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1.  Prevalence of XMRV Nucleic Acid and Antibody in HIV-1-Infected Men and in Men at Risk for HIV-1 Infection 
Advances in virology  2011;2011:268214.
Xenotropic MLV-Related Virus (XMRV) was recently reported to be associated with prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Infection was also reported in 3.7% of healthy individuals. These highly reported frequencies of infection prompted concerns about the possibility of a new, widespread retroviral epidemic. The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) provides an opportunity to assess the prevalence of XMRV infection and its association with HIV-1 infection among men who have sex with men. Reliable detection of XMRV infection requires the application of multiple diagnostic methods, including detection of human antibodies to XMRV and detection of XMRV nucleic acid. We, therefore, tested 332 patient plasma and PBMC samples obtained from recent visits in a subset of patients in the MACS cohort for XMRV antibodies using Abbott prototype ARCHITECT chemiluminescent immunoassays (CMIAs) and for XMRV RNA and proviral DNA using a XMRV single-copy qPCR assay (X-SCA). Although 9 of 332 (2.7%) samples showed low positive reactivity against a single antigen in the CMIA, none of these samples or matched controls were positive for plasma XMRV RNA or PBMC XMRV DNA by X-SCA. Thus, we found no evidence of XMRV infection among men in the MACS regardless of HIV-1 serostatus.
doi:10.1155/2011/268214
PMCID: PMC3265298  PMID: 22282703
2.  Xenotropic and Other Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Viruses in Humans 
Advances in Virology  2011;2011:787394.
doi:10.1155/2011/787394
PMCID: PMC3268338  PMID: 22312353
3.  Deciphering the Multifaceted Relationship between Oncolytic Viruses and Natural Killer Cells 
Advances in Virology  2011;2012:702839.
Despite active research in virotherapy, this apparently safe modality has not achieved widespread success. The immune response to viral infection appears to be an essential factor that determines the efficacy of oncolytic viral therapy. The challenge is determining whether the viral-elicited immune response is a hindrance or a tool for viral treatment. NK cells are a key component of innate immunity that mediates antiviral immunity while also coordinating tumor clearance. Various reports have suggested that the NK response to oncolytic viral therapy is a critical factor in premature viral clearance while also mediating downstream antitumor immunity. As a result, particular attention should be given to the NK cell response to various oncolytic viral vectors and how their antiviral properties can be suppressed while maintaining tumor clearance. In this review we discuss the current literature on the NK response to oncolytic viral infection and how future studies clarify this intricate response.
doi:10.1155/2012/702839
PMCID: PMC3263705  PMID: 22312364
4.  Internally Controlled, Generic Real-Time PCR for Quantification and Multiplex Real-Time PCR with Serotype-Specific Probes for Serotyping of Dengue Virus Infections 
Advances in Virology  2011;2011:514681.
Dengue has become a global public health problem and a sensitive diagnostic test for early phase detection can be life saving. An internally controlled, generic real-time PCR was developed and validated by testing serial dilutions of a DENV positive control RNA in the presence of a fixed amount of IC with results showing a good linearity (R2 = 0.9967) and a LOD of at least 1.95 × 104 copies/mL. Application of the generic PCR on 136 patient samples revealed a sensitivity of 95.8% and specificity of 100%. A newly developed multiplex real-time PCR with serotype-specific probes allowed the serotyping of DENV for 80 out of 92 (87%) generic real-time PCR positive patients. Combined these real-time PCRs offer a convenient diagnostic tool for the sensitive and specific quantification of DENV in clinical specimens with the possibility for serotyping.
doi:10.1155/2011/514681
PMCID: PMC3263855  PMID: 22312344
5.  Antiviral and Virucidal Activities of Nα-Cocoyl-L-Arginine Ethyl Ester 
Advances in Virology  2011;2011:572868.
