There are few studies reporting pain and postoperative analgesia associated with mastectomy in dogs. The aim of this study was to evaluate postoperative pain after unilateral mastectomy using two different surgical techniques in the dog.
Twenty female dogs were assigned (n=10/group) to undergo unilateral mastectomy using either the combination of sharp and blunt dissection (SBD) or the modified SBD (mSBD) technique, in which the mammary chain is separated from the abdominal wall entirely by blunt (hand and finger) dissection except for a small area cranial to the first gland, in a prospective, randomized, clinical trial. All dogs were premedicated with intramuscular acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg) and morphine (0.3 mg/kg). Anesthesia was induced with intravenous ketamine (5 mg/kg) and diazepam (0.25 mg/kg), and maintained with isoflurane. Subcutaneous meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg) was administered before surgery. Postoperative pain was evaluated according to the University of Melbourne pain scale (UMPS) by an observer who was blinded to the surgical technique.. Rescue analgesia was provided by the administration of intramuscular morphine (0.5 mg/kg) if pain scores were >14 according to the UMPS. Data were analyzed using t-tests and ANOVA (P>0.05). There were no significant differences between the groups for age, weight, extubation time, and duration of surgery and anesthesia (P>0.05). There were no significant differences for postoperative pain scores between groups. Rescue analgesia was required in one dog in each group.
The two surgical techniques produced similar surgical times, incidence of perioperative complications and postoperative pain. Multimodal analgesia is recommended for treatment of postoperative pain in dogs undergoing unilateral mastectomy.
Dog; Cancer; Mastectomy; Analgesia; Surgery
Training of young Thoroughbred horses must balance development of cardiopulmonary function and aerobic capacity with loading of the musculoskeletal system that can potentially cause structural damage and/or lameness. High-speed equine treadmills are sometimes used to supplement exercise on a track in the training of young Thoroughbreds because the horse can run at high speeds but without the added weight of a rider. We tested the hypothesis that intermittent high-intensity exercise on a treadmill of young Thoroughbred horses entering training can enhance development of aerobic capacity (Vo2max) and running performance more than conventional training under saddle, and do so without causing lameness.
Twelve yearling Thoroughbreds trained for 8 months with conventional riding (C) only, conventional riding plus a short (2 month, S) interval of once-per-week high-intensity treadmill exercise, or a long (8 month, L) interval of once-per-week high-intensity treadmill exercise. Three treadmill exercise tests evaluated Vo2max, oxygen transport and running performance variables in June of the yearling year (only for L), October of the yearling year and April of the 2-year-old year. No horses experienced lameness during the study. Aerobic capacity increased in all groups after training. In both October and April, Vo2max in L was higher than in C, but did not differ between L and S or S and C. Running speeds eliciting Vo2max also increased in all groups after training, with S (809 ± 3 m/s) and L (804 ± 9 m/s) higher than C (764 ± 27 m/s). Maximum heart rate decreased for all groups after training. Hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration increased for L throughout training.
Young Thoroughbred horses can increase aerobic capacity and running performance more than by strictly using track training under saddle with the addition of intermittent high-intensity treadmill exercise, and they can do so without experiencing lameness. This finding suggests that young racehorses might be able to achieve higher aerobic fitness during training without subjecting their musculoskeletal systems to increased loading and risk of developing lameness. The findings of this preliminary study do not indicate a specific protocol to best achieve this goal.
Vo2max; Equine; Training; Exercise; Lactate; Heart rate
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 8-hour road transport on plasma total antioxidant status (PTAS) and general clinical appearance in horses.
The study was conducted on a group of 60 horses of different breeds aged from 4 to 10 years. Venous blood was collected and a clinical examination was performed immediately before loading horses onto trailers for an 8 hour transport (I), immediately after unloading them from the trailer (II), and after a subsequent 24 hour stall rest (III). The ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) was used to determine PTAS. The transportation significantly increased respiratory and heart rates. The average PTAS increased during the three subsequent samplings: I: 170 ± 77 (μmol/l) II: 204 ± 70 (μmol/l) III: 221 ± 74 (μmol/l).
Long-distance transport increased the PTAS horses, as well as respiratory and heart rates.
Horse; Road transport; Oxidative stress; Antioxidants; Plasma total antioxidant status
The aim of this project was to study 14 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 5 dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethans (DDTs), 12 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 6 polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) in meat, liver, tallow and bone marrow from semi-domesticated reindeer.
Meat, liver, tallow, and bone marrow samples (n= 30) were collected from semi-domesticated reindeer in Northern Norway. Determination of the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) concentrations was done by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Dependent sample t-test and Pearson’s correlation test were used in statistical analysis.
