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1.  Evaluation of the Essential Oil of Foeniculum Vulgare Mill (Fennel) Fruits Extracted by Three Different Extraction Methods by GC/MS 
Background
Hydrodistillation (HD) and steam-distillation, or solvent extraction methods of essential oils have some disadvantages like thermal decomposition of extracts, its contamination with solvent or solvent residues and the pollution of residual vegetal material with solvent which can be also an environmental problem. Thus, new green techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction and microwave assisted techniques, are potential solutions to overcome these disadvantages.
Materials and Methods
The aim of this study was to evaluate the essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare subsp. Piperitum fruits extracted by three different extraction methods viz. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using CO2, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and hydro-distillation (HD) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS).
Results
The results revealed that both MAE and SFE enhanced the extraction efficiency of the interested components. MAE gave the highest yield of oil as well as higher percentage of Fenchone (28%), whereas SFE gave the highest percentage of anethol (72%).
Conclusion
Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) not only enhanced the essential oil extraction but also saved time, reduced the solvents use and produced, ecologically, green technologies.
PMCID: PMC4202632  PMID: 25435608
Foeniculum vulgare subsp. Piperitum; microwave-assisted extraction (MAE); Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE); Essential Oils; Anethol; Fenchone; Limonene; Pinene; GC/MS
2.  Study on the Antibacterial Activity of Bergenia Purpurascens Extract 
Background
Bergenia purpurascens has tonic, haemostatic and anti-tussive actions. Anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial activities of Bergenia purpurascens have not been reported so far. The objective of this paper is to provide experimental basis for the clinical application of Bergenia purpurascens through the pharmacodynamic study on its anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial effects.
Methods
Experimental models of xylene-induced ear edema in mice, cotton pellet granuloma in rats, and acetic acid-induced peritoneal capillary permeability in mice were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of Bergenia purpurascens; bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects of Bergenia purpurascens extract on Staphylococcus aureus (SA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and β-lactamase positive Staphylococcus aureus (ESBLs-SA), were observed in vitro.
Results
The results show that Bergenia purpurascens extract could markedly inhibit xylene-induced mouse ear edema, cotton pellet granulation tissue hyperplasia, and increased capillary permeability. Bergenia purpurascens extract has an inhibitory effect on SA, MRSA and ESBLs-SA.
Conclusion
We conclude that Bergenia purpurascens extract has certain anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial effects.
PMCID: PMC4202658  PMID: 25435634
Bergenia purpurascens extract; anti inflammation; SA; MRSA; ESBLs-SA; antibacterial
3.  Investigation of Antioxidant Potentials of Solvent Extracts From Different Anatomical Parts of Asphodeline Anatolica E. Tuzlaci: An Endemic Plant to Turkey 
Background
The genus Asphodeline (Liliaceae) is represented in Turkey by 20 taxa, which are traditionally used for medicinal purposes in Anatolia.
Materials and Methods
In this study, we tested the phytochemical content and antioxidant effect of different solvent extracts obtained from different anatomical parts of Asphodeline anatolica. The different extracts of each plant parts were tested for antioxidant activity using different chemical assays. The total antioxidant components were also calculated.
Results
Generally, acetone extracts produced the seed and root exhibited significantly higher antioxidant activity with high antioxidant components. Total phenolic content of extracts were significantly correlated with antioxidant potentials (except for, metal chelating activity).
Conclusion
On the basis of the results obtained, A. anatolica extracts should be regarded as a valuable source of natural antioxidants for food and therapeutic applications.
PMCID: PMC4202661  PMID: 25435637
Asphodeline; Antioxidant activity; Free radical scavenging; Phenolics; Solvent extracts; Turkey
4.  Pharmacological Experimental Study of the Anti-Depressant Effect of Total Saikosaponins 
Background
Chai Hu has the hepato-protective, choleretic, anti-tussive, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, hypotensive, hypolipidemic, and anti-tumor pharmacological effects. In this study, the objective of this paper was to study the anti-depressant effect of total saikosaponins.
Materials and Methods
Total saikosaponins were extracted by reflux method, and were identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC). The anti-depressant effect of total saikosaponins was investigated in vitro by tail suspension test, forced swimming test, and reserpine antagonism test in mice.
Results
Two times of reflux extraction, temperature of 70°C, and extraction time of 4hrs, for each extraction could improve the yield of saikosaponins. Each treatment group (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg), could significantly shorten the immobility time of mice in the tail suspension test in a somewhat dose-dependent manner. The total saikosaponins antagonized the reserpine-induced akinesia, and ptosis in mice.
Conclusion
Total saikosaponins have an anti-depressant effect.