Various amino acid-derived compounds, for example, Nα-Cocoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester (CAE), alkyloxyhydroxylpropylarginine, arginine cocoate, and cocoyl glycine potassium salt (Amilite), were examined for their virucidal activities against herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), influenza A virus (IAV), and poliovirus type 1 (PV-1) in comparison to benzalkonium chloride (BKC) and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) as a cationic and anionic control detergent and also to other commercially available disinfectants. While these amino acid-derived compounds were all effective against HSV-1 and HSV-2, CAE and Amilite were the most effective. These two compounds were, however, not as effective against IAV, another enveloped virus, as against HSV. Cytotoxicity of CAE was weak; at 0.012%, only 5% of the cells were killed under the conditions, in which 100% cells were killed by either SDS or BKC. In addition to these direct virucidal effects, CAE inhibited the virus growth in the HSV-1- or PV-1-infected cells even at 0.01%. These results suggest a potential application of CAE as a therapeutic or preventive medicine against HSV superficial infection at body surface.
doi:10.1155/2011/572868
PMCID: PMC3265308  PMID: 22312346
6.  Imaging Early Steps of Sindbis Virus Infection by Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy 
Advances in Virology  2011;2011:535206.
Sindbis virus (SINV) is an alphavirus that has a broad host range and has been widely used as a vector for recombinant gene transduction, DNA-based vaccine production, and oncolytic cancer therapy. The mechanism of SINV entry into host cells has yet to be fully understood. In this paper, we used single virus tracking under total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) to investigate SINV attachment to cell surface. Biotinylated viral particles were labeled with quantum dots, which retained viral viability and infectivity. By time-lapse imaging, we showed that the SINV exhibited a heterogeneous dynamics on the surface of the host cells. Analysis of SINV motility demonstrated a two-step attachment reaction. Moreover, dual color TIRFM of GFP-Rab5 and SINV suggested that the virus was targeted to the early endosomes after endocytosis. These findings demonstrate the utility of quantum dot labeling in studying the early steps and behavior of SINV infection.
doi:10.1155/2011/535206
PMCID: PMC3265306  PMID: 22312345
7.  Prevalence of XMRV Nucleic Acid and Antibody in HIV-1-Infected Men and in Men at Risk for HIV-1 Infection 
Advances in Virology  2011;2011:268214.
Xenotropic MLV-Related Virus (XMRV) was recently reported to be associated with prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Infection was also reported in 3.7% of healthy individuals. These highly reported frequencies of infection prompted concerns about the possibility of a new, widespread retroviral epidemic. The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) provides an opportunity to assess the prevalence of XMRV infection and its association with HIV-1 infection among men who have sex with men. Reliable detection of XMRV infection requires the application of multiple diagnostic methods, including detection of human antibodies to XMRV and detection of XMRV nucleic acid. We, therefore, tested 332 patient plasma and PBMC samples obtained from recent visits in a subset of patients in the MACS cohort for XMRV antibodies using Abbott prototype ARCHITECT chemiluminescent immunoassays (CMIAs) and for XMRV RNA and proviral DNA using a XMRV single-copy qPCR assay (X-SCA). Although 9 of 332 (2.7%) samples showed low positive reactivity against a single antigen in the CMIA, none of these samples or matched controls were positive for plasma XMRV RNA or PBMC XMRV DNA by X-SCA. Thus, we found no evidence of XMRV infection among men in the MACS regardless of HIV-1 serostatus.
doi:10.1155/2011/268214
PMCID: PMC3265298  PMID: 22282703
8.  Nucleic Acid, Antibody, and Virus Culture Methods to Detect Xenotropic MLV-Related Virus in Human Blood Samples 
Advances in Virology  2011;2011:272193.
The MLV-related retrovirus, XMRV, was recently identified and reported to be associated with both prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome. At the National Cancer Institute-Frederick, MD (NCI-Frederick), we developed highly sensitive methods to detect XMRV nucleic acids, antibodies, and replication competent virus. Analysis of XMRV-spiked samples and/or specimens from two pigtail macaques experimentally inoculated with 22Rv1 cell-derived XMRV confirmed the ability of the assays used to detect XMRV RNA and DNA, and culture isolatable virus when present, along with XMRV reactive antibody responses. Using these assays, we did not detect evidence of XMRV in blood samples (N = 134) or prostate specimens (N = 19) from two independent cohorts of patients with prostate cancer. Previous studies detected XMRV in prostate tissues. In the present study, we primarily investigated the levels of XMRV in blood plasma samples collected from patients with prostate cancer. These results demonstrate that while XMRV-related assays developed at the NCI-Frederick can readily measure XMRV nucleic acids, antibodies, and replication competent virus, no evidence of XMRV was found in the blood of patients with prostate cancer.
doi:10.1155/2011/272193
PMCID: PMC3265299  PMID: 22312339
9.  Bimolecular Complementation to Visualize Filovirus VP40-Host Complexes in Live Mammalian Cells: Toward the Identification of Budding Inhibitors 
Advances in virology  2011;2011:341816.
