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1.  Acute and Subchronic Toxicity of Anacardium Occidentale Linn (Anacardiaceae) Leaves Hexane Extract in Mice 
These studies focus on the toxicity leaf hexane extract of A. occidentale L (Anacardiaceae) used in Cameroon traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes and hypertension. Previous findings on antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory have given support to the ethnopharmacological applications of the plant. After acute oral administration, it was found that doses of the extract less than 6 g/kg are not toxic. Signs of toxicity at high doses were asthenia, anorexia, diarrhoea, and syncope. The LD50 of the extract, determined in mice of both sexes after oral administration was 16 g/kg. In the subchronic study, mice received A. occidentale at doses of 6, 10 and 14 g/kg (by oral route) for 56 days. At doses of 2, 6 and 10 g/kg of extract, repeated oral administration to mice produced a reduction in food intake, weight gain, and behavioural effects. Liver or the kidney function tests were assessed by determining serum parameters like, creatinine, transaminases, and urea. All these parameters were significantly (p<0.01) abnormal. Histopatological studies revealed evidence of microcopic lesions either in the liver or in the kidney which may be correlated with biochemical disturbances. We conclude that toxic effects of A. occidentale L hexane leaf extract occurred at higher doses than those used in Cameroon folk medicine.
PMCID: PMC2816447  PMID: 20162085
Toxicity; Anacardum occidentale; Hexane extract; mice
2.  Antidiabetic Effect of Ceiba Pentandra Extract on Streptozo-tocin-induced Non-insulin-dependent Diabetic (NIDDM) Rats 
The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of daily oral administration of root bark methylene chloride/methanol extract of Ceiba pentandra (Linn) in streptozotocin-induced type-2 diabetic rats, and the effect of this treatment on the physiological and metabolic parameters that are related in diabetic animals. The diabetic rats were separated into four groups and each given the following samples by gavage, daily for 28 days: vehicle (diabetic control), Ceiba pentandra extract at the dose of 40 mg/kg, Ceiba pentandra extract at the dose of 75 mg/kg and glibenclamide (5 mg/kg). All the parameters were also determined in healthy (non diabetic) rats for comparison. The methylene chloride/methanol extract of Ceiba pentandra treatment significantly reduced the intake of both food and water as well as the levels of blood glucose, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine and urea, in comparison with diabetic controls. The treatment also improves impaired glucose tolerance but no effect was observed in the level of hepatic glycogen. The effect of Ceiba pentandra (40 mg/kg) was more prominent when compared to glibenclamide in lowering blood glucose, with the added benefit of considerably reducing serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. The results of this experimental animal study indicated that Ceiba pentandra possesses antidiabetic activity; and thus is capable of ameliorating hyperglycaemia in streptozotocin-induced type-2 diabetic rats and is a potential source for isolation of new orally active agent(s) for anti-diabetic therapy.
PMCID: PMC2816421  PMID: 20162071
Ceiba pentandra; Plant extract; Type 2 diabetes; Streptozotocin

Results 1-2 (2)