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1.  Pelvic Muscle Rehabilitation: A Standardized Protocol for Pelvic Floor Dysfunction 
Advances in Urology  2014;2014:487436.
Introduction. Pelvic floor dysfunction syndromes present with voiding, sexual, and anorectal disturbances, which may be associated with one another, resulting in complex presentation. Thus, an integrated diagnosis and management approach may be required. Pelvic muscle rehabilitation (PMR) is a noninvasive modality involving cognitive reeducation, modification, and retraining of the pelvic floor and associated musculature. We describe our standardized PMR protocol for the management of pelvic floor dysfunction syndromes. Pelvic Muscle Rehabilitation Program. The diagnostic assessment includes electromyography and manometry analyzed in 4 phases: (1) initial baseline phase; (2) rapid contraction phase; (3) tonic contraction and endurance phase; and (4) late baseline phase. This evaluation is performed at the onset of every session. PMR management consists of 6 possible therapeutic modalities, employed depending on the diagnostic evaluation: (1) down-training; (2) accessory muscle isolation; (3) discrimination training; (4) muscle strengthening; (5) endurance training; and (6) electrical stimulation. Eight to ten sessions are performed at one-week intervals with integration of home exercises and lifestyle modifications. Conclusions. The PMR protocol offers a standardized approach to diagnose and manage pelvic floor dysfunction syndromes with potential advantages over traditional biofeedback, involving additional interventions and a continuous pelvic floor assessment with management modifications over the clinical course.
PMCID: PMC4071781
2.  Transpubic Urethroplasty: A Single Center Experience 
Advances in Urology  2014;2014:826710.
Objective. To evaluate the long-term results of transpubic urethroplasty for pelvic fracture urethral distraction defects. Patients and Methods. Sixteen patients who had undergone transpubic urethroplasty for posttraumatic complex posterior urethral disruptions between 2007 and 2013 were analyzed retrospectively and prospectively. Patients were followed up for a mean (range) of 24 (6–60) months by history, urinary flow rate estimate, retrograde urethrography, and voiding cystourethrography. Results. The mean age of the patients was 30.4 years. The estimated radiographic stricture length before surgery was 4.3 cm. Transpubic urethroplasty was successful in 14 out of 16 patients. Postoperative complications were recurrent stricture (12.5%), urethrocutaneous fistula (12.5%), incontinence (31.25%), impotence (25%), and wound infection (18.75%). Failed repairs were successfully managed endoscopically in one patient and by perineal anastomotic repair in the other, giving a final success rate of 100%. Five out of 16 patients were incontinent of which 3 of them resolved and 2 had permanent incontinence. Impotence was seen in 4 out of 16 patients. There were no reported complications of pubectomy in any of our patients. Conclusions. Though considered obsolete now, transpubic urethroplasty for complex posterior urethral disruptions is still a viable alternative with excellent results and minimal morbidity.
PMCID: PMC4070283
3.  US Pilot Study of Lumbar to Sacral Nerve Rerouting to Restore Voiding and Bowel Function in Spina Bifida: 3-Year Experience 
Advances in Urology  2014;2014:863209.
Objective. To report our experience with creating a skin-central nervous system-bladder reflex arc with intradural lumbar to sacral motor root microanastomosis to restore bladder/bowel function in spina bifida patients. Methods. Urinary/bowel changes from baseline to three years were evaluated with questionnaires, voiding diaries, urodynamics (UDS), and renal function studies. Treatment response was defined as CIC ≤ once/day with stable renal function, voiding efficiency > 50%, and no worsening of motor function. Results. Of 13 subjects (9 female, median age 8 years), 3 voided small amounts at baseline, one voided 200 cc (voiding efficiency 32%), 4/13 reported normal bowels, and 2/13 were continent of stool. Postoperatively, all had transient lower extremity weakness; one developed permanent foot drop. Over three years, renal function remained stable and mean maximum cystometric capacity (MCC) increased (P = 0.0135). In the 10 that returned at 3 years, 7 were treatment responders and 9 had discontinued antimuscarinics, but most still leaked urine. Only 2/8 with baseline neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) still had NDO, all 3 with compliance <10 mL/cm H2O had normalized, 7/10 considered their bowels normal, 5/10 were continent of stool, and 8/10 would undergo the procedure again. Conclusion. Lumbar to sacral nerve rerouting can improve elimination in spina bifida patients. This trial is registered with NCT00378664.