PMCID: PMC4202633  PMID: 25435609
total saikosaponins; tail suspension test; forced swimming test
5.  Iron Deficiency Anaemia in Reproductive Age Women Attending Obstetrics and Gynecology Outpatient of University Health Centre in Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia 
Background
Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional disorder in the world. The aim of this questionnaire based survey study was to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in reproductive age women, and their relation to variables such as age, marital status, education with those attending obstetrics and gynecology outpatient of King Faisal University Health Centre in Al-Ahsa in eastern region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Materials and Methods
This study was conducted for the period of 6 month staring from September 2012 to February 2013. The questionnaire had three sections on personal information: their educational indicators, gynecological clinical history, and hematological indices.
Results
The average age was 25.97±7.17 years. According to the gynecological clinical history of the respondents, 15 (48.4%) respondents were pregnant while 16 (51.6%) were not pregnant. There was significant effect of pregnancy status on Hb level. Majority of the anemic respondents 15/17 were married. Moreover 14/17 anemic women were experiencing severe menstrual bleeding, 11/17 respondents were pregnant. 54.8% of respondents were hemoglobin deficient while 77.4% were found to have low Hct. In 87.1 % of the respondents, transferrin saturation was found to be abnormal.
Conclusion
In this study iron deficiency anemia is quite prevalent in the university community especially among pregnant women. The fetus's and newborn infant's iron status depends on the iron status of the pregnant woman and therefore, iron deficiency in the mother-to-be means that growing fetus probably will be iron deficient as well. Thus iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy in well-educated set up needs more attention by the concerned authorities.
PMCID: PMC4202643  PMID: 25435619
Iron deficiency Anemia (IDA); Hemoglobin; Female; Reproductive Age
6.  Use of Chinese Medicine Among Colorectal Cancer Patients: A Nationwide Population-Based Study 
Background
Traditional Chinese medicine (CM) appears to be used worldwide, especially by cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to explore CM uses and CM non-users by patients with colorectal cancer (CRC).
Materials and methods
A retrospective study was conducted using registration and claims data sets for 2007 from the National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients with colorectal cancer were identified from the Registry for Catastrophic illness Patients. Binary logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios as the measure of association with the use of CM.
Results
A total of 61,211 CRC patients diagnosed in 2007 were analysis. Most CM users preferred to visit private clinics (46.9%) with 306,599 visits. In contrast, the majority of CM non-users preferred to visit private hospitals (42.2%) with 538,769 visits. Among all 176,707 cancer-specific CM visit, there were 66.6% visits to CM outpatient department (OPD) of private hospitals, while in 477,612 non-cancer-specific CM visits, 62.0% was for private clinics. The proportion of expenses for diagnostic fees for CM user in CM visits was much less than that for WM visits and CM non-users (US$4.6 vs. 29.3 vs. 33.5). The average cost for CM user in CM was less than that for WM visits and CM non-users (US$6.3 vs. 25.9 vs. 30.3). Female patients, younger age, and patients not living in the northern region, with higher EC or more comorbidities were more likely to receive CM treatment.
Conclusion
The prevalence and costs of insurance-covered CM among CRC patients were low. Further longer longitudinal study is needed to follow up this trend.
PMCID: PMC4202644  PMID: 25435620
Chinese Medicine; Digestive System Neoplasms; Health Insurance
7.  The Foliar Anatomy and Micromorphology of Aloe Ferox Mill. (Asphodelaceae) 
Background
The genus Aloe has been the subject of several chemotaxonomic and phytochemical investigations. Aloe ferox is an important source of biologically active compounds like anthrones, chromones, pyrones, and flavonoids. It is a plant used extensively in traditional medicine. Despite the myriad of studies on the pharmacological profile of the plant, there still exists a dearth of scientific literature on the anatomical and morphological attributes of this important medicinal plant.
Materials and Methods
Hence, the objective of this study was to examine the foliar anatomy and micromorphological characteristics of A. ferox using light microscope and scanning electron microscope and to determine the elemental composition of the leaf sections by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy.
Results
Epidermal cells varied from round, square to hexagonal, with distinctive anticlinal walls and sunken stomata, equally distributed on both the adaxial and abaxial surfaces were observed. There were vertically elongated palisade cells with numerous chloroplasts in the palisade mesophyll layer. The EDXS analysis revealed Ca, K, S, Al, Mg, and Si as the major constituents of crystals present in the mesophyll.
Conclusion
Information on the foliar anatomy and micromorphology can further enlightened our perceptions on the inherent interrelationships between structure and function as regards the synthesis and secretion of bioactive secondary metabolites by plants.
PMCID: PMC4202645  PMID: 25435621
Aloe ferox; foliar micromorphology; anatomy; light microscope; scanning electron microscope; x-ray spectroscopy
8.  Study on the Extraction Process of Totalanthraquinones in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei and Their Antilipemic Effects 
Background
Radix et Rhizoma Rhei has a gastric mucosal protective effect, major anti-gastritis and anti-peptic ulcer active constituents were emodin, aloe-emodin, chrysophanol, rhein, etc. The objective of the study was the extraction process of total anthraquinones in Radix et Rhizoma rhei and their antilipemic effects.