Virus-host interactions play key roles in promoting efficient egress of many RNA viruses, including Ebola virus (EBOV or “e”) and Marburg virus (MARV or “m”). Late- (L-) domains conserved in viral matrix proteins recruit specific host proteins, such as Tsg101 and Nedd4, to facilitate the budding process. These interactions serve as attractive targets for the development of broad-spectrum budding inhibitors. A major gap still exists in our understanding of the mechanism of filovirus budding due to the difficulty in detecting virus-host complexes and mapping their trafficking patterns in the natural environment of the cell. To address this gap, we used a bimolecular complementation (BiMC) approach to detect, localize, and follow the trafficking patterns of eVP40-Tsg101 complexes in live mammalian cells. In addition, we used the BiMC approach along with a VLP budding assay to test small molecule inhibitors identified by in silico screening for their ability to block eVP40 PTAP-mediated interactions with Tsg101 and subsequent budding of eVP40 VLPs. We demonstrated the potential broad spectrum activity of a lead candidate inhibitor by demonstrating its ability to block PTAP-dependent binding of HIV-1 Gag to Tsg101 and subsequent egress of HIV-1 Gag VLPs.
doi:10.1155/2011/341816
PMCID: PMC3217271  PMID: 22102845
10.  Murine Leukemia Viruses: Objects and Organisms 
Advances in Virology  2011;2011:403419.
Murine leukemia viruses (MLVs) are among the simplest retroviruses. Prototypical gammaretroviruses encode only the three polyproteins that will be used in the assembly of progeny virus particles. These are the Gag polyprotein, which is the structural protein of a retrovirus particle, the Pol protein, comprising the three retroviral enzymes—protease, which catalyzes the maturation of the particle, reverse transcriptase, which copies the viral RNA into DNA upon infection of a new host cell, and integrase, which inserts the DNA into the chromosomal DNA of the host cell, and the Env polyprotein, which induces the fusion of the viral membrane with that of the new host cell, initiating infection. In general, a productive MLV infection has no obvious effect upon host cells. Although gammaretroviral structure and replication follow the same broad outlines as those of other retroviruses, we point out a number of significant differences between different retroviral genera.
doi:10.1155/2011/403419
PMCID: PMC3265304  PMID: 22312342
11.  Retargeting of Viruses to Generate Oncolytic Agents 
Advances in Virology  2011;2012:798526.
Oncolytic virus therapy is based on the ability of viruses to effectively infect and kill tumor cells without destroying the normal tissues. While some viruses seem to have a natural preference for tumor cells, most viruses require the modification of their tropism to specifically enter and replicate in such cells. This review aims to describe the transductional targeting strategies currently employed to specifically redirect viruses towards surface receptors on tumor cells. Three major strategies can be distinguished; they involve (i) the incorporation of new targeting specificity into a viral surface protein, (ii) the incorporation of a scaffold into a viral surface protein to allow the attachment of targeting moieties, and (iii) the use of bispecific adapters to mediate targeting of a virus to a specified moiety on a tumor cell. Of each strategy key features, advantages and limitations are discussed and examples are given. Because of their potential to cause sustained, multiround infection—a desirable characteristic for eradicating tumors—particular attention is given to viruses engineered to become self-targeted by the genomic expression of a bispecific adapter protein.
doi:10.1155/2012/798526
PMCID: PMC3265223  PMID: 22312365
12.  Oncolytic Virotherapy for Hematological Malignancies 
Advances in Virology  2011;2012:186512.
Hematological malignancies such as leukemias, lymphomas, multiple myeloma (MM), and the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) primarily affect adults and are difficult to treat. For high-risk disease, hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) can be used. However, in the setting of autologous HCT, relapse due to contamination of the autograft with cancer cells remains a major challenge. Ex vivo manipulations of the autograft to purge cancer cells using chemotherapies and toxins have been attempted. Because these past strategies lack specificity for malignant cells and often impair the normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, prior efforts to ex vivo purge autografts have resulted in prolonged cytopenias and graft failure. The ideal ex vivo purging agent would selectively target the contaminating cancer cells while spare normal stem and progenitor cells and would be applied quickly without toxicities to the recipient. One agent which meets these criteria is oncolytic viruses. This paper details experimental progress with reovirus, myxoma virus, measles virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, coxsackievirus, and vaccinia virus as well as requirements for translation of these results to the clinic.
doi:10.1155/2012/186512
PMCID: PMC3265224  PMID: 22312362
13.  Endogenous Murine Leukemia Viruses: Relationship to XMRV and Related Sequences Detected in Human DNA Samples 
Advances in Virology  2011;2011:940210.