PMCID: PMC4060389  PMID: 24987412
4.  Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Use in Bladder Cancer: A Survey of Current Practice and Opinions 
Advances in Urology  2014;2014:746298.
Objectives. Level 1 evidence supports the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) to improve overall survival in muscle invasive bladder cancer; however utilization rates remain low. The aims of our study were to determine factors associated with NAC use, to more clearly define reasons for low utilization, and to determine the current rate of NAC use among urologic oncologists. Materials and Methods. Active members of the Society for Urologic Oncology were provided a 20-question survey. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted for each question and univariate analysis was performed. Results. We achieved a response rate of 21%. Clinical T3/T4 disease was the most often selected reason for recommending NAC (87%). Concerns with recommending NAC were age and comorbidities (54%) followed by delay in surgery (35%). An association was identified between urologic oncologists who discussed NAC with >90% of their patients and medical oncologists “always” recommending NAC (P = 0.0009). NAC utilization rate was between 30 and 57%. Conclusions. Amongst this highly specialized group of respondents, clinical T3-T4 disease was the most common reason for implementation of NAC. Respondents who frequently discussed NAC were more likely to report their medical oncologist always recommending NAC. Reported NAC use was higher in this surveyed group (30–57%) compared with recently published rates.
PMCID: PMC4058463  PMID: 24982672
5.  Trends in the Rates of Pediatric Pyeloplasty for Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction over 19 Years: A PHIS Database Study 
Advances in Urology  2014;2014:142625.
Background. Over the past 20 years, the management of ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJ) has shifted. While many urologists note a decrease in the number of pyeloplasties performed over time, the nature of the change in practice has yet to be defined. In the current study, we utilize a national, multi-institutional database of children's hospitals to evaluate trends in patients undergoing pyeloplasty as well as the rate of surgical reconstruction over the past 20 years. Material/Methods. We queried the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database for all children undergoing primary pyeloplasty between 1992 and 2011. Clinical variables, including age at time of surgery, gender, length of stay (LOS), and geographic region, were determined. Age-adjusted rate of repair was also calculated per 100,000 PHIS inpatients. Results. 6,013 patients were included in the study, of which 71.6% were male and 64.2% were under the age of 24 months at time of surgery. Over the study period, the median age at time of surgery increased from 2–4 months to 12–14 months (P < 0.01). LOS decreased from a median of 5 days to 2 days (P < 0.001). The rate of surgery increased by 10.6 pyeloplasties per 100,000 PHIS inpatients from 1992 to 2011 (P < 0.01). The highest rate of pyeloplasty was in the northeast. The increase in pyeloplasties performed from 1992 to 1999 was specific to children aged greater than 24 months, while rates stayed the same in infants younger than 2 years during the same time period. In contrast, from 1999 to 2011, the rate of pyeloplasty decreased in patients less than 2 years of age, while the rate remained constant in patients over age 2. Conclusion. The rate of pyeloplasty increased in PHIS hospitals from 1992 to 2011. Trends are due to an increase in surgery in infants younger than 2 years from 1992 to 1999, followed by a progressive surgical rate decline, characterized by a shift towards patients older than 2 years of age.
PMCID: PMC4052929  PMID: 24949008
6.  Incidental Prostate Cancer in Transurethral Resection of the Prostate Specimens in the Modern Era 
Advances in Urology  2014;2014:627290.
Objectives. To identify rates of incidentally detected prostate cancer in patients undergoing surgical management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Materials and Methods. A retrospective review was performed on all transurethral resections of the prostate (TURP) regardless of technique from 2006 to 2011 at a single tertiary care institution. 793 men (ages 45–90) were identified by pathology specimen. Those with a known diagnosis of prostate cancer prior to TURP were excluded (n = 22) from the analysis. Results. 760 patients had benign pathology; eleven (1.4%) patients were found to have prostate cancer. Grade of disease ranged from Gleason 3 + 3 = 6 to Gleason 3 + 4 = 7. Nine patients had cT1a disease and two had cT1b disease. Seven patients were managed by active surveillance with no further events, one patient underwent radiation, and three patients underwent radical prostatectomy. Conclusions. Our series demonstrates that 1.4% of patients were found to have prostate cancer, of these 0.5% required treatment. Given the low incidental prostate cancer detection rate, the value of pathologic review of TURP specimens may be limited depending on the patient population.