Materials and Methods
Orthogonal experiment, UV spectrophotometry and conventional antilipemic effect determination method were used to optimize the extraction process, and to determine the total anthraquinone content, as well as blood levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL.
Results
Ethanol concentration, extraction time and ethanol amount had significant influences on the extraction of total Radix et Rhizoma rhei anthraquinones, total Radix et Rhizoma rhei anthraquinones could significantly reduce blood levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL.
Conclusion
The optimum extraction process was two times extraction of Radix et Rhizoma rhei with 70% ethanol, the amounts of solvent of 8 folds and 5 folds, successively, and the extraction time of 60 min each. In addition, this extract has an antilipemic effect in mice.
PMCID: PMC4202646  PMID: 25435622
Radix et Rhizoma Rhei; total anthraquinones; orthogonal test; anti-lipids
9.  Analysis and Study on 47 Cases of Adverse Reactions of Chinese Medicine Injection 
Background
Along with efficacy, Chinese medicine is increasingly being known to people, Chinese medicine and its preparations are increasingly widespread in clinical use. People generally believe that Chinese medicine has few side effects and is safe, especially Chinese medicine injections. Due to the direct injection in blood, rapid onset and good efficacy, they are welcomed by people. However, with increased use, adverse reactions are increasing, even causing serious consequences. The objective is to learn about the characteristics and laws of the adverse effects of Chinese medicine injections, provide references for the clinical safe drug use, and reduce the incidence of adverse reactions.
Materials and Methods
The method was established to analyze the data of 47 cases of adverse reactions caused by Chinese medicine injections in our hospital from the year, 2009 to 2010.
Results
The organs / systems involved in the 47 cases of adverse reactions are primarily skin and its accessories and secondly systemic damage, involving a total of eight varieties of drugs.
Conclusion
The adverse reactions of Chinese medicine injections are mostly in Chinese patent drugs, which should be paid attention to, to find out the problems and laws, use the drugs rationally, and reduce the incidence of the adverse reactions.
PMCID: PMC4202647  PMID: 25435623
Chinese medicine; Injection; Adverse reactions
10.  Genes Underlying Positive Influence of Prenatal Environmental Enrichment and Negative Influence of Prenatal Earthquake Simulation and Corrective Influence of Chinese Herbal Medicine on Rat Offspring: Irf7 and Ninj2 
Background
Prenatal environmental enrichment (EE) has been proven to positively affect but prenatal stress negatively influence the physiological and psychological processes in animals, whose trans-generational genetic mechanism remains unclearly defined. We aimed to investigate and find out key genes underlying the positive-negative effects derived from prenatal interventions.
Materials and Methods
Pregnant rats were randomized into EE group (EEG), earthquake simulation group (ESG), herbal group (HG) received herbal supplements in feed after earthquake simulation, and control group (CG).
Results
Light Box Defecation Test (LBDT) showed EEG offspring presented less fecal pellets than CG offspring, ESG's more than CG's, and HG's less than ESG (p's<0.05). Open-field Test (OFT) score of EEG was higher than CG offspring, of ESG's was lower than CG's, and HG's higher than ESG's. Irf7 and Ninj were screened, which were up-regulated in EEG, down-regulated in ESG (FC<0.5), and were neutralized in HG. Prenatal EE could positively promote the nervous system development, prenatal earthquake simulation could retard the nervous system development and Chinese herbal remedy (JKSQW) which could correct the retardation.
Conclusion
The negative-positive prenatal effect could contribute to altered gene expression of Irf7 and Ninj2 which also could play a key role in the improving function of JKSQW for the kidneys.
PMCID: PMC4202648  PMID: 25435624
Prenatal stress; Earthquake simulation; Light Box Defecation Test; Open-field Test; Irf7; Ninj2
11.  Extraction and Isolation of Alkaloids of Sophora Alopecuroides and Their Anti-Tumor Effects in H22 Tumor-Bearing Mice 
Background
Alkaloids of Sophora alopecuroides have good biological activity, and are widely used in clinical settings, which not only have pharmacological activities of anti-cancer, cancer suppression, as well as the inhibition, and killing of various microorganisms; but also possess extensive pharmacological effects on immune system, nervous system and cardiovascular system. The objective of this paper was to extract and isolate total alkaloids of Sophora alopecuroides (TASA), and to study their anti-tumor effects in H22 tumor-bearing mice.
Materials and Methods
TASA were extracted and isolated using thin-layer chromatography, and column chromatography; and the isolated compounds were analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance. The inhibitory effects of TASA on tumor in H22-bearing mice were determined by MTT assay.
Results
Three compounds were isolated from Sophora alopecuroides L., which were matrine, oxymatrine and sophoridine, respectively. Meanwhile, mouse H22 sarcoma model was established and different doses of TASA apparently inhibited solid H22-tumor in mice; it inhibited the thymus, and spleen to some extent; the degree of inhibition was more obvious for the spleen.
Conclusion
TASA has an anti-tumor effect in H22 tumor-bearing mice.