Concentrations of the persistent organic pollutants in the samples from semi-domesticated reindeer were generally low and slightly above the limit of detection (LOD). For PCBs and OCPs, ≥ 50% of the samples had concentrations above LOD. For the DDTs and PBDEs, the proportion of samples with concentrations above LOD varied between 3.7 and 45.5% depending on the sample type. Concentrations of PCB 99, 105, 138/163, 153 and 187 differed significantly between meat and liver, whereas concentrations of PCB 183 were significantly different between tallow and bone marrow. Furthermore, concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were significantly different between meat and liver. Significant correlations were revealed in concentrations of 5 PCB congeners between the studied tissue types.
Concentrations of the POPs revealed in this study were generally low.
Reindeer; POPs; PCBs; DDTs; OCPs; PBDEs; Arctic food; Sami; Norway
A survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of campylobacteriosis and trichomonosis, and their concurrence with brucellosis, in cattle in three states of northern Nigeria.
A total of 602 preputial samples was collected from bulls in 250 herds and tested using culture and identification. Various indigenous and exotic breeds were studied and four major management systems were encountered. Age of the cattle was estimated using dentition, farm records or cornual rings.
The estimated true animal-level prevalence of Campylobacter fetus infection was 16.4% (95% CI: 13.0-20.7), of which 18.5% was C. f. fetus and 81.5% was C. f. venerealis. Of the latter, 92% were C. f. venerealis biovar intermedius strains. Animal-level prevalences in Adamawa, Kano and Kaduna states were 31.8%, 11.6% and 8.3% respectively, and were highest in bulls >7 years old (33.4%) and in the Gudali breed (28.8%). Of the 250 herds, 78 (25.5%, 95% CI: 19.4-32.7) had at least one infected bull, and herd prevalence was highest in the pastoral management system (43.5%). After adjustment for confounding using multivariable analysis, the odds of C. fetus infection were highest in Adamawa state (P < 0.01), in the pastoral management system (P < 0.01), and in bulls >7 years old (P = 0.01), and tended to be higher in Bos taurus breeds (P = 0.06). There was a strong positive association between the presence of campylobacteriosis and brucellosis (P < 0.01), both within bulls (OR = 8.3) and within herds (OR = 16.0). Trichomonosis was not detected in any herds.
Bovine genital campylobacteriosis is prevalent particularly in the pastoral management system in northern Nigeria, with C. f. venerealis biovar intermedius as the major aetiology. There was a strong positive correlation between the occurrence of campylobacteriosis and brucellosis. No evidence of trichomonosis was found in herds in this study.
Bovine; Brucellosis; Campylobacteriosis; Nigeria; Preputial samples; Trichomonosis
Laminitis and energy-related postpartum diseases share several risk factors, indicating a common etiology. Thus, a herd’s incidence rate of energy-related postpartum diseases, such as displaced abomasum and clinical ketosis, might reflect the likelihood of cows to suffer from laminitis-related claw lesions. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between herd-level incidence rate of displaced abomasum and clinical ketosis, general risk factors, and claw lesions in individual cows recorded at maintenance claw trimming.
The dataset consisted of 6773 trimmings, performed between 2004 and 2006 by professional trimmers, from 3607 Swedish Red and Swedish Holstein cows in 26 herds. The herds were classified as having a high, inconsistent-high or low incidence rate of energy-related postpartum diseases, based on the number of recorded cases of veterinary-diagnosed displaced abomasum and clinical ketosis in the Swedish national animal disease recording system during 2002 to 2006, and observations and interviews in connections with herd visits. Generalized linear mixed models were used to investigate the association between herd-level incidence rate of energy-related postpartum diseases and laminitis-related lesions including sole ulcer and sole hemorrhage; and hygiene-related lesions including interdigital dermatitis, digital dermatitis, heel-horn erosion, verrucose dermatitis, and interdigital hyperplasia; and absence of any claw lesion. Systematic effects, including first-order interactions, with P < 0.05 were included in the models. Herd classification was forced into the models, and a random effect of herd was included.
In comparison to herds with a high incidence rate of energy-related postpartum diseases, low-incidence herds showed a lower odds ratio (OR; 0.2) for laminitis-related lesions in cows trimmed during the summer months. Low-incidence herds also showed numerically lower OR estimates for laminitis-related lesions in all parity classes and a numerically lower OR for hygiene-related lesions. In addition, low-incidence herds showed tendencies towards a numerically higher OR for absence of any lesion, irrespective of trimming season or parity.
Only a few statistically significant associations were found, but several tendencies pointed towards better claw health in herds with low as compared with high incidence rate of energy-related postpartum diseases.