PMCID: PMC4022114  PMID: 24876835
7.  Impact of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Pharmacological Treatment on Transrectal Prostate Biopsy Adverse Effects 
Advances in Urology  2014;2014:271304.
Background. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) pharmacological treatment may promote a decrease in prostate vascularization and bladder neck relaxation with theoretical improvement in prostate biopsy morbidity, though never explored in the literature. Methods. Among 242 consecutive unselected patients who underwent prostate biopsy, after excluding those with history of prostate biopsy/surgery or using medications not for BPH, we studied 190 patients. On the 15th day after procedure patients were questioned about symptoms lasting over a week and classified according to pharmacological BPH treatment. Results. Thirty-three patients (17%) were using alpha-blocker exclusively, five (3%) 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor exclusively, twelve (6%) patients used both medications, and 140 (74%) patients used none. There was no difference in regard to age among groups (P = 0.5). Postbiopsy adverse effects occurred as follows: hematuria 96 (50%), hematospermia 53 (28%), hematochezia 22 (12%), urethrorrhagia 19 (10%), fever 5 (3%), and pain 20 (10%). There was a significant negative correlation between postbiopsy hematuria and BPH pharmacological treatment with stronger correlation for combined use of 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor and alpha-blocker over 6 months (P = 0.0027). Conclusion. BPH pharmacological treatment, mainly combined for at least 6 months seems to protect against prostate biopsy adverse effects. Future studies are necessary to confirm our novel results.
PMCID: PMC4022253  PMID: 24876834
8.  Pathologic Outcomes following Urethral Diverticulectomy in Women 
Advances in Urology  2014;2014:861940.
Purpose. Although most urethral diverticula in women are benign, there is a subset of patients who develop malignant changes. Limited studies report the pathologic findings associated with this relatively rare entity. We describe the clinicopathologic findings of women who underwent urethral diverticulectomy. Methods. A consecutive series of 29 women who underwent surgical resection of a urethral diverticulum were identified between 1992 and 2013. Clinical and radiographic data was collected by retrospective review of patient medical records. All pathological slides were rereviewed by a single urologic pathologist. Results. Of the 14 women with clinical data, 9 (64%) presented with urgency, 7 (50%) with urinary frequency, 3 (21%) with urinary incontinence, and 3 (21%) with dysuria. Mean diverticular size was 2.3 (±1.4) cm. Although one patient (3%) had invasive adenocarcinoma on final pathology, the remaining 28 cases (97%) demonstrated benign features. The most common findings were inflammation (55%) and nephrogenic adenoma (21%). Conclusions. Although most urethral diverticula in women are benign, there is a subset of patients who develop malignancy in association with the diverticulum. In this series, 97% of cases had a benign histology. These findings are important when counseling patients regarding treatment options.
PMCID: PMC4016828  PMID: 24860605
9.  Mechanisms Predisposing Penile Fracture and Long-Term Outcomes on Erectile and Voiding Functions 
Advances in Urology  2014;2014:768158.
Purpose. To determine the mechanisms predisposing penile fracture as well as the rate of long-term penile deformity and erectile and voiding functions. Methods. All fractures were repaired on an emergency basis via subcoronal incision and absorbable suture with simultaneous repair of eventual urethral lesion. Patients' status before fracture and voiding and erectile functions at long term were assessed by periodic follow-up and phone call. Detailed history included cause, symptoms, and single-question self-report of erectile and voiding functions. Results. Among the 44 suspicious cases, 42 (95.4%) were confirmed, mean age was 34.5 years (range: 18–60), mean follow-up 59.3 months (range 9–155). Half presented the classical triad of audible crack, detumescence, and pain. Heterosexual intercourse was the most common cause (28 patients, 66.7%), followed by penile manipulation (6 patients, 14.3%), and homosexual intercourse (4 patients, 9.5%). “Woman on top” was the most common heterosexual position (n = 14, 50%), followed by “doggy style” (n = 8, 28.6%). Four patients (9.5%) maintained the cause unclear. Six (14.3%) patients had urethral injury and two (4.8%) had erectile dysfunction, treated by penile prosthesis and PDE-5i. No patient showed urethral fistula, voiding deterioration, penile nodule/curve or pain. Conclusions. “Woman on top” was the potentially riskiest sexual position (50%). Immediate surgical treatment warrants long-term very low morbidity.