PMCID: PMC4202627  PMID: 25435603
Sophora alopecuroides L.; H22 tumor-bearing mice; matrine; oxymatrine and sophoridine
12.  Anti-Hyperglycemic and Anti-Hyperlipidemic Potential of a Polyherbal Preparation “Diabegon” in Metabolic Syndrome Subject with Type 2 Diabetes 
Background
In the present study, “Diabegon” a poly-herbal preparation, with hypoglycemic activity, was evaluated for its preventive effect in metabolic syndrome subjects with type 2 diabetes and also to reveal its side effects, on liver and kidney.
Materials and Methods
Type 2 diabetic subjects with metabolic syndrome (N=58) were categorized on the basis of age and fasting blood glucose. The grouping was as follows: Group I (35–50 yrs), Group II (51–65 yrs), Group III >65 yrs, Group IV FBS<145.9, Group V FBS>145. Each group was administered 4 gm of diabegon daily. Blood glucose levels, lipid profile, liver and kidney function of the subjects were regularly monitored within 3 months of interval to 18 months.
Results
The reduction in fasting blood glucose level ranged from 12.3% (P<0.05) to 42% (P<0.001) after 18 month of therapy whereas in postprandial blood glucose, the decrease ranged from 28% (P<0.05) to 32% (P<0.05) after 18 month of therapy. Overall reductions in the individual parameters of the metabolic syndrome subjects were significantly higher in Group I. Cholesterol level decreased from 11% to 27.2% (P<0.001), triglyceride levels decreased from 24% to 55%, VLDL and LDL levels reduced by 60% & 54% respectively after 18 months of therapy. The HDL-C level increased in all groups. Moreover, diabegon administration for 1.5 years exhibited no alteration in liver and kidney function tests, which indicate its non-toxicity.
Conclusion
Our study suggests that diabegon could be included as a preventive treatment in metabolic syndrome subjects with type 2 diabetes especially for long term treatment as it efficiently shows anti-hyperglycemic and anti-lipidemic effects with no adverse impacts on the liver and kidney.
PMCID: PMC4202628  PMID: 25435604
Metabolic syndrome; Type 2 diabetes; Diabegon; Polyherbal preparation
13.  Study on the Anti-Depressant Effect of Chaihu Guizhi Decoction and Its Mechinisims of Actions 
Background
Chaihu Guizhi has the effects of treating exogenous wind-cold; alternating episodes of chills and fever; noisy nose and retching; strong headache; chest and rib-side pain, and fullness, in clinical practice, it can also be used for the treatment of depression. The objective of this paper was to study the anti-depressant effect of Chaihu Guizhi decoction and its mechanism.
Materials and Methods
The anti-depressant effect of Chaihu Guizhi decoction was investigated by forced swimming test, tail suspension test and antagonism of reserpine hypothermia test in mice.
Results
Chaihu Guizhi decoction could significantly shorten immobility time of mice in the forced swimming test, and dose-dependence significantly shorten immobility time of mice in the tail suspension test, after administration of 50, 100, and 200mg/kg, Chaihu Guizhi decoction, a significant dose-dependent antagonism of reserpine-induced hypothermia was observed in mice of each treatment group.
Conclusion
Chaihu Guizhi decoction has an antidepressant effect.
PMCID: PMC4202631  PMID: 25435607
Chaihu Guizhi Decoction; forced swimming; tail suspension test
14.  Market Survey on Traditional Medicine of the Third Month Fair in Dali Prefecture in Yunnan Province, South West China 
Background
The Third Month Fair in Dali is a historical festival and fair. The market of traditional medicine (TM) is one of the main parts in the fair, which has important influence on local and peripheral people.
Materials and Methods
In this study, approaches of ethnobotany, pharmacognosy, and participatory rural appraisal were used in market survey. Twenty-six druggists were selected randomly as informants and their TMs were recorded.
Results
As a result, 427 TMs were recorded including 362 plant medicines, 33 animal medicines, 13 mineral medicines and 19 unidentified medicines. Xinyi, Shanza and Gancao were the most popular medicines due to their popular usages, whereas Sanqi, Tianma and Renshen were relatively fewer in this investigation probably owing to high price and limited output. The plant medicines were from medicinal plants of 117 families belonged to Angiosperm, Gymnospermae, Pteridophyta, Bryophyta, Lichenes and Fungi. Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Fabaceae provided the maximum numbers of TMs successively. Moreover, these TMs were mainly from the cultivated especially familiar TMs, which reflected significant progress in utilization and conservation of medicinal resource in China.
Conclusion
Medicinal market in the Third Month Fair is the most important traditional bazaar in Yunnan province. This study systematically surveyed TMs in the fair for the first time, analyzing and revealing resource compositions and current market situations. These newly gathered data provided precious information for development of medicine cultivation, resource protection and market management as well as further pharmacognostical, pharmacological and clinical researches.
