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1.  Anthelminthic Efficacy of Aqueous Extract of Acanthus Montanus Leaf Against Strongylid Nematodes of Small Ruminants 
The anthelminthic efficacy of the crude aqueous extract of Acanthus montanus (Nees) T. Anders (Acanthaceae) against strongylid nematodes of small ruminants was investigated using the in-vitro egg hatch and larval growth inhibition assays. Faecal samples collected per rectum from sheep and goats were subjected to parasitological examination using the McMaster counting technique with a yield of 700 eggs per gram (E.P.G.) of faeces. Crude aqueous leaf extract of Acanthus montanus was extracted using cold water extraction with a yield of 13.01% w/w. Egg hatch assay revealed a 91.75% reduction in egg hatch at concentration of 25mg/ml of the extract. The extract had a 100% inhibition, at 200mg/ml concentration which was equivalent to the activity of 3.125mg/ml albendazole. The distilled water control however, showed a 0% inhibition. Larval growth inhibition assay results showed the extract on Day 1 at 25mg/ml and 200mg/ml concentrations yielded 67.02% and 85.26% larval inhibition. On Day 2, 100% inhibition was obtained on all concentrations of the extract except for 25mg/ml that yielded 88.30%. Albendazole however, had a 100% larval inhibition for all concentrations on Day 2. A 100% larval inhibition was recorded on Day 3 from the 25mg/ml concentrations. The mean percentage larval inhibition of the extract at 200mg/ml (92.63%) was comparable to the standard anthelminthic (albendazole) at 12.50mg/ml (92.28%). These findings showed that there is a pharmacological basis for the folkloric claim of the anthelminthic effect of Acanthus montanus.
PMCID: PMC3005400  PMID: 21731157
Anthelminthic; Extract; Strongylid Nematodes; Acanthus montanus
2.  Anti-Trypanosomal Effects of Aqueous Extract of Ocimum Gratissimum (Lamiaceae) Leaf in Rats Infected with Trypanosoma Brucei Brucei 
The anti-trypanosomal effects of aqueous extract of the leaf of Ocimum gratissimum were evaluated in both in-vitro and in-vivo studies. The anti-trypanosomal activity of the extract against Trypanosoma brucei was investigated in-vitro. The survival and motility of the trypanosomes were completely inhibited within two hours of incubation in various concentrations of the extract. Parasite survival time was concentration dependent being longer in lower (25 and 12.5 mg/ml) than higher (100, 75 and 50 mg/ml) concentrations of the extract. The in-vivo anti-trypanosomal effect of the leaf extract of the leaf extract was investigated in rats infected with Trypanosoma brucei and treated with the extract. The infected rats treated with the extract had less dramatic clinical manifestations and mortality, survived longer and higher PCV values than their untreated counterparts, however, parasitaemia was not significantly reduced. The results suggest that the folkloric medicinal application of the aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum has no possible pharmacological basis.
PMCID: PMC2816456  PMID: 20448851
Anti-trypanosomal; Leaf; Ocimum gratissimum; Rats

Results 1-2 (2)