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1.  Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Asparagus Africanus Root Extract 
The methanolic extract of the roots of Asparagus africanus Lam (Liliaceae) which contains mainly saponins and carbohydrate showed significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities (P<0.05) in the tail-flick/hot-plate test and egg albumen-induced rat paw oedema tests that were comparable to the test drugs (morphine 20mg/kg and indomethacin 50mg/kg respectively). These results indicate that the extract possesses analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties.
PMCID: PMC2816601  PMID: 20162051
Asparagus africanus; roots; analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities
2.  Phytochemical, Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Ethylacetate Extract of the Leaves of Pseudocedrella Kotschyii 
Phytochemical screening was carried out on the ethylacetate portion of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Pseudocedrella kotschyii and then evaluated for its analgesic (acetic acid-induced writhing) and anti-inflammatory (raw egg albumin-induced oedema) activities in mice and rats respectively. Phytochemical screening of the ethylacetate partition portion of ethanolic extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, glycosides and tannins as major chemical constituents. Alkaloids saponins, cardiac glycosides, steroids were not dictated in the extract. The ethylacetate extract (50 and 100 mg/kg i.p) exhibited significant activity (p<0.05) against acetic acid-induced writhing in a dose dependent manner. In the anti-inflammatory activity the ethylacetate extract (50 and 100 mg/kg i.p.) caused a slight effect against the raw egg albumin-induced oedema. The effect was however observed not to be dose dependent. All these effects were compared with standard drug piroxicam (20 mg/kg i.p.).
PMCID: PMC2816590  PMID: 20162060
Acetic acid-induced writhing; Analgesic; Anti-inflammatory; Meliaceae; Oedema; Phytochemistry; Pseudocedrella kotschyii
3.  Anti-Diarrheal Activity of the Leaf Extracts of Daniellia Oliveri Hutch and Dalz (Fabaceae) and Ficus Sycomorus Miq (Moraceae) 
The leaves of the plants Daniellia oliveri (Fabaceae) and Ficus sycomorus (Moraceae) used in diarrhea treatment in Hausa ethnomedicine of Northern Nigeria were investigated. The study was carried out on parfused isolated rabbit jejunum and castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice. The n-butanol extracts: NBD and NBF (0.16–3.2mg/ml) caused a dose-dependent relaxation of isolated rabbit jejunum. The acute toxicity test for NBD and NBT in mice established an i.p LD50 of > 4000mg/kg for D. oliveri and 1131.4mg/kg for F. sycomorus. In castor oil-induced diarrhea, 80% protection was observed for D. oliveri at doses of 200mg/kg and 60% protection was observed at 100mg/kg and 50mg/kg respectively. For F. sycomorus 100% protection was observed at doses of 120mg/kg and 60mg/kg, for the n-butanol extract. The antidiarrheal activity was comparable to loperamide 5mg/kg. The result revealed that the extracts have pharmacological activity against diarrhea.
PMCID: PMC2816518  PMID: 20161921
Anti-diarrhea; castor oil; n-butanol extracts; tissue relaxation
4.  Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Effects of Chrozophora Senegalensis 
The in vitro antimicrobial activities of the whole plant extract (ethanolic-CEE) of Chrozophora senegalensis and its fractions (ethyl acetate-EAA, n-butanol-NBE, aqueous-AQE) were assayed using the agar plate diffusion and nutrient broth dilution methods. Test microorganisms were Bacillus subtilis (NCTC 8326 B76), Escherichia coli (ATCC 11775), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 10145), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 021001). Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Salmonella typhi - laboratory isolates. CEE, EAA and NBE inhibited all the test bacterial organisms and a fungus-Aspergillus flavus. AQE inhibited only Salmonella typhi and Bacillus subtilis. None of the extracts had activity on other 3 fungal organisms tested. CEE and EAA showed minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of 0.390 and 3.125 mg/ml against S. typhi and E. coli, while NBE and AQE had MIC of 3.125 and 1.563 mg/ml against S. typhi respectively. NBE had an MIC of 12.500 mg/ml against E. coli. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of CEE and EAA was found to be <0.098 against S. typhi. The MBC of AQE was 12.5 mg/ml against E. coli and S. aureus, and 6.25 mg/ml towards P. aeruginosa. CEE and EAA exhibited similar antibacterial activities, followed by AQE. The extracts revealed the presence of carbohydrates, tannins, saponins, sterols determined by utilizing standard methods of analysis.
This study has justified the traditional use of the plant for treating diarrhea, boils and syphilis.
PMCID: PMC2816503  PMID: 20161917
Antimicrobial activity; Chrozophora senegalensis; Extracts; Phytochemical Screening; Euphorbiaceae
5.  Flavonoid Glycosides from Byrsocarpus Coccineus Leaves. Schum and Thonn (Connaraceae) 
The bioactive ethyl acetate and N-butanol soluble parts of an ethanolic extract of Byrsocarpus coccineus leaves was subjected to column chromatography over silica gel G (60 – 120µ) and repeated purification of the flavonoid rich fraction over sephadex LH-20 eluted with methanol led to the isolation of three flavonoid glycosides identified as quercetin 3-O-α-arabinoside (I), quercetin(II) and quercetin 3-β-D-glucoside. Their structures were elucidated by 1H and 13C-NMR data and are reported here for the first time in this plant.
PMCID: PMC2816480  PMID: 20161886
Flavonoids Quercetin 3-O-α-arabinoside; Quercetin; Quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucoside

Results 1-5 (5)