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1.  Factors Influencing the Duration of Urine Leakage following Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy 
Advances in Urology  2014;2014:105709.
Purpose. The duration of urine leakage following the removal of the nephrostomy tube after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) shows significant variations depending on the techniques used. We aimed to assess the factors likely to influence the duration of urine leakage. Material and Methods. In total, 103 patients who underwent PCNL were reviewed retrospectively. DUL was evaluated regarding patient characteristics, thickness of the access line, presence of hydronephrosis, and residual stones. Results. DUL was significantly prolonged in accordance with a decrease in the thickness of parenchyma tissue (R = −0.716, P < 0.001). DUL was prolonged as the degree of hydronephrosis (R = 0.526, P < 0.001) and the number of patients with residual stones (R = 0.273, P = 0.005) increased. Median DUL was significantly longer in patients with residual stones than those without residual stones (P = 0.002). In the receiving operating curve analysis, the optimum cut-off value of parenchymal thickness for hospitalization ≤12 h was 17.2 mm (sensitivity, 90.2%; specificity, 69.4%; P = 0.001). Conclusions. We found that parenchymal thickness of the access line, hydronephrosis, and residual stones were the most influential factors determining DUL following PCNL, respectively.
PMCID: PMC3932287  PMID: 24648837
2.  Postpercutaneous Nephrolithotomy Nephrostogram: Is It Mandatory? A Single Center Experience 
Advances in Urology  2014;2014:423730.
Aims and Objective. “Postpercutaneous nephrolithotomy nephrostogram” (PPNN) is routinely performed in most of the centers. No published series could be found in the literature without post percutaneous nephrolithotomy nephrostogram. Hence, the aim of our study is to highlight that post percutaneous nephrolithotomy nephrostogram is not mandatory and it only adds to cost and morbidity without adding any information in the management of such patients. Methods. It was a prospective study from 2005 to 2012, conducted in our institute. It included 119 patients of renal stones who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy performed under the guidance of a single surgeon. Postoperative nephrostogram was not done in any of the patients. Results. Complete stone clearance was achieved in 97.5% of patients and 2.5% of patients needed two to three sessions of ESWL later on. None of the patients needed second look percutaneous nephrolithotomy or nephrostogram. Conclusion. Postpercutaneous nephrolithotomy nephrostogram increases chances of infection, inconvenience, contrast related complications, and cost, with no added advantage over plain X-ray KUB, and it should not be done as a routine investigation prior to the removal of PCN tube in patients with complete stone clearance.
PMCID: PMC3930164  PMID: 24639870
3.  Defining the Pros and Cons of Open, Conventional Laparoscopy, and Robot-Assisted Pyeloplasty in a Developing Nation 
Advances in Urology  2014;2014:850156.
Introduction. Congenital pelviureteric junction obstruction (PUJO) is one of the most common causes of hydronephrosis. Historically, open dismembered pyeloplasty has been considered the gold standard intervention for correcting PUJO. The aim of this study was to compare the surgical and functional outcomes of three different approaches, namely, open, conventional laparoscopy, and robotic pyeloplasty. Material and Methods. 60 patients underwent minimally invasive pyeloplasty (30 conventional laparoscopies and 30 robotics) for congenital PUJO at a tertiary health center in India. Demographic, perioperative, and postoperative data were prospectively collected and analyzed. The data of these patients were retrospectively compared with another cohort of 30 patients who had undergone open pyeloplasty. Results. There was significant difference in operative time, time to drain removal, hospital stay, pain score, and complications rate between open and minimally invasive pyeloplasty (P < 0.05). SFI was considerably lesser in robotic as compared to conventional laparoscopy. The success rate in OP, CLP, and RP was 93.33, 96.67, and 96.67%. Conclusion. Robotic pyeloplasty is safe, effective, and feasible. It is associated with significantly lesser operative time, lesser blood loss, less pain, shorter hospital stay, and fewer complications. It is also associated with considerably lesser surgeon fatigue as compared to conventional laparoscopy pyeloplasty.
PMCID: PMC3929287  PMID: 24624138
4.  Is Metabolic Syndrome Truly a Risk Factor for Male Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms or Just an Epiphenomenon? 
Advances in Urology  2014;2014:203854.
