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1.  In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Crude Extracts from Plants Bryophyllum Pinnatum and Kalanchoe Crenata 
Extracts from the leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum and Kalanchoe crenata were screened for their antimicrobial activities. Solvents used included water, methanol, and local solvents such as palmwine, local gin (Seaman's Schnapps 40% alcoholic drink,) and “omi ekan-ogi” (Sour water from 3 days fermented milled maize). Leaves were dried and powdered before being soaked in solvents for 3 days. Another traditional method of extraction by squeezing raw juice from the leaves was also employed. All extracts were lyophilized. These extracts were tested against some Gram-negative organisms (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella paratyphi, Citrobacter spp); Gram-positive organisms Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25213, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis) and a fungus (Candida albicans). Agar well diffusion and broth dilution methods were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) at concentrations of 512mg/ml to 4mg/ml. All the organisms except Candida albicans were susceptible to the extracts obtained from the traditional method. The squeezed-leaf juice of Kalanchoe crenata was the most active one with MIC of 8 mg/ml against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus subtilis, 32 mg/ml against Shigella flexneri, 64 mg/ml against Escherichia coli and 128 mg/ml against the control strain Staphylococcus aureus while its MBC is 256 mg/ml against these organisms except Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The Gram-positive organisms were more sensitive to the methanol and local gin-extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum. Extracts from other solvents showed moderate to weak activity.
PMCID: PMC2816479  PMID: 20161897
Antimicrobial; Bryophyllum pinnatum; Kalanchoe crenata; Local solvents; Gram-positive organism; Gram-negative organism
2.  Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Properties of Different Parts of Citrus Aurantifolia (Lime Fruit) as Used Locally 
We investigated the potency of Citrus aurantifolia (Lime fruit), against pathogens, in the different forms in which this fruit plant is used locally (juice of the fruit, burnt rind of the fruit commonly known as “epa-ijebu” in the Yoruba dialect) and the oil obtained from steam distillation of the fruit. The antimicrobial activity of “epa-ijebu” in different solvents was also compared. The solvents include palm-wine (a local alcoholic drink tapped from palm trees), Seaman's Schnapps 40% alcoholic drink, water, ethanol and fermented water from 3 days soaked milled maize known as “ekan-ogi” or “omidun” in the Yoruba dialect. Antimicrobial activity was carried out by the agar well diffusion. The clinical isolates used included Anaerobic facultative bacteria, namely: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25213, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella paratyphi, Shigella flexnerii, Streptococcus faecalis, Citrobacter spp, Serratia spp, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and Escherichia coli; Fungi such as Aspergilus niger and Candida albicans; and Anaerobes which includes Bacteroides spp, Porphyromonas spp, and Clostridium spp. Crude extracts of all solvents used varied in zones of inhibition. The anaerobes and the Gram-positive bacteria were susceptible to all the extracts with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 32mg/ml–128g/ml. The activity against the fungi showed only the oil extract potent for A. niger, while Candida albicans was susceptible to all the extracts with MIC ranging from 256mg/ml–512mg/ml. The Gram-negatives have MIC ranging from 64mg/ml–512mg/ml. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranged between 32mg/ml to 512mg/ml depending on isolates and extracting solvent. The oil and palm-wine extract of “epa-ijebu” showed greater activity than the other extracts. The killing rate of the schnapps extract on S. aureus and E. coli was 1 and 3.5 hours respectively.
PMCID: PMC2816438  PMID: 20162090

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