PMCID: PMC4005103  PMID: 24822062
10.  Overexpression of Aquaporin 1 in the Tunica Vaginalis May Contribute to Adult-Onset Primary Hydrocele Testis 
Advances in Urology  2014;2014:202434.
To investigate the cause of the adult-onset primary noncommunicating hydrocele testis, protein expressions of water channel aquaporins (AQPs) 1 and 3 in the tunica vaginalis were assessed. Frozen tunica vaginalis specimens from patients with adult-onset primary hydrocele testis and control male nonhydrocele patients were subjected to Western blot analysis for the detection of AQP1 and AQP3 proteins. Paraffin-embedded sections of tunica vaginalis specimens were histochemically stained with anti-AQP1 and anti-AQP3 antibodies as well as an anti-podoplanin antibody to stain lymphatic endothelia. Hydrocele fluid was subjected to biochemical analysis. AQP1 protein expression in the tunica vaginalis was significantly higher in patients with adult-onset hydrocele testis than in the controls. The AQP3 protein was not detected in the tunica vaginalis. Histochemically, AQP1 expression in the tunica vaginalis was localized in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. The densities of AQP1-expressing capillaries and lymphatic vessels were similar between the tunica vaginalis of the controls and those of hydrocele patients. Sodium levels were higher in the hydrocele fluid than in the serum. In conclusion, overexpression of the AQP1 protein in individual capillary endothelial cells of the tunica vaginalis may contribute to the development of adult-onset primary noncommunicating hydrocele testis as another aquaporin-related disease.
PMCID: PMC4000961  PMID: 24817884
11.  Does an Association between the Idiopathic Left-Sided Varicocele and Eye Colour Exist? 
Advances in Urology  2014;2014:524570.
The possible interrelation between male reproductive disorders and iris pigmentation is poorly understood. We have found a link between eye colour and the existence of adolescent varicocele. Therefore, we aimed to extend our investigation on the relationship between the eye colour and varicocele in adult men. 231 andrology outpatients from Caucasian origin were included in the study. The presence of varicocele, sperm disturbances, and the iris pigment of the patients were investigated. Left-sided varicocele was found in 93 adults. In the group of light-eyed men the prevalence of varicocele was significantly lower than among the dark-eyed men (15% versus 59.5%, P < 0.001). No associations were found between the eye colour and disturbances in semen parameters in males with varicocele (P = 0.419) and in those without varicocele (P = 0.586). The present results in adult men suggest that the prevalence of varicocele could be associated with the iris pigment. A possible genetic linkage between the eye colour and the susceptibility to some disorders like varicocele could not be excluded. However, the iris pigmentation seems not to have a direct relationship with the sperm disturbances.
PMCID: PMC3997988  PMID: 24803926
12.  Structured Self-Rated Response to Iontophoresis with Verapamil and Dexamethasone in Peyronie's Disease 
Advances in Urology  2014;2014:957013.
Introduction. New therapies evolve for the treatment of Peyronie's disease (PD) including the application of dexamethasone and verapamil using Electro Motive Drug Administration (EMDA). Patients and Methods. Patients with PD were routinely offered Potaba, Vitamin E, tamoxifen or colchicine for 6 to 18 months and for those with no improvement, 18 applications of dexamethasone and verapamil using EMDA occurred over a 6 week period. All 30 patients receiving EMDA therapy completed a questionnaire before and after treatment. The data was collected from December 2004 to November 2009 and analysed to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment. Results. Median age of patients was 59 (range 39–71). Curvature was the most common presenting complaint (73.3%) followed by pain (23.3%), erectile dysfunction (13.3%), and lump (13.3%). 24/30 (80%) reported an improvement in symptoms after EMDA. 16 of the responders (66.7%) had a stable plaque for at least 6 months. The patients who complained of shortening of the penis (P = 0.003) or lowered sexual desire (P = 0.024) expressed subsequently significant response to treatment. There was statistically significant (P = 0.019) improvement of penile deviation reported by responding men. Conclusion. A significant proportion of patients who received EMDA reported decreased curvature following iontophoresis. No serious adverse reactions developed.
PMCID: PMC3996318  PMID: 24803927
13.  The Role of Virtual Cystoscopy, after Multidetector Computed Tomography Imaging Reconstruction without the Use of Contrast Medium, in the Diagnosis and Evaluations of Bladder Tumors: Preliminary Study 
Advances in Urology  2014;2014:923958.