To define whether the association of male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and metabolic syndrome (MS) is real or simply an epiphenomenon, 490 male adults (mean age 58 ± 9 years) underwent International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), physical and prostate digital examinations, blood analysis, and urinary tract transabdominal ultrasound with prostate volume measurement. Mild, moderate, and severe LUTS were found in 350 (71.4%), 116 (23.7%), and 24 (4.9%) patients, respectively. MS was present in 198 (40.4%) patients, representing 37.4% (131 of 350) of those with mild LUTS, 46.5% (54 of 116) of those with moderate, and 54.1% (13 of 24) of those with severe. The odds ratio of MS having moderate or severe LUTS was 2.1. MS was more common in older age, higher body mass index, and larger prostate size. Moderate and severe LUTS were more frequent in older age, lower levels of high density cholesterol, and higher blood pressure. Older age and body mass index had significant relative risk for lower urinary tract symptoms and only age remained independent factor for LUTS on multivariate analysis. Our results suggest that the association of male LUTS, prostate volume, and MS might be coincidental and related to older age.
PMCID: PMC3920975  PMID: 24587797
5.  Diethylstilbestrol 1 mg in the Treatment of Acute Urinary Retention due to Prostatic Obstruction in the Elderly: A Preliminary Study 
Advances in Urology  2014;2014:984382.
Patients who failed a catheter-free trial after acute urinary retention and one week of full dose alpha-blocker and 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor were offered Diethylstilbestrol 1 mg plus Aspirin 100 mg over 4 weeks. Prostate volume, age, serum creatinine, and initial retention drained urine volume were recorded. After excluding cardiovascular morbidity (n = 7), upper urinary tract dilation (n = 3), compromised renal function (n = 2), urinary tract infection (n = 2), neurological diagnosis (n = 2), or preferred immediate channel transurethral resection of prostate (n = 5), 48 of 69 consecutive patients ≥70 years were included. Mean age was 76.6 years (70–84), mean prostate volume 90 cm3 (42–128), and mean follow-up 204 days; 58% (28/48) were passing urine and 42% (20/48) were catheter dependent after 4 weeks Diethylstilbestrol trial. Mean age and drained urine volume of catheter dependent patients were 82.4 years and 850 mL compared with 74.6 years and 530 mL in catheter-free men, respectively. Age and drained urine volume were independent predictors of catheter-free trial (both P < 0.01). Seventy-five percent (6/8) of patients 80 years and older were catheter dependent. Transient nipple/breast tenderness and gynecomastia were the only adverse effects reported by 21% (10/48) and 4% (2/48), respectively. No patient presented severe complications.
PMCID: PMC3915760  PMID: 24575128
6.  Penetrating Bladder Trauma: A High Risk Factor for Associated Rectal Injury 
Advances in Urology  2014;2014:386280.
Demographics and mechanisms were analyzed in prospectively maintained level one trauma center database 1990–2012. Among 2,693 trauma laparotomies, 113 (4.1%) presented bladder lesions; 51.3% with penetrating injuries (n = 58); 41.3% (n = 24) with rectal injuries, males corresponding to 95.8%, mean age 29.8 years; 79.1% with gunshot wounds and 20.9% with impalement; 91.6% arriving the emergence room awake (Glasgow 14-15), hemodynamically stable (average systolic blood pressure 119.5 mmHg); 95.8% with macroscopic hematuria; and 100% with penetrating stigmata. Physical exam was not sensitive for rectal injuries, showing only 25% positivity in patients. While 60% of intraperitoneal bladder injuries were surgically repaired, extraperitoneal ones were mainly repaired using Foley catheter alone (87.6%). Rectal injuries, intraperitoneal in 66.6% of the cases and AAST-OIS grade II in 45.8%, were treated with primary suture plus protective colostomy; 8.3% were sigmoid injuries, and 70.8% of all injuries had a minimum stool spillage. Mean injury severity score was 19; mean length of stay 10 days; 20% of complications with no death. Concomitant rectal injuries were not a determinant prognosis factor. Penetrating bladder injuries are highly associated with rectal injuries (41.3%). Heme-negative rectal examination should not preclude proctoscopy and eventually rectal surgical exploration (only 25% sensitivity).
PMCID: PMC3910482  PMID: 24527030
7.  Epididymoorchitis as the First Finding in Patients with Brucellosis 
Advances in Urology  2013;2013:765023.