PMCID: PMC4202649  PMID: 25435625
Traditional medicine (TM); the Third Month Fair; market survey; plant medicine; medicinal plant
15.  Evaluation of the Anti-Arthritic Activity of the Hydroethanolic Leaf Extract of Alchornea Cordifolia in Rats 
Background
Different decoctions of Alchornea cordifolia leaves are used by Yoruba herbalists (Southwest Nigeria) for the local treatment of ulcers, rheumatic pains, febrile convulsions, and for enhancing physical performance.
Materials and Methods
In this study, the anti-arthritic effect of 100 – 400 mg/kg/day of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of Alchornea cordifolia (HEAC) was investigated in Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritic rats as a way of evaluating its efficacy in the local management of arthritis. In addition, the effects of HEAC on liver and renal function parameters as well as its effect on the antioxidant enzyme system were investigated. Arthritis was induced using 0.1 ml of 10 mg/ml of Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) following 1 h oral pretreatment and 8th day post-arthritic induction with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/day of HEAC and 3 mg/kg/day of celecoxib as the reference drug. The anti-arthritic activity of HEAC was assessed based on the ability of HEAC to alter the paw edema diameter, body weight, full blood count, renal and liver function markers, glycoprotein, lysosomal enzymes and possible antioxidant potential in the arthritic rats.
Results
Oral pretreatment with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day of HEAC produced significant (p<0.001, p<0.05 and p<0.01) reductions in the paw edema diameter in a non-dose dependent fashion in ACF-induced arthritic rats with the 100 mg/kg/day of HEAC producing the most significant anti-arthritic effect. Similarly, HEAC increased hepatic GSH levels, CAT and SOD activities suggesting possible antioxidant mechanism for its anti-arthritic effect.
Conclusion
Overall, results of this study lend credence to the folkloric use of water decoction of Alchornea cordifolia leaves against rheumatoid arthritis. However, further pharmacological investigations would be required at isolating and determining the active anti-arthritic molecule(s) in HEAC in the nearest future.
PMCID: PMC4202650  PMID: 25435626
Complete Freund's Adjuvant; Arthritis; Hydroethanolic leaf extract; Alchornea cordifolia; Rats
16.  Experimental Study on the Optimization of Extraction Process of Garlic Oil and its Antibacterial Effects 
Background
Garlic oil which is the main active constituent of garlic has a wide range of pharmacological activities, and a broad antibacterial spectrum. It also has a strong anti-cancer activity, and can significantly inhibit a variety of tumors such as liver cancer, gastric cancer and colon cancer. The objective is to study the extraction process of garlic oil and its antibacterial effects.
Materials and Methods
CO2 Supercritical extraction was used to investigate the optimal processing conditions for garlic oil extraction; filter paper test and suspension dilution test were applied to determine the bacteriostatic action of garlic oil.
Results
In the CO2 supercritical extraction experiment, factors influencing the yield of garlic oil were: extraction pressure > extraction temperature > extraction time in descending order. Range analysis showed that the optimal experimental conditions for CO2 supercritical extraction of garlic oil were extraction pressure of 15 Mpa, temperature of 40 °C, and duration of 1 h. Different concentrations of garlic oil could all inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, suggesting that garlic oil has an antibacterial effect.
Conclusion
The optimal experimental conditions for CO2 supercritical extraction of garlic oil were: extraction pressure of 15 Mpa, temperature of 40 °C, and duration of 1 h; garlic oil has an antibacterial effect.
PMCID: PMC4202651  PMID: 25435627
garlic oil; CO2; supercritical extraction; Staphylococcus aureus; Escherichia coli; Bacillus subtilis
17.  Protopine Inhibits Heterotypic Cell Adhesion in MDA-MB-231 Cells Through Down-Regulation of Multi-Adhesive Factors 
Background
A Chinese herb Corydalis yanhusuo W.T. Wang that showed anticancer and anti-angiogenesis effects in our previous studies was presented for further studies. In the present study, we studied the anticancer proliferation and adhesion effects of five alkaloids which were isolated from Corydalis yanhusuo.
Materials and Methods
MTT dose response curves, cell migration assay, cell invasion assay, as well as three types of cell adhesive assay were performed on MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. The mechanism of the compounds on inhibiting heterotypic cell adhesion were further explored by determining the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), αv-integrin, β1-integrin and β5-integrin by western blotting assay.
Results
In five tested alkaloids, only protopine exhibited anti-adhesive and anti-invasion effects in MDA-MB-231 cells, which contributed to the anti-metastasis effect of Corydalis yanhusuo. The results showed that after treatment with protopine for 90 min, the expression of EGFR, ICAM-1, αv-integrin, β1-integrin and β5-integrin were remarkably reduced.
Conclusion
The present results suggest that protopine seems to inhibit the heterotypic cell adhesion between MDA-MB-231 cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells by changing the expression of adhesive factors.
