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1.  Protective Role of Withaferin-A on Red Blood Cell Integrity During 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene Induced Oral Carcinogenesis 
The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of Withaferin-A on red blood cell integrity during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced oral carcinogenesis. The protective effect of Withaferin-A was assessed by measuring the status of glycoconjugates, membrane bound enzyme activity and red blood cell osmotic fragility. Oral squamous cell carcinoma was induced in the buccal pouch of Syrian golden hamsters by painting with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin thrice a week for 14 weeks. The levels of glycoconjugates, membrane bound enzyme activity, osmotic fragility and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were analyzed by using specific colorimetric methods. We observed 100% tumor formation in DMBA painted hamsters. Increase in plasma glycoconjugates at the expense of red blood cell membrane glycoconjugates levels were observed in DMBA painted hamsters as compared to control hamsters. Erythrocytes from DMBA painted hamsters were more fragile than those from control hamsters. The activity of membrane bound enzyme (Na+ K+ ATPase) decreased whereas TBARS level was increased in DMBA painted hamsters as compared to control hamsters. Oral administration of Withaferin-A at a dose of 20mg kg−1 bw significantly prevented the tumor formation as well as normalized the biochemical variables in DMBA painted hamsters. Our results thus demonstrate the protective effect of Withaferin-A on red blood cell integrity during DMBA induced oral carcinogenesis.
PMCID: PMC2816520  PMID: 20162047
DMBA; Withaferin-A; Oral cancer; glycoconjugates; osmotic fragility
2.  Protective Effect of Withaferin-A on Micronucleus Frequency and Detoxication Agents During Experimental Oral Carcinogenesis 
Our aim was to investigate the effect of Withaferin-A on bone marrow micronucleus frequency and buccal mucosa detoxication agents during 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Oral squamous cell carcinoma was developed in hamsters' buccal pouches by painting 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin, three times per week for 14 weeks. We observed 100% tumor formation in DMBA painted hamsters. Elevated frequency of bone marrow micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs) and decrease in buccal mucosa phase II detoxication agents were noticed in tumor bearing hamsters. Oral administration of Withaferin-A significantly reduced the micronucleus frequency and brought back the status of phase II detoxication agents in DMBA painted hamsters. Our study thus demonstrated the protective effect of Withaferin-A on DMBA-induced micronucleus frequency in the bone marrow of golden Syrian hamsters. Also, Withaferin-A maintained the status of buccal mucosa detoxication agents during DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.
PMCID: PMC2816519  PMID: 20162035
Withaferin-A; DMBA; Oral cancer; Micronucleus; Detoxication
3.  Clerodendron Inerme Protects Cellular Integrity during 7,12-Dimethylbenz[A]-Anthracene Induced Hamster Buccal Pouch Carcinogenesis 
Aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of Clerodendron inerme on cellular integrity by measuring the status of glycoconjugates, lipids, osmotic fragility, and membrane bound enzyme activity in 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA)-induced oral carcinogenesis. Oral squamous cell carcinoma was induced in the buccal pouch of Syrian golden hamsters by painting with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin thrice a week for 14 weeks. The levels of glycoconjugates, lipids, osmotic fragility and membrane bound enzyme activity were analyzed by using specific colorimetric methods. We observed 100% tumor formation in DMBA painted hamsters. Altered glycoconjugates and lipid pattern were observed in DMBA painted hamsters as compared to control hamsters. Erythrocytes from DMBA painted hamsters were more fragile than those from control hamsters. The activity of membrane bound enzyme (Na+ K+ ATPase) decreased in DMBA painted hamsters as compared to control hamsters. Oral administration of aqueous leaf extract of Clerodendron inerme (CiALet) at a dose of 500mg/kg body weight significantly prevented the tumor formation and histopathological abnormalities as well as normalized the above said biochemical variables in DMBA painted hamsters. Our results thus demonstrate the protective effect of Clerodendron inerme on cellular integrity during DMBA induced oral carcinogenesis.
PMCID: PMC2816544  PMID: 20161940
Oral cancer; DMBA; hamster; Clerodendron inerme; osmotic fragility; lipids; glycoconjugates
4.  Antigenotoxic Effect of Ferulic Acid in 7,12-Dimethyl Benz(a)-Anthracene (DMBA) Induced Genotoxicity 
The antigenotoxic effect of ferulic acid was carried out by evaluating the cytogenetic markers, the micronuclei frequency and chromosomal aberrations, in the bone marrow of hamsters in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced genotoxicity. Genotoxicity was induced in experimental hamsters by single intraperitoneal injection of DMBA (30mg kg−1 b.w). Pretreatment of ferulic acid orally at a dose of 40mg kg−1 b.w for five days significantly reduced the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs) and the percentage of chromosomal aberrations in hamster's bone marrow. Our results thus suggest that ferulic acid has potent antigenotoxic effect in DMBA induced genotoxicity in golden Syrian hamsters.
PMCID: PMC2816597  PMID: 20162052
DMBA; ferulic acid; genotoxicity; chromosomal aberrations; lipid peroxidation; antioxidants; hamster

Results 1-4 (4)