Purpose. Acute scrotal pain as the first symptom of brucellosis is rarely observed. We aimed to evaluate the data of male patients with brucellosis and epididymoorchitis as the initial diagnosis. Material and Methods. The data of seven patients presented with testicular pain, hyperemia, swelling, and increased fever were reviewed. Concomitant focal diseases as well as clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings were retrospectively evaluated. Results. The mean age of the patients was 22.28 ± 7.78 (16–35) years. All patients presented with scrotal pain, swelling, and increased sweating. Additional findings included fever, asthenia, arthralgia, dysuria, shiver and rash, weight loss, and vomiting in 6, 5, 4, 4, 3, 2, and 1 patient, respectively. In all of 7 patients, the agglutination tests of Rose-Bengal and Wright were positive. Coombs test was positive only in 3 patients. The patients underwent antibiotic and conservative treatment. No relapse was observed following the treatment. Conclusion. In endemic regions, epididymoorchitis caused by brucellosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with acute scrotal pain. Clinical and serological findings are sufficient for the diagnosis. Conservative management combined with antibiotic therapy is adequate for managing brucellar epididymoorchitis.
PMCID: PMC3888676  PMID: 24454352
8.  Influence of Preoperative Pain Duration on Microsurgical Varicocelectomy Outcomes 
Advances in Urology  2013;2013:370969.
Objective. To investigate the question of whether duration of pain before surgery ultimately affects sperm parameters after varicocelectomy. Methods. Fifty patients with painful grade-3 varicocele were investigated prospectively. The patients were divided into two groups according to their symptom period. The patients having had grade-3 varicocele for less than 1 year were included in Group-1 (Ge, n = 25). Twenty-five patients who had painful grade-3 varicocele for more than 1 year (Gs, n = 25) were classified in Group-2. Semen analysis was performed after 3 days of sexual abstinence twice a month. Total sperm concentration (TSC), rapidly progressive motility (SPa), and slow or sluggish motility (SPb) rates were noted. Pain was evaluated by using 10 cm visual analogue scale (VAS). Results. Postoperative TSC and %SPb were significantly higher in both groups (P = 0.01). There was no difference between two groups for preoperative and postoperative TSC, %SPa, % and SPb values. VAS significantly declined in both groups (P = 0.005). This postoperative decline was not significant for intergroup comparison. Conclusions. Our results show that increase in semen quality and decrease in the pain after microsurgery varicocelectomy do not depend on the duration of the preoperative pain.
PMCID: PMC3888677  PMID: 24454350
9.  Urolastic—A New Bulking Agent for the Treatment of Women with Stress Urinary Incontinence: Outcome of 12 Months Follow Up 
Advances in Urology  2013;2013:724082.
Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the new injectable implant, Urolastic, in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) after 12-month followup. Materials and Methods. A prospective, cohort study included adult women with SUI. Patients were treated with Urolastic periurethral injections under local anaesthesia. The injection procedure was repeated after 6 weeks when indicated. Patients were evaluated for efficacy and safety parameters 6 weeks, 3 months, and 12 months after therapy. Results. Twenty women 56 (33–71) years old were included. Thirteen patients (65%) received one injection each (overall average of 2,1 mL); 7 patients (35%) received a second injection. Nineteen patients complete the 12-month followup. The mean Stamey incontinence grade significantly decreased from 1.9 at baseline to 0.4 at 12 months (visit IV) (P < 0.001). None of the patients were dry at baseline; 68% of them were dry at 12 months. The mean number of incontinence episodes significantly decreased from 6/day at baseline to 1.6/day at visit IV (P < 0.001). Reduction in pad weight went from 20.2 to 7.8 g at one year. The mean I-QoL score significantly increased from 51 at baseline to 76 at visit IV (P < 0.001). Six patients (30%) developed minor complications related to the injection procedure. Conclusions. Urolastic is effective and long-standing urethral bulking agent with moderate adverse events.
PMCID: PMC3881341  PMID: 24454351
10.  A Comparison of Calcium Hydroxyapatite and Dextranomer/Hyaluronic Acid for the Endoscopic Treatment of Vesicoureteral Reflux 
Advances in Urology  2013;2013:263602.