Dairy cow; Energy-related metabolic diseases; Claw trimming; Claw lesions; Risk factors
Streptococcus spp. and other Gram-positive, catalase-negative cocci (PNC) form a large group of microorganisms which can be found in the milk of cows with intramammary infection. The most frequently observed PNC mastitis pathogens (major pathogens) are Streptococcus uberis, Strep. dysgalactiae, and Strep. agalactiae. The remaining PNC include a few minor pathogens and a large nonpathogenic group. Improved methods are needed for the accurate identification and differentiation of PNC.
A total of 151 PNC were collected from cows with intramammary infection and conclusively identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as reference method. Nine phenotypic microbiological tests (alpha-hemolysis, CAMP reaction, esculin hydrolysis, growth on kanamycin esculin azide agar and on sodium chloride agar, inulin fermentation, hippurate hydrolysis, leucine aminopeptidase and pyrrolidonyl peptidase activity), multiplex PCR for the three major pathogens (target genes for Strep. uberis, Strep. dysgalactiae and Strep. agalactiae: pauA, 16S rRNA, and sklA3, respectively), and mass spectroscopy using the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF MS) were evaluated for the diagnosis and discrimination of the three clinically most relevant PNC.
The probability that a strain of Strep. uberis, Strep. dysgalactiae and Strep. agalactiae was correctly identified by combining the results of the 9 phenotypic tests was 92%, 90%, and 100%, respectively. Applying the multiplex PCR, all strains of the three major pathogens were correctly identified and no false positive results occurred. Correct identification was observed for all strains of Strep. uberis and Strep. agalactiae using MALDI-TOF MS. In the case of Strep. dysgalactiae, some variability was observed at the subspecies level, but all strains were allocated to one single cluster.
The results of the present study show that reliable identification of the clinically most relevant PNC (Strep. uberis, Strep. agalactiae and Strep. dysgalactiae) can be obtained by use of a combination of colony morphology, hemolysis type and catalase reaction, and a multiplex PCR with specific primers restricted to these 3 pathogens. The MALDI-TOF MS is a fast method that shows promising results, although identification of Strep. dysgalactiae at the subspecies level is not yet satisfactory.
Mastitis; Cattle; Streptococci; Identification; Mass spectroscopy
Because European-wide directives are restricting the non-clinical use of antibiotics as in-feed growth promotors in swine production, there is an intensive search for alternative strategies for control and prevention of losses among young pigs. With the growing knowledge of the porcine immune system and its endogenous modulation, it has been clearly established that exogenous immunomodulation using adjuvants and immune response modifiers (IRMs) represents an important prophylactic/therapeutic approach in the prevention/treatment of both stress- and microbial-induced disorders that accompaning weaning. However, it is essential to select a fully evaluated agent which may act either as a nonspecific IRM or synergistically as an adjuvant with vaccines. The synthetic macromolecules with a long history as adjuvant and IRM are nonionic block copolymers which consist of polyoxyethylene (POE) and polyoxypropylene (POP) molecules.
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of POE-POP given as a single peroral dose on productivity parameters such as body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio, and systemic and intestinal immune parameters by assessing the proportions of CD45+ lymphoid cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and CD21+ B cells in the peripheral blood as well as the number of CD45RA+ naive lymphoid cells residing in the ileal mucosa in weaned pigs during a follow-up study 5 weeks after the treatment.
Pigs treated with POE-POP had better feed intake (+ 14.57%), higher average body mass at the end of the experiment (20.91 kg vs. 17.61 kg), and higher body weight gain in relation to Day 0 (191.63% vs. 144.58%) as well as in relation to nontreated pigs (+ 18.74%), with a lower feed conversion ratio (− 30.26%) in comparison to the control pigs. A much lower diarrhea severity score (5 vs. 54) was recorded in pigs treated with POE-POP (− 90.74%) than in the control pigs. A higher average diarrhea severity (ADS) was recorded in the control pigs (1.54 vs. 0.14), whereas the treatmant group had much a lower ADS ratio (− 90.91%) after 35 days of the experiment. The pigs that were treated with POE-POP had an increased proportion of CD45+, CD4+ and CD8+ cells at Day 21 (at p < 0.05, p < 0.05 or p < 0.01, respectively), Day 28 (at p < 0.01, respectively) and Day 35 (at p < 0.01, p < 0.05 or p < 0.01, respectively) as well as of CD21+ cells at Day 28 (p < 0.05) and Day 35 of the experiment (p < 0.01). Also, these pigs had more numerous CD45RA+ cells in interfollicular (p < 0.05) and follicular areas (p < 0.01) of the ileal Peyer’s patches than did control pigs.