PMCID: PMC4202652  PMID: 25435628
Corydalis yanhusuo; Protopine; Adhesion; Breast cancer; Integrins
18.  Contribution of Plants and Traditional Medicines to the Disparities and Similarities in Acute Poisoning Incidents in Botswana, South Africa and Uganda 
Background
Acute poisoning incidents are one of the leading causes of morbidity and hospitalization in several countries. The purpose of this analysis was to compare the patterns of acute poisoning in three countries namely, Botswana, South Africa and Uganda; and examine the similarities and disparities in the patterns of occurrence of acute poisoning based on the sociodemographic factors of the victims, the toxic agents involved, the circumstances surrounding the incidents and their outcomes.
Materials and methods
This paper is based on the re-analysis of data that were collected from January to June 2005 by some Master of Public Health students using a similar data collection tool. A single dataset made of the original individual datasheets was constituted and analysed.
Results
Overall, it was found that the mean age of victims of acute poisoning was 20.9 ± 14.5 years; the youngest victim was a 3 months old boy from South Africa; and the oldest was a 75 years old man from Uganda. In descending order, the most common toxic agents involved in poisoning incidents were household products (46.1%), agrochemicals (18.8%), pharmaceuticals (14.0%), animal and insect bites (13.0%), food poisoning (4.5%), as well as plants and traditional medicines (3.6%). Across the three countries, acute poisoning occurred mainly by accident, but the contextual factors of each country led to a pattern of acute poisoning that showed some similarities with regard to the distribution of deliberate self-poisoning among females, teenagers, and young adult victims. There were disparities related to the differential access to toxic agents, based on the age and gender of the victims. Of the 17 deaths reported, 2 (11.7%) were due to traditional medicines; household products were implicated in fatal outcomes in all three countries, though the extent of their involvement varied from country to country.
Conclusion
Although plant and traditional medicines caused fewer cases of acute poisoning incidents, they contributed considerably to fatal outcomes.
PMCID: PMC4202653  PMID: 25435629
acute poisoning; disparity; similarity; Africa
19.  Antidiarrheal Mechanism and Ionic Profile of Carpolobia Lutea Ethanolic Stem-Bark Extract in Rats 
Background
The stem-bark extract of Carpolobia lutea (Polygalaceae), used in ethno-medicine as anti-diarrhea was pharmacologically evaluated. This was the first report of assessment of the ethanolic stem extract (ESE), of C. lutea as anti-diarrhoeal agent in rats. The anti-diarrhoeal effects, acute toxicity and ionic profile are investigated and reported.
Materials and Methods
The acute toxicity was established using Lock's method. The anti-diarrhoeal effects were demonstrated using castor oil-induced diarrheal and fluid accumulation and its effect on normal intestinal transit. The mechanism elucidated using yohimbine, isosorbide dinitrate, and diphenoxylate. The elemental and ionic profile of ESE was established using inductively coupled argon-plasma emission spectrometer and potentiometric titration respectively. The finger print of ESE was revealed by Jasco (Tokyo, Japan), HPLC and active compounds by phytochemical screening using standard procedure.
Results
The LD50 obtained is 866.025 mg/kg (i.p). The doses of 43.3, 86.6, and 173.2 mg/kg of ESE showed inhibition of castor oil-induced diarrheal (p<0.05 –0.001). The most abundant cations in the extract are potassium and phosphorus (1.00 ±0.01 and 0.80 ± 0.030 mg/g respectively); while the most abundant anions are phosphate and sulphate (33.50±7.09 and 7.19±3.29 mg/g respectively). The HPLC fingerprint of ESE revealed UV spectra of biomolecules. Phytochemical screening revealed presence of saponins, polyphenols and glycosides.
Conclusion
These investigations indicate presence of bioactive and elemental substances which could play major role in diarrheal management. This investigation justifies the use of stem-bark of C. lutea in illicit gin (akpatashi), among the Effiks in Nigeria as antidiarrheal.
PMCID: PMC4202629  PMID: 25435605
Carpolobia lutea; stem-bark extract; antidiarrheal; elemental and ionic profile
20.  Comparison of Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Flour and Starch Extract in Different Methods from Africa Locust Bean (Parkia Biglobosa) Seeds 
Background
African locust bean tree is an important food tree for both human and livestock such as husks and pods. It plays a very vital role in the rural areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate some physicochemical, mineral characteristics and functional properties of flour and starch extract produced from Parkia biglobosa seeds, using different methods.
Materials and Methods
Three different methods were used for starch extraction in other to get the Starch yield (%),composition analysis for; moisture, protein, fat, ash and fiber contents of flour and starch extracts from Parkia biglobosa were determined on dry basis (db), by AACC method, color and PH value measurements was carried out using color flex spectrocolorimeter, and the official method of AOAC respectively. Pasting properties was determined and X-ray powder starch diffraction was used to examine the crystalline property of flour and starch extract. Gelatinization characteristics and in vitro starch digestibility were also determined, test results were processed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).