Xenotropic-murine-leukemia-virus-related virus (XMRV) was the first gammaretrovirus to be reported in humans. The sequence similarity between XMRV and murine leukemia viruses (MLVs) was consistent with an origin of XMRV from one or more MLVs present as endogenous proviruses in mouse genomes. Here, we review the relationship of the human and mouse virus isolates and discuss the potential complications associated with the detection of MLV-like sequences from clinical samples.
doi:10.1155/2011/940210
PMCID: PMC3265319  PMID: 22312358
14.  Naturally Occurring Polymorphisms of the Mouse Gammaretrovirus Receptors CAT-1 and XPR1 Alter Virus Tropism and Pathogenicity 
Advances in Virology  2011;2011:975801.
Gammaretroviruses of several different host range subgroups have been isolated from laboratory mice. The ecotropic viruses infect mouse cells and rely on the host CAT-1 receptor. The xenotropic/polytropic viruses, and the related human-derived XMRV, can infect cells of other mammalian species and use the XPR1 receptor for entry. The coevolution of these viruses and their receptors in infected mouse populations provides a good example of how genetic conflicts can drive diversifying selection. Genetic and epigenetic variations in the virus envelope glycoproteins can result in altered host range and pathogenicity, and changes in the virus binding sites of the receptors are responsible for host restrictions that reduce virus entry or block it altogether. These battleground regions are marked by mutational changes that have produced 2 functionally distinct variants of the CAT-1 receptor and 5 variants of the XPR1 receptor in mice, as well as a diverse set of infectious viruses, and several endogenous retroviruses coopted by the host to interfere with entry.
doi:10.1155/2011/975801
PMCID: PMC3265322  PMID: 22312361
15.  Virus Budding/Host Interactions 
Advances in Virology  2011;2011:963192.
doi:10.1155/2011/963192
PMCID: PMC3265320  PMID: 22312359
16.  Bimolecular Complementation to Visualize Filovirus VP40-Host Complexes in Live Mammalian Cells: Toward the Identification of Budding Inhibitors 
Advances in Virology  2011;2011:341816.
Virus-host interactions play key roles in promoting efficient egress of many RNA viruses, including Ebola virus (EBOV or “e”) and Marburg virus (MARV or “m”). Late- (L-) domains conserved in viral matrix proteins recruit specific host proteins, such as Tsg101 and Nedd4, to facilitate the budding process. These interactions serve as attractive targets for the development of broad-spectrum budding inhibitors. A major gap still exists in our understanding of the mechanism of filovirus budding due to the difficulty in detecting virus-host complexes and mapping their trafficking patterns in the natural environment of the cell. To address this gap, we used a bimolecular complementation (BiMC) approach to detect, localize, and follow the trafficking patterns of eVP40-Tsg101 complexes in live mammalian cells. In addition, we used the BiMC approach along with a VLP budding assay to test small molecule inhibitors identified by in silico screening for their ability to block eVP40 PTAP-mediated interactions with Tsg101 and subsequent budding of eVP40 VLPs. We demonstrated the potential broad spectrum activity of a lead candidate inhibitor by demonstrating its ability to block PTAP-dependent binding of HIV-1 Gag to Tsg101 and subsequent egress of HIV-1 Gag VLPs.
doi:10.1155/2011/341816
PMCID: PMC3217271  PMID: 22102845
17.  The Effects of Temperature and Relative Humidity on the Viability of the SARS Coronavirus 
Advances in Virology  2011;2011:734690.
The main route of transmission of SARS CoV infection is presumed to be respiratory droplets. However the virus is also detectable in other body fluids and excreta. The stability of the virus at different temperatures and relative humidity on smooth surfaces were studied. The dried virus on smooth surfaces retained its viability for over 5 days at temperatures of 22–25°C and relative humidity of 40–50%, that is, typical air-conditioned environments. However, virus viability was rapidly lost (>3 log10) at higher temperatures and higher relative humidity (e.g., 38°C, and relative humidity of >95%). The better stability of SARS coronavirus at low temperature and low humidity environment may facilitate its transmission in community in subtropical area (such as Hong Kong) during the spring and in air-conditioned environments. It may also explain why some Asian countries in tropical area (such as Malaysia, Indonesia or Thailand) with high temperature and high relative humidity environment did not have major community outbreaks of SARS.
doi:10.1155/2011/734690
PMCID: PMC3265313  PMID: 22312351
18.  Bacterial Toxin Fusion Proteins Elicit Mucosal Immunity against a Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Antigen When Administered Intranasally to Guinea Pigs 
Advances in Virology  2011;2011:713769.