This property of POE-POP to induce recruitment of circulating and intestinal immune cell subsets in weaned pigs may allow the use of IRM-active block copolymers as adjuvants for vaccines, particularly those orally delivered and targeted to the gut-associated lymphoid tissues that are well known to promote rather tolerogenic than protective immune responses.
POE-POP; Weaned pigs; Performance; Immunity
Chronic mitral valve disease is frequently seen in the Dachshund. Dachshunds (n=207) made up 11.73% of the dogs admitted to the Cardiology Service at the Small Animal Clinic, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Poland (first visits only).
Of these, 35 dogs had no clinically detectable heart disease while 172 had chronic valve disease with the mitral valve affected most often (130 dogs), both mitral and tricuspid valves infrequently (39 dogs) and rarely the tricuspid valve (3 dogs). Males were affected more frequently than females and the average age of dogs with chronic valve disease was 11.9 years for females and 11.3 years for males. A majority of the diseased Dachshunds were classified as ISACHC 2 (79), followed by ISACHC 1 (60). Most frequent clinical signs noted by owners included coughing, exercise intolerance, dyspnea and tachypnea. Heart murmurs were generally louder with increased disease severity; however there were 20 dogs in the ISACHC 1 group with no audible heart murmurs. The most frequent electrocardiographic abnormalities included an increased P wave and QRS complex duration, increased R wave amplitude and tachycardia. With increased disease severity, echocardiography revealed an increase in heart size. A higher ISACHC class was related to increased heart size (based on echocardiography) and increased percentage of patients exhibiting enlargement of both left atrium and left ventricle (based on radiography).
The Dachshund is often affected by chronic mitral valvular disease with a late onset of associated clinical signs and few cardiac complications.
Dog; Dachshund; Chronic valve disease; Cardiac murmur
Milk produced by cows in receipt of antimicrobial therapy may contain antimicrobial residues. Such antimicrobial-containing waste milk must be withdrawn from human consumption and is therefore sometimes used as calf feed. Unfortunately, this approach might promote selection of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in the calves’ intestinal microbiota. The objectives of this study were therefore to obtain an overview of waste milk feeding practices on Swedish dairy farms and to investigate if these practices were associated with certain farm characteristics. A representative group of 457 Swedish dairy farmers participated in a web-based survey with questions about the use of colostrum and milk from cows treated with antimicrobials at dry off or during lactation, respectively, as calf feed.
Colostrum (milk from the first milking after calving) and transition milk (milk from the second milking to the fourth day after calving) from cows treated with antimicrobials at dry off was fed to calves on 89% and 85% of the farms in the study, respectively. When antimicrobial therapy was given to cows during lactation, 56% of the farms fed milk that was produced during the course of treatment to calves, whereas milk that was produced during the subsequent withdrawal period was fed to calves on 79% of the farms. Surveyed farmers were less prone to feed such milk if the antimicrobial therapy was due to mastitis than other infections. In Sweden, a majority of antimicrobial treatments during lactation are systemic administration of benzylpenicillin and thus, the bulk of waste milk in Sweden is likely to contain residues of this drug. Feeding waste milk to calves was more common on non-organic farms, and on farms located in Southern Sweden, and was less common on farms with cows housed in cold free stalls barns.
Waste milk that may contain antimicrobial residues is, at least occasionally, used as feed for calves on a majority of surveyed Swedish dairy farms. Future work should focus on the effect of waste milk feeding on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in the calves’ intestinal microbiota.
Calves; Antibiotics; Milk withdrawal; Dry cow treatment; Feeding; Non-saleable milk; Mastitic milk
The prevalence and the clinical consequences of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in dairy cows are still poorly understood. In order to evaluate the prevalence of SARA, 26 German dairy farms were included in a field study. In each herd, between 11 and 14 lactating dairy cows were examined for their ruminal pH using rumenocentesis. Milk production data and farm management characteristics were recorded. Each farm was scored for lameness prevalence among lactating animals, and body condition score was recorded three times four to five weeks apart in all animals examined. Farms were grouped on basis of ruminal pH and compared for lameness, body condition, milk production parameters and style of management. Animals were grouped on basis of their measured ruminal pH and compared accordingly for milk production parameters and body condition score.
Of 315 cows examined, 63 individuals (20%) exhibited a ruminal pH of ≤ 5.5 at time of rumenocentesis. Of 26 farms examined, eleven farms had three or more of their cows experiencing a ruminal pH of ≤ 5.5 and were classified as likely experiencing subacute ruminal acidosis. These farms tended to be bigger than the others and offered less lying space to the lactating cows. There was no clear tendency regarding lameness. Among individual cows, animals with a low ruminal pH of ≤ 5.5 were found to be in significantly poorer body condition than animals with higher pH values (p < 0,05).