Purpose. Minimal data exists comparing dextranomer/hyaluronic acid (Dx/HA) and calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHA) for the endoscopic treatment of VUR in the hands of a single user. Materials and Methods. We reviewed our consecutive single-user case series of 27 children (42 ureters) receiving endoscopic treatment with CaHA and 21 children (33 ureters) who received Dx/HA injection. Children receiving CaHA injections were divided into two groups of 13 and 14 patients (Coaptite I and II) to assess the learning curve effects. Postoperatively, RBUS and VCUG were performed. Multiple regression analysis was performed to assess statistical significance of success rates. Results. The total CaHA group had a per-ureter success rate (Grade 0) of 52% after one injection. When separated into two cohorts, the single injection per-ureter success rates were 43% for Coaptite I and 62% for Coaptite II. In contrast, the Dx/HA series had a single injection per-ureter success rate (Grade 0) of 78%. Conclusions. Our consecutive case experience shows improved results for Dx/HA compared to CaHA, though the learning curve effects and evolution of injection technique likely played a role in the improved outcomes in the Dx/HA cohort. A randomized controlled multicenter trial would provide the most accurate data comparing these two agents.
PMCID: PMC3819879  PMID: 24235969
11.  Randomized Controlled Trial to Compare the Safety and Efficacy of Tamsulosin, Solifenacin, and Combination of Both in Treatment of Double-J Stent-Related Lower Urinary Symptoms 
Advances in Urology  2013;2013:752382.
Purpose. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of tamsulosin, solifenacin, and combination of both in reducing double-J stent-related lower urinary symptoms. Materials and Methods. A total of 338 patients with double-J ureteral stenting were randomly divided, postoperatively, into 4 groups. In group I (n = 84), no treatment was given (control group), group II (n = 85) received tamsulosin 0.4 mg daily, group III (n = 84) received solifenacin 10 mg daily, and group IV (n = 85) received a combination of both medications. Before insertion and 2 weeks after, all patients completed the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life component of the IPSS (IPSS/Qol), Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q), and Visual Analogue Pain Scale (VAPS) questionnaire. Results. The demographics and preoperative questionnaires scores of all groups were comparable. There were statistically significant differences in all scores in favour of groups II, III, and IV as compared to control group (P value < 0.005). Group IV showed statistically significant differences in total IPSS, QoL score, and OAB-q score as compared to groups II and III (P value < 0.001). Conclusions. Combined therapy of tamsulosin and solifenacin significantly alleviated lower urinary symptoms associated with double-J stents as compared to either medication alone.
PMCID: PMC3819880  PMID: 24235970
12.  A Comparative Study of Dorsal Buccal Mucosa Graft Substitution Urethroplasty by Dorsal Urethrotomy Approach versus Ventral Sagittal Urethrotomy Approach 
Advances in Urology  2013;2013:124836.
Objectives. To compare the outcome of dorsal buccal mucosal graft (BMG) substitution urethroplasty by dorsal urethrotomy approach with ventral urethrotomy approach in management of stricture urethra. Methods and Materials. A total of 40 patients who underwent dorsal BMG substitution urethroplasty were randomized into two groups. 20 patients underwent dorsal onlay BMG urethroplasty as described by Barbagli, and the other 20 patients underwent dorsal BMG urethroplasty by ventral urethrotomy as described by Asopa. Operative time, success rate, satisfaction rate, and complications were compared between the two groups. Mean follow-up was 12 months (6–24 months). Results. Ventral urethrotomy group had considerably lesser operative time although the difference was not statistically significant. Patients in dorsal group had mean maximum flow rate of 19.6 mL/min and mean residual urine of 27 mL, whereas ventral group had a mean maximum flow rate of 18.8 and residual urine of 32 mL. Eighteen out of twenty patients voided well in each group, and postoperative imaging study in these patients showed a good lumen with no evidence of leak or extravasation. Conclusion. Though ventral sagittal urethrotomy preserves the blood supply of urethra and intraoperative time was less than dorsal urethrotomy technique, there was no statistically significant difference in final outcome using either technique.
PMCID: PMC3806324  PMID: 24194754
13.  Digital Rectal Examination Standardization for Inexperienced Hands: Teaching Medical Students 
Advances in Urology  2013;2013:797096.