Results
Flour showed higher (P < 0.05), moisture content, fat, carbohydrate, amylopectine, and protein content than starch, while amylose content of this starch was higher (P<0.05). Phosphorus, sodium, magnesium, and potassium minerals content were higher in flour than starch. Pasting properties, gelatinisation, color, pH values, water and oil absorption capacity content of the flour were found to be higher than that of starch. The pasting characteristics showed a decrease of viscosity, final viscosity, set back value, breakdown, and pasting temperature of flour when compared to that of starch.
Conclusion
From our results, we speculate that flour from native Parkia biglobosa grown in Guinea under controlled environmental conditions could be considered as an ideal RS material, whereas the extract Parkia starch could be an ideal SDS material. Therefore, these may offer an interesting alternative for food developers, depending on their characteristics and functional properties.
PMCID: PMC4202630  PMID: 25435606
Parkia biglobosa; flour; starches extract; physicochemical and pasting properties
21.  Improved Growth and Colchicine Concentration in Gloriosa Superba on Mycorrhizal Inoculation Supplemented with Phosphorus-Fertilizer 
Background
Gloriosa superba produces an array of alkaloids including colchicine, a compound of interest in the treatment of various diseases. The tuber of Gloriosa superba is a rich source of colchicine which has shown anti-gout, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor activity. However, this promising compound remains expensive and Gloriosa superba is such a good source in global scale. Increase in yield of naturally occurring colchicine is an important area of investigation.
Materials and Methods
The effects of inoculation by four arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM), fungi, Glomus mossae, Glomus fasciculatum, Gigaspora margarita and Gigaspora gilmorei either alone or supplemented with P-fertilizer, on colchicine concentration in Gloriosa superba were studied. The concentration of colchicine was determined by high-performance thin layer chromatography.
Results
The four fungi significantly increased concentration of colchicine in the herb. Although there was significant increase in concentration of colchicine in non-mycorrhizal P-fertilized plants as compared to control, the extent of the increase was less compared to mycorrhizal plants grown with or without P-fertilization. This suggests that the increase in colchicine concentration may not be entirely attributed to enhanced P-nutrition and improved growth. Among the four AM fungi Glomus mossae was found to be best. The total colchicine content of plant (mg / plant) was significantly high in plants inoculated with Glomus mossae and 25 mg kg−1phosphorus fertilizer (348.9 mg /plant) while the control contain least colchicine (177.87 mg / plant).
Conclusion
The study suggests a potential role of AM fungi in improving the concentration of colchicine in Gloriosa superba tuber.
PMCID: PMC4202654  PMID: 25435630
Gloriosa superba; colchicine; Arbuscular mycorrhiza; Phosphorus fertilizer
22.  Hepatoprotective Effect of Cymbopogon Citratus Aqueous Extract Against Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Liver Injury in Male Rats 
Background
Cymbopogon citratus (Poaceae) a tropical perennial herb plant that is widely cultivated to be eaten either fresh with food or dried in tea or soft drink has been reported to possess a number of medicinal and aromatic properties. This study aimed at evaluating the protective effects of C. citratus aqueous extract against liver injury induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), in male rats.
Materials and Methods
Twenty-five rats were randomly divided into five different groups of five animals in each group; (1) Control. (2) Received H2O2 (0.5%) with drinking water. (3), and (4) received H2O2 and C. citratus (100 mg·kg−1 b wt), vitamin C (250 mg·kg−1 b wt) respectively. (5), was given C. citratus alone. The treatments were administered for 30 days. Blood samples were collected and serum was used for biochemical assay including liver enzymes activities, total protein, total bilirubin and malonaldehyde, glutathione in serum and liver homogenates. Liver was excised and routinely processed for histological examinations.
Results
C. citratus attenuated liver damage due to H2O2 administration as indicated by the significant reduction (p<0.05), in the elevated levels of ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, TB, and MDA in serum and liver homogenates; increase in TP and GSH levels in serum and liver homogenates; and improvement of liver histo-pathological changes. These effects of the extract were similar to that of vitamin C which used as antioxidant reference.
Conclusion
C. citratus could effectively ameliorate H2O2-induced oxidative stress and prevent liver injury in male rats.
PMCID: PMC4202655  PMID: 25435631
Cymbopogon citratus; Vitamin C; Hydrogen peroxide; Rat; Liver enzymes; Serum proteins; Histopathology
23.  Antimicrobial and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Pleurostylia Capensis Turcz (Loes) (Celastraceae) 
Background
Pleurostylia capensis is a large tree that can reach the maximum height of 20 m long, and it have been traditionally used as cosmetic, for steam bath, ritual body wash, and as a purgative to treat symptoms of witchcraft. Using ethanol, chloroform, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EA), and water extracts, leaves, bark and roots of Pleurostylia capensis were investigated scientifically for their effectiveness in antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities using standard methods
Materials and Methods
The extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Mycobacterium smegmatis), Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Klebsiella oxytoca, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium), and Candida albicans. The antioxidant activity was investigated using 2, 2-diphenlyl-1-picrylhadrazyl (DPPH), free radical scavenging assay. The anti-inflammatory activity of P. capensis extracts was evaluated against both cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX 1 and 2).