The study shows 11 out of 26 of herds likely experiencing SARA. Bigger herds tend to be at a higher risk for SARA, while individuals with low ruminal pH tend to be lower in body condition. The study points to the importance of management in preventing SARA.
SARA; Acidosis; Dairy; Management
Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in Swedish broiler production has been shown to persist at farms between batches. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the possibility to eliminate VRE by disinfection of compartments in broiler houses as a proof of concept.
VRE could not be detected in environmental samples from the disinfected test compartments in the broiler houses but was detected in environmental samples from the control compartments. The proportion of broilers colonized with VRE decreased in both the test and the control compartments.
The results are promising and show that the occurrence of VRE in broiler houses can be reduced by adequate cleaning and disinfection with a combination of steam and formaldehyde.
VRE; Eradication; Proof of concept; Disinfection
This study was performed to determine the prevalence of ulcers in the gastric squamous and glandular mucosa in Polish pleasure horses.
Medical records from gastroscopic examinations of 108 pleasure horses of different breeds were reviewed. The study population consisted of two groups; group I (n = 48) with horses that expressed mild clinical signs of gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) including poor appetite, slight weight loss or poor body condition, and group II (n = 60) with horses that had no signs of gastrointestinal problems. The age range was 4–10 years, including 5 males, 34 castrated males (geldings) and 69 mares. The prevalence, distribution and severity of gastric ulcers were recorded. Lesions involving the squamous mucosa and the glandular mucosa of the antrum and pylorus were graded and compared between groups.
Significant difference was found in the presence and severity of gastric ulcers between the two groups of horses. The overall prevalence of gastric ulcers in the first group of horses (n = 48) was 59% while in the group of clinically healthy horses (n = 60) the prevalence of gastric lesion was 40% (P = 0.004). Almost 19% of horses from group I had between 6–10 lesions (EGUS score III) and nearly 19% had either >10 localized lesions or very large diffuse lesions (EGUS number score IV). The number of ulcerations in affected horses were significantly lower in group II compared to group I (P = 0.016) as 10% of horses had 6–10 lesions (EGUS number score III) and nearly 14% had either >10 localized lesions or very large diffuse lesions (EGUS number score IV). Gastroscopy revealed that nearly 32% of horses from the second group had an ulceration EGUS score ≥ II.
Discussion and conclusions
This study confirms that gastric ulcerations can be prevalent in apparently clinically normal pleasure horses and a complete gastroscopic examination including the examination of the pylorus is advisable to evaluate this syndrome.
EGUS; Horse; Gastric ulceration; Prevalence; Pleasure horse; Anatomical distribution
In recent years, the occurrence and the relevance of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in suckling pigs has been examined in several studies. Whereas most of these studies were focused on sole prevalence estimation within different age groups, follow-up of infected piglets or assessment of pathological findings, none of the studies included a detailed analysis of individual and environmental risk factors. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of M. hyopneumoniae infections in suckling pigs of endemically infected herds and to identify individual risk factors potentially influencing the infection status of suckling pigs at the age of weaning.
The animal level prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae infections in suckling pigs examined in three conventional pig breeding herds was 3.6% (41/1127) at the time of weaning. A prevalence of 1.2% was found in the same pigs at the end of their nursery period. In a multivariable Poisson regression model it was found that incidence rate ratios (IRR) for suckling pigs are significantly lower than 1 when teeth grinding was conducted (IRR: 0.10). Moreover, high temperatures in the piglet nest during the first two weeks of life (occasionally >40°C) were associated with a decrease of the probability of an infection (IRR: 0.23-0.40). Contrary, the application of PCV2 vaccines to piglets was associated with an increased infection risk (IRR: 9.72).
Since single infected piglets are supposed to act as initiators for the transmission of this pathogen in nursery and fattening pigs, the elimination of the risk factors described in this study should help to reduce the incidence rate of M. hyopneumoniae infections and thereby might contribute to a reduced probability of high prevalences in older pigs.
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae; Enzootic pneumonia; Suckling pig; Epidemiology; Risk factor analysis
Tie-stall housing of dairy cows is used extensively worldwide, despite of the welfare concerns regarding the restriction of voluntary movement and limitation of expression of the cows’ natural behaviour. The aim of this study was to compare the welfare quality of dairy cows kept in two types of tie-stall housing systems: with regular outdoor exercise and without access to exercise. In addition, the study investigated the relationship between different welfare measures of dairy cows kept in tie-stalls.
