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1.  Preclinical Evidence for the Benefits of Penile Rehabilitation Therapy following Nerve-Sparing Radical Prostatectomy 
Advances in Urology  2008;2008:594868.
Erectile dysfunction following radical prostatectomy remains a frequent problem despite the development of nerve-sparing techniques. This erectile dysfunction is believed to be neurogenic, enhanced by hypoxia-induced structural changes which result in additional veno-occlusive dysfunction. Recently, daily use of intracavernous vasoactive substances and oral use of PDE5-inhibitors have been clinically studied for treatment of postprostatectomy erectile dysfunction. Since these studies showed benefits of “penile rehabilitation therapy,” these effects have been studied in a preclinical setting. We reviewed experimental literature on erectile tissue preserving and neuroregenerative treatment strategies, and found that preservation of the erectile tissue by the use of intracavernous nitric oxide donors or vasoactive substances, oral PDE5-inhibitors, and hyperbaric oxygen therapy improved erectile function by antifibrotic effects and preservation of smooth muscle. Furthermore, neuroregenerative strategies using neuroimmunophilin ligands, neurotrophins, growth factors, and stem cell therapy show improved erectile function by preservation of NOS-containing nerve fibers.
doi:10.1155/2008/594868
PMCID: PMC2441891  PMID: 18604295
2.  Surveillance as an Option for the Treatment of Small Renal Masses 
Advances in Urology  2008;2008:705958.
OBJECTIVES. To review the natural history and biological potential of small renal masses in order to evaluate surveillance as a treatment option. METHODS. Literature search of Medline and additional references from non-Medline-indexed publications concerning surveillance of small renal masses. RESULTS. The natural history and biological potential of small renal masses can still not be unambiguously predicted at present. There seems to be no clear correlation between tumour size and presence of benign histology. The majority of small renal masses grow and the majority are cancer, but one cannot safely assume that a lack of growth on serial CT scans is the confirmation of absence of malignancy. Needle core biopsies could be used to help in decision making. They show a high accuracy for histopathological tumour type but are less accurate in evaluating Fuhrman grade. CONCLUSIONS. At present, surveillance of small renal masses should only be considered in elderly and/or infirm patients with competing health risks, in those with a limited life expectancy, and in those for whom minimal invasive treatment or surgery is not an option. In all other patients, active surveillance should only be considered in the context of a study protocol. Long-term, prospective studies are needed to provide a more accurate assessment of the natural history and metastastic potential of small renal masses.
doi:10.1155/2008/705958
PMCID: PMC2527471  PMID: 18769558

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