Objectives. To standardize digital rectal examination (DRE) and set how it correlates with the comprehensive evaluation of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Methods. After scaled standardization of DRE based on fingertips graphical schema: 10 cubic centimeters—cc for each fingertip prostate surface area on DRE, four randomly selected senior medical students examined 48 male patients presenting with LUTS in an outpatient clinical setting, totaling 12 DRE each. Standardized DRE, international prostate symptom score (IPSS), serum PSA, transabdominal ultrasound (US), urodynamic evaluation, and postvoid residue were compared. Results. The mean and median PVs were US—45 and 34.7 cc (5.5 to 155) and DRE—39 and 37.5 cc (15 to 80). Comparing DRE and US by simple linear regression: US PV = 11.93 + 0.85 × (DRE PV); P = 0.0009. Among patients classified as nonobstructed, inconclusive, and obstructed, the US PVs were 29.8, 43.2, and 53.6 cc (P = 0.033), and DRE PVs were 20, 35, and 60 cc (P = 0.026), respectively. Conclusion. This is the first attempt to DRE standardization focusing on teaching-learning process, establishing a linear correlation of DRE and US PVs with only 12 examinations by inexperienced hands, satisfactorily validated in an outpatient clinical setting.
PMCID: PMC3792526  PMID: 24170997
14.  Ureteroscopic Laser Treatment of Upper Urinary Tract Urothelial Cell Carcinomas: Can a Tumour Free Status Be Achieved? 
Advances in Urology  2013;2013:429585.
Introduction. In cases of anatomic or functional single kidney with urothelial tumours of the upper urinary tract, the endoscopic laser ablation has proven efficacious. Based on the knowledge that low-grade, low-stage upper tract transitional cell carcinomas rarely progress to invasive lesions, indications for endoscopic laser ablation have expanded to include patients with bilateral functioning kidneys and low-grade tumours. The question that remains to be answered is whether endoscopic laser ablation has the ability to completely eradicate upper urinary tract tumours. Methods. We performed in 25 patients in a period of 11 years 288 ureteroscopies and, if needed, laser ablation of upper urinary tract tumours in imperative indication. Results. In 32% of the patients the cancer remained even after several laser sessions. 64% of patients were tumour free after one or more laser sessions but remained clear only for the next 3 months. Only 1 patient was tumour free for a period of 68 months after 1 session of laser treatment. The procedure had low complication rates. Conclusion. The laser technology and the introduction of small diameter semirigid and flexible ureteroscopes made ablation of upper urinary tract tumours possible and safe. Nevertheless a complete resection of the carcinomas is rarely possible.
PMCID: PMC3787654  PMID: 24151503
15.  Robotic Intracorporeal Ileal Conduit Formation: Initial Experience from a Single UK Centre 
Advances in Urology  2013;2013:642836.
Objectives. To describe our technique of robotic intracorporeal ileal conduit formation (RICIC) during robotic-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC). To report our initial results of this new procedure. Patients and Methods. Seven male and one female patients underwent RARC with RICIC over a six-month period. Demographic, operative, and outcome data was collected prospectively. Median patient age was 75 years (range 62–78 years). Median followup was 9 months (range 7–14 months). Results. RARC with RICIC was performed successfully in all eight patients. The median total operating time was 360 minutes (range 310–440 minutes) with a median blood loss of 225 mL (range 50–1000 mL). The median length of stay was nine days (range 6–34 days). Four patients (50%) were discharged within seven days. Four patients (50%) experienced one or more complications. This included two Clavien I complications, two Clavien II complications, and two Clavien III complications. Two patients (25%) required transfusion of two units each. To date, there have been no complications associated with the ileal conduit. Conclusion. Whilst being technically challenging, this procedure is safe, feasible, and reproducible. Patients who avoid complication show potential for rapid recovery and early discharge.
PMCID: PMC3773896  PMID: 24072995
16.  Penile Fracture: Experience from a Third World Country 
Advances in Urology  2013;2013:708362.
Aim. To ascertain the clinical presentation, commonest age group affected, and treatment of patients diagnosed to have penis fracture. Materials and Methods. We performed a retrospective study carried at a tertiary care hospital from January 2005 to January 2011. All the 36 patients diagnosed to have penile fracture were enrolled in the study group. The diagnosis was made based on the clinical findings in the patients. All, except two patients, were managed by a standard surgical procedure, same for all the patients, on the day of presentation to the hospital. All the data pertaining to the presentation, management, and followup of these patients were studied and scrutinized thoroughly. Results. Thirty-four patients were operated while 2 refused surgery. Most of our patients were between 16 and 30 years (55.6%) of age. The commonest presenting complaints were penile swelling and detumescence during sexual intercourse or an erection. All except two of our patients were managed with immediate surgical repair which had excellent results even in the presence of associated urethral injury. Conclusion. Fracture of the penis is a surgical emergency which can be best managed by immediate surgical repair with excellent results even in the presence of urethral injury.