3,192 lactating cows were assessed using the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol for cattle in 80 commercial dairy farms, half of the farms providing outdoor access for the animals to exercise. The descriptive statistical indicators were determined for the assessed measures and for the welfare criteria and principle scores. The data obtained in the two housing types were compared and the correlation coefficients were calculated between the different welfare measures.
The significant differences found between the two housing systems for the majority of the animal based measures indicate the positive effect of exercise on the welfare of tethered cows. Many of the animal welfare parameters correlated with each other. For the farms allowing the cows’ turnout in a paddock, pasture or both, the mean scores for the welfare criteria and principles were higher than for the farms with permanent tethering of the cows, except the criteria absence of prolonged hunger and expression of social behaviours. The lowest scores were obtained for the criterion positive emotional state, in both housing systems. With regard to the overall classification, none of the farms were considered excellent. In the not classified category were only farms with all-year-round tethering of the animals and in the enhanced category only farms where the cows had outdoor access.
The welfare quality of the investigated dairy cows was significantly better in the tie-stall farms which allow exercise for cows (paddocks, pasture or both) than in those which do not. In the light of our results we consider that dairy cattle welfare is not necessarily poor in tie-stall housing systems, its quality depending on the management practices.
Dairy cow; Welfare quality; Tie-stall housing; Animal based measure
Salmonella species (spp.) are zoonotic enteric bacteria able to infect humans, livestock and wildlife.
However, little is known about the prevalence and the presence of the different serovars in wildlife. Considering the wide distribution of wild boars and the feeding behaviour (omnivorous scavengers), wild boars may be a good indicator for environmental presence of Salmonella spp. The aims of this study were to determine the presence of Salmonella spp. in hunted wild boars and to determine the serotype the isolated strains.
Over three hunting seasons, the intestinal contents of 1,313 boars hunted in northern Italy were sampled and cultured. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 326 boars (24.82%). Thirty different serovars belonging to three different S. enterica spp. were found. Twenty-one serovars of S. enterica subsp. Enterica were found including the human pathogens S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis. In addition, nine serovars belonging to S.enterica subsp. diarizonae and S. enterica subsp. houtenae were detected.
Considering the widespread occurrence of wild boars in Europe, the epidemiological role of this species in relation to salmonellosis might be relevant and should be further investigated. Wild boars may act as healthy carriers of a wide range of Salmonella serotypes.
Italy; Salmonella; Wild boar
Two-dimensional strain measurements obtained by speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) have been reported in both humans and dogs. Incorporation of this technique into canine clinical practice requires the availability of measurements from clinically normal dogs, ideally of the same breed, taken under normal clinical conditions.
The aims of this prospective study were to assess if it is possible to obtain STE data during a routine echocardiographic examination in Irish Wolfhound dogs and that these data will provide reference values and an estimation of measurement error.
Fifty- four healthy mature Irish Wolfhounds were used. These were scanned under normal clinical conditions to obtain in one session both standard echocardiographic parameters and STE data. Measurement error was determined separately in 5 healthy mature Irish Wolfhounds.
Eight dogs were rejected by the software algorithm for reasons of image quality, resulting in a total of 46 dogs (85.2%) being included in the statistical analysis. In 46 dogs it was possible to obtain STE data from three scanning planes, as well as to measure the rotation of the left ventricle at two levels and thus calculate the torsion of the heart. The mean peak radial strain at the cardiac apex (RS-apex) was 45.1 ± 10.4% (n = 44), and the mean peak radial strain at the base (RS-base) was 36.9 ± 14.7% (n = 46). The mean peak circumferential strain at the apex (CS-apex) was -24.8 ± 6.2% (n = 44), and the mean peak circumferential strain at the heart base (CS-base) was -15.9 ± 3.2% (n = 44). The mean peak longitudinal strain (LS) was -16.2 ± 3.0% (n = 46). The calculated mean peak torsion of the heart was 11.6 ± 5.1 degrees (n = 45).
The measurement error was 24.8%, 26.4%, 11.5%, 6.7%, 9.0% and 10 degrees, for RS-apex, RS-base, CS-apex, CS-base, LS and torsion, respectively.
It is concluded that this technique can be included in a normal echocardiographic examination in large breed dogs under clinical conditions. The usefulness of the reference values reported here, given their wide normal range, will ultimately be determined by the values that are obtained from a large numbers of diseased dogs.
Canine; Speckle tracking echocardiography; Strain; Left ventricle; Torsion
Canine generalized demodicosis associated with hyperadrenocorticism is often problematic and might be intractable. The aim of this study was to report the efficacy of a weekly application of spot-on moxidectin/imidacloprid in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and secondary generalized demodicosis.
Dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and secondary generalized demodicosis were included. The condition of hyperadrenocorticism was treated and stabilized with trilostane before and throughout the study period in all dogs.
Average total live adult mite counts before treatment and after four, eight and 12 weeks of spot-on moxidectin/imidacloprid (2.5/10 mg/kg) applications were 20.1 ± 6.3 (range, 13–33), 0.5 ± 0.7 (range, 0–2; 6/11 were negative), 0.2 ± 0.4 (range, 0–1; 9/11 were negative), 0.2 ± 0.4 (range, 0–1; 9/11 were negative) and 0.1 ± 0.3 (range, 0–1; 10/11 were negative) respectively; this difference was significant (P < 0.001). Ten of 11 dogs (90.1%) achieved clinical remission, as demonstrated by the absence of demodectic mites at any life stage at monthly scrapings for eight consecutive weeks, and maintained remission throughout the 12-month follow-up period.
The weekly application of spot-on moxidectin/imidacloprid appeared to be effective and safe against generalized adult onset canine demodicosis associated with hyperadrenocorticism.
Demodex canis; Demodicosis; Dog; Hyperadrenocorticism; Moxidectin
Due to numerous complications associated to gastrointestinal augmented cystoplasty, this study aimed to analyze the anatomic repair of the bladder of 10 female dogs using grafts of porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) seeded with cultured homologous smooth muscle cells, and compare them with the acellular SIS grafts.
We assessed the possible side effects and complications of each type of graft by clinical examination, abdominal ultrasound and laboratory findings. Anatomic repair of neoformed bladder was assessed by histological staining for H/E and Masson's Trichrome, analyzed with a Nikon Photomicroscope connected to the system of image analysis Image J.
We propose that SIS associated to homologous smooth cells can improve the quality of tissue repair, and consequently decrease the potential complications inherent to acellular SIS.
Tissue reconstruction; Bioengineered tissue; Cell therapy; SIS
Soundness of an individual horse is important for animal welfare and owner
economy. However, knowledge of health status in normal horse populations is
limited due to lack of systematic health recordings. The aim of the
investigation was to study the prevalence of veterinary clinical findings in
4-5-year-old Swedish warmblood riding horses, and their influence on overall
health scores, where associations to future longevity has been
The prevalence of clinical findings in 8,281 horses examined during
1983–2005 was studied according to a standardised protocol and related
to overall health scores in linear statistical models. Effects of sex, age,
examination event and changes over time were included. In total, 49% of the
horses had clinical findings of medical health (MED), 42% in hooves (HOOF)
and 74% of palpatory orthopaedic health (PALP). However, only 6%, 3% and 24%
had moderate or severe findings, of MED, HOOF and PALP, respectively.
Flexion test reactions were reported in 21% of the horses (5%
moderate/severe), heavily influencing the overall score (H2). One fifth of
these horses also had findings of unprovoked lameness while 83% had PALP
findings (44% with moderate/severe findings). Acute clinical signs, i.e.
heat or soreness, had a large influence on the H2 score but were rare,
whereas more common clinical findings had smaller effects on overall health.
Large variations in recorded health results were observed among events. A
decrease in findings has occurred since 1983, in particular for PALP
Results of occurrence and relevance of evaluated clinical findings could be
used for advice on preventive actions to keep horses sound, and possibly for
benchmarking, and genetic evaluation of health traits. The distinct effect
of event on recorded clinical findings emphasises that further harmonisation
of veterinary examinations are desirable.
Medical health; Orthopaedic health; Flexion test; Hoof; Clinical signs
Various physiotherapeutic evaluation methods are used to assess the functionality of dogs with stifle problems. Neither validity nor sensitivity of these methods has been investigated. This study aimed to determine the most valid and sensitive physiotherapeutic evaluation methods for assessing functional capacity in hind limbs of dogs with stifle problems and to serve as a basis for developing an indexed test for these dogs. A group of 43 dogs with unilateral surgically treated cranial cruciate ligament deficiency and osteoarthritic findings was used to test different physiotherapeutic evaluation methods. Twenty-one healthy dogs served as the control group and were used to determine normal variation in static weight bearing and range of motion.