Introduction. Although conventional cystoscopy is considered to be the gold standard for diagnosis and follow-up of bladder tumors, it remains an invasive and costly procedure. With the advent of the multidetector CT (MDCT) scanners supported by specialized software virtual cystoscopy (VC) is possible. We assess the role of VC in diagnosing and evaluating bladder lesions. Materials and Methods. Between September 2010 and October 2011, 25 consecutive patients with cystoscopically confirmed bladder tumor underwent VC. The radiologists involved in this prospective study were blinded to the exact findings. After draining any residual urine with a catheter, the bladder was retrogradely insufflated with 200–600 cc of air. No intravenous or intravesical contrast was used. MDCT scan was performed in supine and prone positions and three-dimensional reconstruction of the urinary bladder was performed. Results. The examination was well tolerated by all patients with no complications. In total, 43 lesions were detected both with conventional cystoscopy and VC. Tumor size measured by CT ranged from 3 to 80 mm in diameter. The pathological report revealed noninvasive transitional cell carcinomas in all cases. Conclusion. VC has promising results in detecting exophytic bladder lesions. In the future it could be part of the diagnostic algorithm for bladder tumors.
PMCID: PMC3996888  PMID: 24799894
14.  Extended Salvage Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection in Patients with Recurrent Prostate Cancer 
Advances in Urology  2014;2014:321619.
Background. Treatment of patients with a biochemical recurrence (BCR) of prostate cancer (PCa) is generally difficult and without valid treatment options. Since 2004 we have been developing therapeutic possibilities for these patients. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of 41 patients with a BCR of PCa and a mean followup of 40.3 ± 20.8 months. Group 1 (n = 10): salvage radical prostatectomy (sRP) with SePLND (salvage extended pelvic lymph nodes dissection) (initial treatment: combined brachytherapy). Group 2 (n = 22): SePLND (initial treatment: radical prostatectomy (RP)). Group 3 (n = 9): SePLND (initial treatment: RP and adjuvant radiation therapy (RT)). We observed PSA, PSA-velocity, localization of LNs and LNs+, BCR-free period, and BR (biochemical response). Results. Group 1: 60% with BCR-freedom (mean 27.2 months). Group 2: 63.6% with BCR-freedom (mean 17.5 months). Group 3: 33.3% with BCR-freedom (mean 17.6 months). In total, BCR-freedom was observed in 23 of 41 patients (56.1%) after salvage surgery. 75.6% of all patients showed a BR. 765 LNs were removed and 14.8% of these were LN+. Conclusions. The BCR-free period and BR are comparable in all three groups. Sensibility to ADT can be reestablished and prolonged as a result of SePLND. Multicenter studies are needed for a reliable output.
PMCID: PMC3945023  PMID: 24688536
15.  Factors Influencing the Duration of Urine Leakage following Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy 
Advances in Urology  2014;2014:105709.
Purpose. The duration of urine leakage following the removal of the nephrostomy tube after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) shows significant variations depending on the techniques used. We aimed to assess the factors likely to influence the duration of urine leakage. Material and Methods. In total, 103 patients who underwent PCNL were reviewed retrospectively. DUL was evaluated regarding patient characteristics, thickness of the access line, presence of hydronephrosis, and residual stones. Results. DUL was significantly prolonged in accordance with a decrease in the thickness of parenchyma tissue (R = −0.716, P < 0.001). DUL was prolonged as the degree of hydronephrosis (R = 0.526, P < 0.001) and the number of patients with residual stones (R = 0.273, P = 0.005) increased. Median DUL was significantly longer in patients with residual stones than those without residual stones (P = 0.002). In the receiving operating curve analysis, the optimum cut-off value of parenchymal thickness for hospitalization ≤12 h was 17.2 mm (sensitivity, 90.2%; specificity, 69.4%; P = 0.001). Conclusions. We found that parenchymal thickness of the access line, hydronephrosis, and residual stones were the most influential factors determining DUL following PCNL, respectively.
PMCID: PMC3932287  PMID: 24648837
16.  Postpercutaneous Nephrolithotomy Nephrostogram: Is It Mandatory? A Single Center Experience 
Advances in Urology  2014;2014:423730.