PMCID: PMC3730138  PMID: 23956740
17.  Do Renal Cysts Affect the Success of Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy? A Retrospective Comparative Study 
Advances in Urology  2013;2013:978180.
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of simple renal cysts on extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) in patients with calyceal renal calculi. Patients with simple renal cysts >35 mm and ipsilateral renal calculi <20 mm that were treated with SWL constituted group 1 (cyst + calculi). The control group included patients aged >40 years that had renal calculi <20 mm and no cysts that were treated with SWL. The 2 groups were compared according to age, gender, body mass index, calculi size, localization, and density, the calculi fragmentation rate, and the percentage of stone-free patients. Mean cyst size in group 1 was 44.04 ± 9.08 mm. Mean age in group 1 was 61.4 ± 10.2 years versus 56.9 ± 8.2 years in the control group; the difference was significant (P = 0.045). There were not any other significant differences between the 2 groups, except for the stone-free rate (P > 0.05), which was 33.3% in group 1 and 68.2% in the control group (P = 0.017). The presence of renal cysts in a patient with calculi requires that an individualized treatment plan be devised, so as to provide the patient with the most effective treatment.
PMCID: PMC3690207  PMID: 23840202
18.  The Effects of Chlormadinone Acetate on Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Erectile Functions of Patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Prospective Multicenter Clinical Study 
Advances in Urology  2013;2013:584678.
Purpose. To evaluate the effects of chlormadinone acetate (CMA), progesterone-derived antiandrogen, on lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and erectile functions of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Methods. A multicenter, single-cohort prospective study was conducted. A total of 114 patients received CMA for 16 weeks. The endpoints were changes in International Prostate Symptom Scores (IPSS), IPSS-QOL, International Index of Erectile Function-5, Qmax prostate volume, and residual urine volume. Results. Significant improvements were observed in IPSS from week 8 to week 48 (32 weeks after treatment). IPSS-QOL improvements were also significant from week 8 to week 48. Qmax increased to a maximum at Week 16 and remained elevated throughout the study. Moreover, a decrease of 25% in prostate volume was observed at Week 16. IPSS, QOL, and Qmax changes during the study were not different between the previously treated and untreated patients. IPSS storage subscore changes differed between the age groups. Few severe adverse reactions were observed, except for erectile dysfunction. Conclusions. CMA rapidly and significantly reduced prostate volume and improved voiding and storage symptoms and QOL. Our results suggest that CMA is safe and beneficial, especially for elderly patients with LUTS associated with BPH.
PMCID: PMC3671298  PMID: 23762042
19.  [No title available] 
PMCID: PMC3638678  PMID: 23653639
20.  The Effects of Local Administration of Aminophylline on Transureteral Lithotripsy 
Advances in Urology  2012;2012:727843.
Introduction. Urinary stone is a common cause of urinary tract disease. Stone excretion using ureteroscope is effective in inferior ureter. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aminophylline on ureteral spasm during ureteroscopy in acute phase of renal colic. Methods. In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, 120 patients with ureteral stones were enrolled and randomized into two groups. The bladder was drained and then received a 150 mL irrigation solution. Irrigation solution was saline and saline plus 10 mL aminophylline at 250 mg dose for control and case groups, respectively. Ureteroscopy and transureteral lithotripsy (TUL) were performed five minutes after irrigation. Results. The mean duration of TUL was 4.2 ± 2.61 min and 8.4 ± 2.9 min for control and case groups, respectively. The successful rate was 95% and 76.1% in case and control groups, respectively. Further extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) was performed in 5% and 30% for patients in case and control groups, respectively. Conclusion. Aminophylline facilitated ureteroscopy and increased the success rate in the treatment of renal colic using TUL. No significant complications from post-TUL were observed. Using aminophylline carries several advantages such as reducing procedure duration, decreasing the need for ureteral and double-J catheter, and reducing stone migration to the kidney and use of SWL.
PMCID: PMC3469073  PMID: 23082076
21.  Monitoring Detrusor Oxygenation and Hemodynamics Noninvasively during Dysfunctional Voiding 
Advances in Urology  2012;2012:676303.
