) Induced Genotoxicity 
The antigenotoxic effect of ferulic acid was carried out by evaluating the cytogenetic markers, the micronuclei frequency and chromosomal aberrations, in the bone marrow of hamsters in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced genotoxicity. Genotoxicity was induced in experimental hamsters by single intraperitoneal injection of DMBA (30mg kg−1 b.w). Pretreatment of ferulic acid orally at a dose of 40mg kg−1 b.w for five days significantly reduced the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs) and the percentage of chromosomal aberrations in hamster's bone marrow. Our results thus suggest that ferulic acid has potent antigenotoxic effect in DMBA induced genotoxicity in golden Syrian hamsters.
PMCID: PMC2816597  PMID: 20162052
DMBA; ferulic acid; genotoxicity; chromosomal aberrations; lipid peroxidation; antioxidants; hamster

Results 1-6 (6)