Aims and Objective. “Postpercutaneous nephrolithotomy nephrostogram” (PPNN) is routinely performed in most of the centers. No published series could be found in the literature without post percutaneous nephrolithotomy nephrostogram. Hence, the aim of our study is to highlight that post percutaneous nephrolithotomy nephrostogram is not mandatory and it only adds to cost and morbidity without adding any information in the management of such patients. Methods. It was a prospective study from 2005 to 2012, conducted in our institute. It included 119 patients of renal stones who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy performed under the guidance of a single surgeon. Postoperative nephrostogram was not done in any of the patients. Results. Complete stone clearance was achieved in 97.5% of patients and 2.5% of patients needed two to three sessions of ESWL later on. None of the patients needed second look percutaneous nephrolithotomy or nephrostogram. Conclusion. Postpercutaneous nephrolithotomy nephrostogram increases chances of infection, inconvenience, contrast related complications, and cost, with no added advantage over plain X-ray KUB, and it should not be done as a routine investigation prior to the removal of PCN tube in patients with complete stone clearance.
PMCID: PMC3930164  PMID: 24639870
17.  Defining the Pros and Cons of Open, Conventional Laparoscopy, and Robot-Assisted Pyeloplasty in a Developing Nation 
Advances in Urology  2014;2014:850156.
Introduction. Congenital pelviureteric junction obstruction (PUJO) is one of the most common causes of hydronephrosis. Historically, open dismembered pyeloplasty has been considered the gold standard intervention for correcting PUJO. The aim of this study was to compare the surgical and functional outcomes of three different approaches, namely, open, conventional laparoscopy, and robotic pyeloplasty. Material and Methods. 60 patients underwent minimally invasive pyeloplasty (30 conventional laparoscopies and 30 robotics) for congenital PUJO at a tertiary health center in India. Demographic, perioperative, and postoperative data were prospectively collected and analyzed. The data of these patients were retrospectively compared with another cohort of 30 patients who had undergone open pyeloplasty. Results. There was significant difference in operative time, time to drain removal, hospital stay, pain score, and complications rate between open and minimally invasive pyeloplasty (P < 0.05). SFI was considerably lesser in robotic as compared to conventional laparoscopy. The success rate in OP, CLP, and RP was 93.33, 96.67, and 96.67%. Conclusion. Robotic pyeloplasty is safe, effective, and feasible. It is associated with significantly lesser operative time, lesser blood loss, less pain, shorter hospital stay, and fewer complications. It is also associated with considerably lesser surgeon fatigue as compared to conventional laparoscopy pyeloplasty.
PMCID: PMC3929287  PMID: 24624138
18.  The Relationship between ALA16VAL Single Gene Polymorphism and Renal Cell Carcinoma 
Advances in Urology  2014;2014:932481.
Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of RCC and Ala16Val polymorphism in Turkish patients with RCC. Materials and Methods. A total of 41 patients with RCC who underwent radical or partial nephrectomy in our clinic and 50 healthy volunteers living in the same geographic area were included in this study. DNA samples from serum of RCC patients and controls were genotyped for MnSOD polymorphism analysis. Genotype ratios and allele frequencies were compared between two groups and odd ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated statistically. A P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. There was a significant difference in the MnSOD genotype distributions between the RCC patients and the controls in terms of Ala/Ala+Ala/Val and Val/Val genotypes (P = 0.039). The Ala/Ala+Ala/Val genotypes were found significantly suspicious for RCC with an OR of 2.64 (95% CI = 1.06–6.69, P = 0.039). In addition, Ala allele was found significantly suspicious for RCC with an OR of 2.26 (95% CI = 1.24–4.12, P = 0.009). Conclusion. Our study indicated that MnSOD Ala16Val polymorphism may be one of the many genetic factors for renal cancer susceptibility in Turkish patients.
PMCID: PMC3920972  PMID: 24587799
19.  Is Metabolic Syndrome Truly a Risk Factor for Male Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms or Just an Epiphenomenon? 
Advances in Urology  2014;2014:203854.