The current literature indicates that lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs) related to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) have a heterogeneous pathophysiology. Pressure flow studies (UDSs) remain the gold standard evaluation methodology for such patients. However, as the function of the detrusor muscle depends on its vasculature and perfusion, the underlying causes of LUTS likely include abnormalities of detrusor oxygenation and hemodynamics, and available treatment options include agents thought to act on the detrusor smooth muscle and/or vasculature. Hence, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), an established optical methodology for monitoring changes in tissue oxygenation and hemodynamics, has relevance as a means of expanding knowledge related to the pathophysiology of BPH and potential treatment options. This methodological report describes how to conduct simultaneous NIRS monitoring of detrusor oxygenation and hemodynamics during UDS, outlines the clinical implications and practical applications of NIRS, explains the principles of physiologic interpretation of NIRS voiding data, and proposes an exploratory hypothesis that the pathophysiological causes underlying LUTS include detrusor dysfunction due to an abnormal hemodynamic response or the onset of oxygen debt during voiding.
PMCID: PMC3457593  PMID: 23019422
22.  Peyronie's Disease: Still a Surgical Disease 
Advances in Urology  2012;2012:206284.
Peyronie's Disease (PD) remains a challenging and clinically significant morbid condition. Since its first description by François Gigot de la Peyronie, much of the treatment for PD remains nonstandardized. PD is characterized by the formation of fibrous plaques at the level of the tunica albuginea. Clinical manifestations include morphologic changes, such as curvatures and hourglass deformities. Here, we review the common surgical techniques for the management of patients with PD.
PMCID: PMC3432524  PMID: 22956943
23.  High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound for Prostate Cancer: Long-Term Followup and Complications Rate 
Advances in Urology  2012;2012:960835.
Introduction. As it is well known, High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) is a minimally invasive procedure for prostate cancer. Many investigators reported their series of patients, demonstrating the effectiveness of the treatment. The most majority of Authors, however, do not report the side effects and the complications of the procedure, which is the aim of our study. The diagnosis and management of complications is discussed, and the oncologic outcome is reported in terms of quality of life. Materials and Methods. We report our experience in 89 patients, low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients according with D'Amico classification. All data collected along the study were analyzed, including side effects and complications of the procedure. Results. Our series demonstrates the effectiveness of the procedure, in line with larger series reported in literature by other investigators. The most important side effects are sexual function impairment and transient incontinence in a minority of cases. Minor complications are reported as well as rare cases of major complications, which can require surgical treatment.
PMCID: PMC3426178  PMID: 22927842
24.  Significance of the Intraoperative Methylene Blue Test for Postoperative Evaluation of the Vesicourethral Anastomosis 
Advances in Urology  2012;2012:702412.
We prospectively investigated whether routine evaluation of the vesicourethral anastomosis (VUA) after radical prostatectomy can be waived. Primary integrity of the VUA was analysed by an intraoperative methylene-blue test (IMBT) and postoperatively by conventional cystography. Data on the IMBT, contrast extravasation and prostate volume as well as pad usage were collected prospectively. Significantly more patients with a primary watertight anastomosis demonstrated by the MBT had no leakage in the postoperative cystography (P < 0.001). In a multivariate logistic regression with adjustment for prostate size and surgeon, the positive correlation between IMBT and postoperative cystography remained statistically significant (P = 0.001). The IMBT is easy to perform, inexpensive, and timesaving. With it postoperative evaluation of VUA for integrity can be waived in a significant number of patients. Following our algorithm, the Foley can be removed without further testing of the VUA, whenever the IMBT detected no leakage.
PMCID: PMC3424637  PMID: 22924039
25.  Developing a Multidisciplinary Team for Disorders of Sex Development: Planning, Implementation, and Operation Tools for Care Providers 
Advances in Urology  2012;2012:604135.
In the treatment of patients with disorders of sex development (DSD), multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) represent a new standard of care. While DSDs are too complex for care to be delivered effectively without specialized team management, these conditions are often considered to be too rare for their medical management to be a hospital priority. Many specialists involved in DSD care want to create a clinic or team, but there is no available guidance that bridges the gap between a group of like-minded DSD providers who want to improve care and the formation of a functional MDT. This is an important dilemma, and one with serious implications for the future of DSD care. If a network of multidisciplinary DSD teams is to be a reality, those directly involved in DSD care must be given the necessary program planning and team implementation tools. This paper offers a protocol and set of tools to meet this need. We present a 6-step process to team formation, and a sample set of tools that can be used to guide, develop, and evaluate a team throughout the course of its operation.
PMCID: PMC3389653  PMID: 22792098

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