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1.  Neuropharmacological Profile of Aqueous Extract of Anaphe Venata Larva (Notondotidae) in Rats 
Consumption of Anaphe larva had been reported to cause seasonal ataxia and impaired consciousness. Therefore this study examined the neuropharmacological and mechanism(s) of action of aqueous extract of Anaphe venata in rats. Behavioural effects namely rearing, stretching, sniffing and ataxia were determined after the intraperitoneal asministration of aqueous extract of Anaphe larva in rats. Animals were divided into groups and graded doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p.) of extract were administered. The control group was administered normal saline (vehicle). The effects of scopolamine (3 mg/kg, i.p.), flumazenil (2 mg/kg, i.p.), naloxone (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.), and thiamine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) on the observed behavioral changes were also examined. The effects of the extract administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 200 mg/kg on the amphetamine-induced stereotypy and locomotion were evaluated. Aqueous anaphe extract induced significant (p< 0.01) stretching and ataxia behavioural effects while it inhibited rearing behaviour when compared with the vehicle-treated group. However, it had no significant effect on sniffing behaviour. Scopolamine reversed all the effects of the extract on rearing, stretching and ataxia. Both Flumazenil and naloxone only reversed the effects of the extract on stretching and ataxia-induced behaviours significantly. However, thiamine potentiated both stretching and ataxia-induced behaviours. The extract inhibited the amphetamine-induced stereotype behaviour and locomotion. In conclusion, these results showed that these anaphe-induced behavioural effects are mediated via cholinergic, GABAergic, opioidergic and dopaminergic receptor systems with strong muscarinic-cholinergic receptors involvement in ataxia-induced behaviour. We therefore suggest that muscranic-cholinergic like drugs may be of benefit in the management of patients that present with clinical condition of seasonal ataxia.
PMCID: PMC3252225  PMID: 22468004
Anaphe venata; ataxia; chewing; cholinergic; dopaminergic; stretching; rats
2.  Antinociceptive and Antiinflammatory Effects of Essential Oil of Dennettia Tripetala G.Baker (Annonaceae) in Rodents 
In this study we evaluated the analgesic and anti- inflammatory activities of the essential oil (EO) of the fruits of Dennettia tripetala in rodents. The plant is a tropical African plant and the fruits are commonly eaten as spices and consumed as a stimulant, and its various parts are used in the treatment of fever, cough and as anti-emetics.The analgesic effects of the oil was assessed in mice using the hot plate, acetic acid-induced writhings and formalin test, while carrageenan-induced paw oedema was used to study the antiinflammatory effects in rats. The EO at 25–50 mg/kg exhibited significant (p<0.05) antinociceptive effects comparable to a potent opioid agonist, morphine (10 mg/kg) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as, aspirin (100 mg/kg) and indomethacin (80 mg/kg). The antinociceptive effect of the EO was also blocked by naloxone (2 mg/kg) in all the models used. The EO demonstrated significant (p<0.05) anti-inflammatory effect in the carrageenan-induced paw oedema model of inflammation that is also comparable to dexamethasone (1 mg/kg) The results showed that the essential oil of D.tripetala possesses significant antinociceptive and antiinflammatory effects in the animal models used. The results also suggest that the analgesic effects may be mediated both centrally as well as peripherally, while the antiinflammatory activity may be effective in both early and late phases of inflammation. The results obtained may therefore be used to rationalize the use of the plant in the treatment of pain and fever in traditional medicine.
PMCID: PMC2816588  PMID: 20161957
Dennettia tripetala; Essential Oil; Antinociceptive; Anti-inflammatory and Rodents

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