To define whether the association of male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and metabolic syndrome (MS) is real or simply an epiphenomenon, 490 male adults (mean age 58 ± 9 years) underwent International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), physical and prostate digital examinations, blood analysis, and urinary tract transabdominal ultrasound with prostate volume measurement. Mild, moderate, and severe LUTS were found in 350 (71.4%), 116 (23.7%), and 24 (4.9%) patients, respectively. MS was present in 198 (40.4%) patients, representing 37.4% (131 of 350) of those with mild LUTS, 46.5% (54 of 116) of those with moderate, and 54.1% (13 of 24) of those with severe. The odds ratio of MS having moderate or severe LUTS was 2.1. MS was more common in older age, higher body mass index, and larger prostate size. Moderate and severe LUTS were more frequent in older age, lower levels of high density cholesterol, and higher blood pressure. Older age and body mass index had significant relative risk for lower urinary tract symptoms and only age remained independent factor for LUTS on multivariate analysis. Our results suggest that the association of male LUTS, prostate volume, and MS might be coincidental and related to older age.
PMCID: PMC3920975  PMID: 24587797
20.  Surgical Approaches to Supradiaphragmatic Segment of IVC and Right Atrium through Abdominal Cavity during Intravenous Tumor Thrombus Removal 
Advances in Urology  2014;2014:924269.
Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate safety and feasibility of some surgical approaches to the supradiaphragmatic inferior vena cava (IVC) and the right atrium through the diaphragm from the abdominal cavity. Materials and Methods. The material of the anatomical study included 35 fresh cadavers. Several options of surgical access to the supradiaphragmatic IVC were successively performed. Feasibility and risk level of each of the approaches were evaluated with the use of a special scale. Results. The isolation of the supradiaphragmatic IVC and cavoatrial junction was most easily performed via T-shaped or circular diaphragmotomy (grade “easy” was registered in 74.3% and 80% of patients, resp., compared to 31.4% for transverse diaphragmotomy and 40% for isolation of the IVC in the pericardial cavity). The risk analysis has demonstrated the highest safety level for T-shaped diaphragmotomy (grade “safe” was registered in 60% of cases). The intervention via transverse diaphragmotomy, circular diaphragmotomy, and IVC isolation in the pericardial cavity was graded as “risky” in 80%, 62.9%, and 82.9% of cases, respectively. Conclusions. In our opinion, T-shaped diaphragmotomy is the most safe and easy-to-perform access for mobilization of the supradiaphragmatic IVC through the abdominal cavity.
PMCID: PMC3920607  PMID: 24587798
21.  Nested Variant of Urothelial Carcinoma 
Advances in Urology  2014;2014:192720.
Background. Nested variant of urothelial carcinoma was added to the WHO's classification in 2004. Aims. To review the literature on nested variant of urothelial carcinoma. Results. About 200 cases of the tumour have been reported so far and it has the ensuing morphological features: large numbers of small confluent irregular nests of bland-appearing, closely packed, haphazardly arranged, and poorly defined urothelial cells infiltrating the lamina propria and the muscularis propria. The tumour has a bland histomorphologic appearance, has an aggressive biological behaviour, and has at times been misdiagnosed as a benign lesion which had led to a significant delay in the establishment of the correct diagnosis and contributing to the advanced stage of the disease. Immunohistochemically, the tumour shares some characteristic features with high-risk conventional urothelial carcinomas such as high proliferation index and loss of p27 expression. However, p53, bcl-2, or EGF-r immunoreactivity is not frequently seen. The tumour must be differentiated from a number of proliferative lesions of the urothelium. Conclusions. Correct and early diagnosis of this tumour is essential to provide early curative treatment to avoid diagnosis at an advanced stage. A multicentre trial is required to identify treatment options that would improve the outcome of this tumour.
PMCID: PMC3920611  PMID: 24587796
22.  Lock-Out Valve to Decrease Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections 
Advances in Urology  2014;2014:765756.
Patients with long-term indwelling urinary catheters are at an increased risk for urinary tract infection due to bacteriuria. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are a significant source of morbidity and mortality in long-term care facilities as well as in ambulatory patients requiring long-term catheterization. There is increased interest in the financial impact of CAUTI as Medicare no longer provides reimbursement for nosocomial CAUTIs. Ascending bacteria may in part enter the closed drainage system when the patient switches between leg and night collection bags. In an attempt to reduce this ascent, a double valve lock-out system was devised that maintains a closed system during bag exchange. The concept is introduced and CAUTIs are reviewed.
PMCID: PMC3918347  PMID: 24575127
23.  Diethylstilbestrol 1 mg in the Treatment of Acute Urinary Retention due to Prostatic Obstruction in the Elderly: A Preliminary Study 
Advances in Urology  2014;2014:984382.