Results
The ethyl acetate extracts of P. capensis showed a strong antimicrobial activity against B. cereus, K. pneumonia, S. pyogenes, and M. smegmatis with MIC value of 0.39 and 0.78 mg/ml. While the ethanol bark extract was most active against M. smegmatis with MIC value of 0.78 mg/ml; the least potent activity was observed with dichloromethane, chloroform and water extracts, with an MIC value ranging from 1.56 mg/ml to 50.0 mg/ml. The plant extracts proved to be good antioxidant agent, whereas extracts of ethanol were the most active, with IC50 ranging from 1.00 to 1.74 µg/ml, which is lower, and in close range to Vitamin C (1.40 µg/ml).
Conclusions
Its moderation to potent inhibitory activity was observed in all extracts. Ethanol and dichloromethane extracts were among the most potent when compared to water and petroleum ether extracts. The water extracts showed to be nontoxic on the Hek cell line with an IC50 value of 204.0, and 207.3 µg/ml (roots and bark) respectively. The dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and ethanol extracts showed to be toxic on the Hek cell, with IC50 range from 5.94 to 42.91µg/ml. The results obtained indicate the effectiveness of these plants.
PMCID: PMC4202656  PMID: 25435632
Pleurostylia capensis (P.capensis); 2, 2-diphenlyl-1-picrylhadrazyl (DPPH); Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC); Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC); Cyclooxygenase (COX)
24.  Restoration of Glutamine Synthetase Activity, Nitric Oxide Levels and Amelioration of Oxidative Stress by Propolis in Kainic Acid Mediated Excitotoxicity 
Background
Propolis has been proposed to be protective on neurodegenerative disorders. To understand the neuroprotective effects of honeybee propolis, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, nitric oxide (NO), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) were studied in different brain regions-cerebral cortex (CC), cerebellum (CB) and brain stem (BS) of rats supplemented with propolis and subjected to kainic acid (KA) mediated excitotoxicity.
Materials and Methods
Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups; Control group and KA group received vehicle and saline. Propolis group and propolis + KA group were orally administered with propolis (150mg/kg body weight), five times every 12 hours. KA group and propolis + KA group were injected subcutaneously with kainic acid (15mg/kg body weight) and were sacrificed after 2 hrs and CC, CB and BS were separated homogenized and used for estimation of GS activity, NO, TBARS, and TAS concentrations by colorimetric methods. Results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, reported as mean + SD from 6 animals, and p<0.05 considered statistically significant.
Results
NO was increased (p< 0.001) and GS activity was decreased (p< 0.001) in KA treated group compared to control group as well as propolis + KA treated group. TBARS was decreased and TAS was increased (p< 0.001) in propolis + KA treated group compared KA treated group.
Conclusion
This study clearly demonstrated the restoration of GS activity, NO levels and decreased oxidative stress by propolis in kainic acid mediated excitotoxicity. Hence the propolis can be a possible potential candidate (protective agent) against excitotoxicity and neurodegenerative disorders.
PMCID: PMC4202657  PMID: 25435633
Nitric oxide; Glutamine Synthetase; Oxidative Stress; Excitotoxicity; Propolis; Rat Brain
25.  Effect of Chronic Administration of Hexane Extract of Byrsonima Crassifolia Seed on B-Cell and Pancreatic Oxidative Parameters in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat 
Background
In Mexican traditional medicine, the seeds of Byrsonima crassifolia have been used in the treatment of diabetes, rheumatism and for wound healing. The aim was to evaluate the effect of seeds of B. crassifolia on insulin release from the pancreatic beta cells in streptozotocininduced diabetic rats.
Materials and Methods
In the present study, we evaluated the beneficial effect of seeds B. crassifolia streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic rats. Insulin level; insulin sensitivity index, insulin content in pancreas, malonaldehyde, nitric oxide contents, oxidative stress parameters were assayed. Serum glucose levels were determined by the glucose oxidase method. To determine the insulin releasing activity, after extract treatment, the pancreas was excised. Pancreatic sections were processed for examination of insulin-releasing activity using an imunocytochemistry kit.
Results
Administration of the hexane extract (200 and 400 mg/kg), exhibited a significant reduction in serum glucose. Administration of streptozotocin decreased the number of beta cells with insulin secretory activity in comparison with intact rats; but treatment with the B. crassifolia seed extract increased significantly the activity of the beta cells in comparison with the diabetic control rats. The extract decreased serum glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and increased insulin release from the beta cells of the pancreas.
Conclusion
These finding suggest that B. crassifolia seed has beneficial effect for diabetes through decreasing blood glucose and lipid levels, increasing insulin sensitivity index and insulin content, up-regulating antioxidant enzyme activity and decreasing lipid peroxidation.
PMCID: PMC4202625  PMID: 25435601
Byrsonima crassifolia; pancreatic β-cells; antioxidant enzyme; hypoglycaemia rats

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