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1.  Short-Term Effectiveness of a Lifestyle Intervention Program for Reducing Selected Chronic Disease Risk Factors in Individuals Living in Rural Appalachia: A Pilot Cohort Study 
Most Western chronic diseases are closely tied to lifestyle behaviors, and many are preventable. Despite the well-distributed knowledge of these detrimental behaviors, effective efforts in disease prevention have been lacking. Many of these chronic diseases are related to obesity and type 2 diabetes, which have doubled in incidence during the last 35 years. The Complete Health Improvement Program (CHIP) is a community-based, comprehensive lifestyle modification approach to health that has shown success in addressing this problem. This pilot study demonstrates the effectiveness of CHIP in an underserved, rural, and vulnerable Appalachian population. Two hundred fourteen participants in CHIP collectively demonstrated significant reductions in body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and fasting blood levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and glucose. If these results can be repeated in other at-risk populations, CHIP has the potential to help reduce the burden of preventable and treatable chronic diseases efficiently and cost-effectively.
PMCID: PMC3914283  PMID: 24527219
2.  A Randomized Trial Assessing the Effectiveness of Ezetimibe in South Asian Canadians with Coronary Artery Disease or Diabetes: The INFINITY Study 
Background. There is a paucity of data regarding the effectiveness and safety of lipid-lowering treatments among South-Asian patients. Methods. Sixty-four South-Asian Canadians with coronary artery disease or diabetes and persistent hypercholesterolemia on statin therapy, were randomized to ezetimibe 10 mg/day co-administered with statin therapy (EZE + Statin) or doubling their current statin dose (STAT2). Primary outcome was the proportion of patients achieving target LDL-C (<2.0 mmol/L) after 6 weeks. Secondary outcomes included the change in lipid profile and the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events through 12 weeks. Exploratory markers for vascular inflammation were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Results. At 6 weeks, the primary outcome was significantly higher among the EZE + Statin patients (68% versus 36%; P = 0.031) with an OR (95% CI) of 3.97 (1.19, 13.18) upon accounting for baseline LDL-C and adjusting for age. At 12 weeks, 76% of EZE + Statin patients achieved target LDL-C compared to 48% (P = 0.047) of the STAT2 patients (adjusted OR (95% CI) = 3.31 (1.01,10.89)). No significant between-group differences in exploratory markers were observed with the exception of CRP. Conclusions. Patients receiving ezetimibe and statin were more likely to achieve target LDL-C after 6 and 12 weeks compared to patients doubling their statin dose. Ezetimibe/statin combination therapy was well tolerated among this cohort of South-Asian Canadians, without safety concerns.
PMCID: PMC3529456  PMID: 23304534
3.  The Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Salmonella typhi among Patients Attending a Military Hospital in Minna, Nigeria 
The threat to human health posed by antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens is of growing concern to medical practice. This study investigated the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Salmonella typhi isolated from blood specimen. One hundred blood samples were collected from suspected typhoid fever patients in 31 Artillery Brigade Medical Centre, Minna, and were analyzed for S. typhi while antibiotic sensitivity testing was done Kirby-Bauer method. Sixty (60.0%) samples out of the total 100 were positive for bacterial growth. The organisms isolated 2 include Salmonella typhi; 45 (75.0%), Shigella; 6 (10.0%), E. coli; 3 (5.0%), Klebsiella; 3 (5.0%), Enterobacter; 2 (3.3%), and Citrobacter; 1 (1.7%). Result of the sensitivity test showed that the isolates were resistant to all the antibiotics; ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, amoxicillin, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and augmentin, which are the drug of choice routinely used in the study area for the treatment of typhoid fever. They were however sensitive to chloramphenicol and ofloxacin, which, unfortunately, are not used in this study area for the treatment of typhoid fever. There appear to be multiple drug resistant (MDR) strain of S. typhi in the study area. These may be as a result of overdependence or uncontrolled use of the few available antibiotics and/or inaccurate or inconclusive diagnosis resulting in the development and spread of resistant strains of S. typhi. The study, therefore, highlights the need for a strong collaboration between the physicians and the laboratory in the choice of antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial diseases in order to discourage the development of resistant strain of bacterial pathogen.
PMCID: PMC3465869  PMID: 23056954

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