Patients who failed a catheter-free trial after acute urinary retention and one week of full dose alpha-blocker and 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor were offered Diethylstilbestrol 1 mg plus Aspirin 100 mg over 4 weeks. Prostate volume, age, serum creatinine, and initial retention drained urine volume were recorded. After excluding cardiovascular morbidity (n = 7), upper urinary tract dilation (n = 3), compromised renal function (n = 2), urinary tract infection (n = 2), neurological diagnosis (n = 2), or preferred immediate channel transurethral resection of prostate (n = 5), 48 of 69 consecutive patients ≥70 years were included. Mean age was 76.6 years (70–84), mean prostate volume 90 cm3 (42–128), and mean follow-up 204 days; 58% (28/48) were passing urine and 42% (20/48) were catheter dependent after 4 weeks Diethylstilbestrol trial. Mean age and drained urine volume of catheter dependent patients were 82.4 years and 850 mL compared with 74.6 years and 530 mL in catheter-free men, respectively. Age and drained urine volume were independent predictors of catheter-free trial (both P < 0.01). Seventy-five percent (6/8) of patients 80 years and older were catheter dependent. Transient nipple/breast tenderness and gynecomastia were the only adverse effects reported by 21% (10/48) and 4% (2/48), respectively. No patient presented severe complications.
PMCID: PMC3915760  PMID: 24575128
24.  Lymphoma of the Urinary Bladder 
Advances in Urology  2014;2014:327917.
Background. Lymphoma of the urinary bladder (LUB) is rare. Aims. To review the literature on LUB. Methods. Various internet databases were used. Results. LUB can be either primary or secondary. The tumour has female predominance; most cases occur in middle-age women. Secondary LUB occurs in 10% to 25% of leukemias/lymphomas and in advanced-stage systemic lymphoma. Less than 100 cases have been reported. MALT typically affects adults older than 60 years; 75% are female. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is also common and may arise from transformation of MALT. LUB presents with haematuria, dysuria, urinary frequency, nocturia, and abdominal or back pain. Macroscopic examination of LUBs show large discrete tumours centred in the dome or lateral walls of the bladder. Positive staining of LUB varies by the subtype of lymphoma; B-cell lymphomas are CD20 positive. MALT lymphoma is positively stained for CD20, CD19, and FMC7 and negatively stained for CD5, CD10, and CD11c. LUB stains negatively with Pan-keratin, vimentin, CK20, and CK7. MALT lymphoma exhibits t(11; 18)(q21: 21). Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for the MALT type of LUB with no recurrence. Conclusions. LUB is diagnosed by its characteristic morphology and immunohistochemical characteristics. Radiotherapy is a useful treatment.
PMCID: PMC3912819  PMID: 24511310
25.  Penetrating Bladder Trauma: A High Risk Factor for Associated Rectal Injury 
Advances in Urology  2014;2014:386280.
Demographics and mechanisms were analyzed in prospectively maintained level one trauma center database 1990–2012. Among 2,693 trauma laparotomies, 113 (4.1%) presented bladder lesions; 51.3% with penetrating injuries (n = 58); 41.3% (n = 24) with rectal injuries, males corresponding to 95.8%, mean age 29.8 years; 79.1% with gunshot wounds and 20.9% with impalement; 91.6% arriving the emergence room awake (Glasgow 14-15), hemodynamically stable (average systolic blood pressure 119.5 mmHg); 95.8% with macroscopic hematuria; and 100% with penetrating stigmata. Physical exam was not sensitive for rectal injuries, showing only 25% positivity in patients. While 60% of intraperitoneal bladder injuries were surgically repaired, extraperitoneal ones were mainly repaired using Foley catheter alone (87.6%). Rectal injuries, intraperitoneal in 66.6% of the cases and AAST-OIS grade II in 45.8%, were treated with primary suture plus protective colostomy; 8.3% were sigmoid injuries, and 70.8% of all injuries had a minimum stool spillage. Mean injury severity score was 19; mean length of stay 10 days; 20% of complications with no death. Concomitant rectal injuries were not a determinant prognosis factor. Penetrating bladder injuries are highly associated with rectal injuries (41.3%). Heme-negative rectal examination should not preclude proctoscopy and eventually rectal surgical exploration (only 25% sensitivity).
PMCID: PMC3910482  PMID: 24527030

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