Peptides corresponding to the foot-and-mouth disease virus VP1 G-H loop are capable of inducing neutralizing antibodies in some species but are considered relatively poor immunogens, especially at mucosal surfaces. However, intranasal administration of antigens along with the appropriate delivery vehicle/adjuvant has been shown to induce mucosal immune responses, and bacterial enterotoxins have long been known to be effective in this regard. In the current study, two different carrier/adjuvant approaches were used to augment mucosal immunity to the FMDV O1 BFS G-H loop epitope, in which the G-H loop was genetically coupled to the E. coli LT-B subunit and coexpressed with the LTA2 fragment (LTA2B-GH), or the nontoxic pseudomonas exotoxin A (ntPE) was fused to LTA2B-GH at LT-A2 to enhance receptor targeting. Only guinea pigs that were inoculated intranasally with ntPE-LTA2B-GH and LTA2B-GH induced significant anti-G-H loop IgA antibodies in nasal washes at weeks 4 and 6 when compared to ovalbumin or G-H loop immunized animals. These were also the only groups that exhibited G-H loop-specific antigen-secreting cells in the nasal mucosa. These data demonstrate that fusion of nonreplicating antigens to LTA2B and ntPE-LTA2B has the potential to be used as carriers/adjuvants to induce mucosal immune responses against infectious diseases.
doi:10.1155/2011/713769
PMCID: PMC3265312  PMID: 22312350
19.  Artificial 64-Residue HIV-1 Enhancer-Binding Peptide Is a Potent Inhibitor of Viral Replication in HIV-1-Infected Cells 
Advances in Virology  2011;2011:165871.
An artificial HIV-1 enhancer-binding peptide was extended by nine consecutive arginine residues at the C-terminus and by the nuclear localization signal of SV40 large T antigen at the N-terminus. The resulting synthetic 64-residue peptide was found to bind to the two enhancers of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat, cross the plasma membrane and the nuclear envelope of human cells, and suppress the HIV-1 enhancer-controlled expression of a green fluorescent protein reporter gene. Moreover, HIV-1 replication is inhibited by this peptide in HIV-1-infected CEM-GFP cells as revealed by HIV-1 p24 ELISA and real-time RT-PCR of HIV-1 RNA. Rapid uptake of this intracellular stable and inhibitory peptide into the cells implies that this peptide may have the potential to attenuate HIV-1 replication in vivo.
doi:10.1155/2011/165871
PMCID: PMC3265293  PMID: 22312334
20.  Requirements for Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Glycoproteins in Assembly and Egress from Infected Cells 
Advances in virology  2011;2011:343408.
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is an enveloped RNA virus that assembles and buds from the plasma membrane of infected cells. The ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP) must associate with the viral matrix protein and glycoproteins to form newly infectious particles prior to budding. The viral proteins involved in HRSV assembly and egress are mostly unexplored. We investigated whether the glycoproteins of HRSV were involved in the late stages of viral replication by utilizing recombinant viruses where each individual glycoprotein gene was deleted and replaced with a reporter gene to maintain wild-type levels of gene expression. These engineered viruses allowed us to study the roles of the glycoproteins in assembly and budding in the context of infectious virus. Microscopy data showed that the F glycoprotein was involved in the localization of the glycoproteins with the other viral proteins at the plasma membrane. Biochemical analyses showed that deletion of the F and G proteins affected incorporation of the other viral proteins into budded virions. However, efficient viral release was unaffected by the deletion of any of the glycoproteins individually or in concert. These studies attribute a novel role to the F and G proteins in viral protein localization and assembly.
doi:10.1155/2011/343408
PMCID: PMC3175114  PMID: 21931576
21.  Arenavirus Budding 
Advances in Virology  2011;2011:180326.
Several arenaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever disease in humans and pose a significant public health concern in their endemic regions. On the other hand, the prototypic arenavirus LCMV is a superb workhorse for the investigation of virus-host interactions and associated disease. The arenavirus small RING finger protein called Z has been shown to be the main driving force of virus budding. The budding activity of Z is mediated by late (L) domain motifs, PT/SAP, and PPXY, located at the C-terminus of Z. This paper will present the current knowledge on arenavirus budding including the diversity of L domain motifs used by different arenaviruses. We will also discuss how improved knowledge of arenavirus budding may facilitate the development of novel antiviral strategies to combat human pathogenic arenaviruses.
doi:10.1155/2011/180326
PMCID: PMC3265294  PMID: 22312335
22.  Lack of Detection of Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus in HIV-1 Lymphoma Patients 
Advances in Virology  2011;2011:797820.
Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a gammaretrovirus reported to be associated with human prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome. Since retroviruses cause various cancers, and XMRV replication might be facilitated by HIV-1 co-infection, we asked whether certain patients with HIV-associated lymphomas are infected with XMRV. Analysis of PMBCs and plasma from 26 patients failed to detect XMRV by PCR, ELISA, or Western blot, suggesting a lack of association between XMRV and AIDS-associated lymphomas.
doi:10.1155/2011/797820
PMCID: PMC3265315  PMID: 22312354
23.  Phylogeny-Directed Search for Murine Leukemia Virus-Like Retroviruses in Vertebrate Genomes and in Patients Suffering from Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Prostate Cancer 
Advances in Virology  2011;2011:341294.
Gammaretrovirus-like sequences occur in most vertebrate genomes. Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV) like retroviruses (MLLVs) are a subset, which may be pathogenic and spread cross-species. Retroviruses highly similar to MLLVs (xenotropic murine retrovirus related virus (XMRV) and Human Mouse retrovirus-like RetroViruses (HMRVs)) reported from patients suffering from prostate cancer (PC) and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) raise the possibility that also humans have been infected. Structurally intact, potentially infectious MLLVs occur in the genomes of some mammals, especially mouse. Mouse MLLVs contain three major groups. One, MERV G3, contained MLVs and XMRV/HMRV. Its presence in mouse DNA, and the abundance of xenotropic MLVs in biologicals, is a source of false positivity. Theoretically, XMRV/HMRV could be one of several MLLV transspecies infections. MLLV pathobiology and diversity indicate optimal strategies for investigating XMRV/HMRV in humans and raise ethical concerns. The alternatives that XMRV/HMRV may give a hard-to-detect “stealth” infection, or that XMRV/HMRV never reached humans, have to be considered.
doi:10.1155/2011/341294
PMCID: PMC3265301  PMID: 22315600
24.  The Paradox of Feline Coronavirus Pathogenesis: A Review 
Advances in Virology  2011;2011:109849.
Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is an enveloped single-stranded RNA virus, of the family Coronaviridae and the order Nidovirales. FCoV is an important pathogen of wild and domestic cats and can cause a mild or apparently symptomless enteric infection, especially in kittens. FCoV is also associated with a lethal, systemic disease known as feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Although the precise cause of FIP pathogenesis remains unclear, some hypotheses have been suggested. In this review we present results from different FCoV studies and attempt to elucidate existing theories on the pathogenesis of FCoV infection.
doi:10.1155/2011/109849
PMCID: PMC3265210  PMID: 22312333
25.  MoMuLV-ts-1: A Unique Mouse Model of Retrovirus-Induced Lymphoma Transmitted by Breast Milk 
Advances in Virology  2011;2011:813651.
Our laboratory has developed a murine model of lymphoma via breast milk transmission of MoMuLV-ts-1 (Moloney murine leukemia virus-temperature sensitive mutant-1). Uninfected offspring suckled from infected surrogate mothers become infected and develop lymphoma. Multiple gene integration sites of ts-1 into the infected mouse genome including tacc3, aurka, ndel1, tpx2, p53, and rhamm were identified, and mRNA expressions were quantitated. These genes produce centrosomal proteins, which may be involved in abnormal chromosomal segregation leading to aneuploidy or multiploidy, thus causing lymphoma. Since there is no report to date on this retroviral model leading to centrosomal abnormality, and causing lymphoma development, this is a valuable and unique model to study the centrosomal involvement in lymphomagenesis.
doi:10.1155/2011/813651
PMCID: PMC3265316  PMID: 22312355

Results 1-25 (48)