The protocol consisted of 14 different evaluation methods: visual evaluation of lameness, visual evaluation of diagonal movement, visual evaluation of functional active range of motion and difference in thrust of hind limbs via functional tests (sit-to-move and lie-to-move), movement in stairs, evaluation of hind limb muscle atrophy, manual evaluation of hind limb static weight bearing, quantitative measurement of static weight bearing of hind limbs with bathroom scales, and passive range of motion of hind limb stifle (flexion and extension) and tarsal (flexion and extension) joints using a universal goniometer. The results were compared with those from an orthopaedic examination, force plate analysis, radiographic evaluation, and a conclusive assessment. Congruity of the methods was assessed with a combination of three statistical approaches (Fisher’s exact test and two differently calculated proportions of agreeing observations), and the components were ranked from best to worst. Sensitivities of all of the physiotherapeutic evaluation methods against each standard were calculated.
Evaluation of asymmetry in a sitting and lying position, assessment of muscle atrophy, manual and measured static weight bearing, and measurement of stifle passive range of motion were the most valid and sensitive physiotherapeutic evaluation methods.
Ranking of the various physiotherapeutic evaluation methods was accomplished. Several of these methods can be considered valid and sensitive when examining the functionality of dogs with stifle problems.
Canine; Stifle; Cranial cruciate ligament; Osteoarthrosis; Physiotherapy; Evaluation; Functional; Testing
The rates of congenital disorders in Swiss sheep were determined by a questionnaire which was sent to 3,183 members of the Swiss Sheep Breeders’ Association.
A total of 993 questionnaires were returned, giving a response rate of 31.2%. Of these, 862 questionnaires originated from farms keeping one of the predominant Swiss sheep breeds: Swiss White Alpine sheep, Brown-Headed Meat sheep, Swiss Black Brown Mountain sheep and Valais Blacknose sheep. During a 10-year-period, entropion was reported in 33.6% of the farms, brachygnathia inferior in 29.5%, abdominal/umbilical hernia in 15.9%, cryptorchidism in 10.5% and torticollis in 10.5%. The most significant difference between the four breeds (P < 0.001) occurred for entropion in Swiss White Alpine sheep and Brown-Headed Meat sheep, brachygnathia inferior in Swiss Black Brown Mountain sheep, and scrotal/inguinal hernia in Valais Blacknose sheep. The Swiss White Alpine breed showed a significantly higher animal prevalence of entropion (6.2% in 2011 and 5.5% in 2012) than other breeds (P < 0.001).
These findings indicate a breed-specific necessity for action, particularly regarding Swiss animal welfare legislation, especially entropion in Swiss White Alpine sheep is concerned. In general, careful selection of breeding stock is to be recommended.
Genetic disorders; Congenital disease; Sheep; Entropion; Brachygnathia inferior; Hernia; Cryptorchidism; torticollis
Mycobacterioses in animals cause economical losses and certain Mycobacterium avium subspecies are regarded as potential zoonotic agents. The evaluation of the zoonotic risk caused by M. avium subspecies requires information about the quantities of Mycobacterium strains in infected animals. Because M. avium subspecies in pig tissues are difficult or even impossible to quantify by culturing, we tested the suitability of a culture-independent real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for this purpose.
Mycobacterial DNA was extracted from porcine tissues by a novel method and quantified by Mycobacterium genus specific qPCR assay targeting the 16S rRNA gene.
The response of the qPCR assay to the amount of M. avium subspecies avium mixed with porcine liver was linear in the range of approximately log105 to log107Mycobacterium cells per 1 g of liver. The assay was validated with three other M. avium subspecies strains. When the assay was applied to porcine lymph nodes with or without visible lesions related to Mycobacterium avium subspecies infections, around 104–107 mycobacterial genomes per gram of lymph nodes were detected.
The qPCR assay was found to be suitable for the quantification of Mycobacterium avium subspecies in porcine lymph nodes and liver.
Mycobacterium; Pig; Porcine; Real-time qPCR; Quantification
Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The aim of the study was to retrospectively investigate the proportion and possible breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma using the Norwegian Canine Cancer Register for calculations of proportional morbidity ratios (PMRs) for the period 1998–2009.
Histologically verified tumours recorded in the Norwegian Canine Cancer Register were studied (n = 19,715). A total of 31 (0.16%) cases of canine gastric carcinomas were identified. The median age of affected dogs was 10 years. The most commonly reported clinical signs were vomiting, anorexia, and weight loss. Males had significantly higher odds of gastric carcinoma than females (P = 0.02). The PMR with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated for each breed, and a breed predisposition was identified. Individuals of the breeds Tervuren (PMR 56.1), Bouvier des Flandres (PMR 36.5), Groenendael (PMR 34.5), Collie (PMR 26.1), Standard poodle (PMR 7.6), and Norwegian elkhound (PMR 6.1) had a significantly increased risk of developing gastric carcinoma.
Discussion and conclusion
The proportion of cases of gastric carcinoma recorded in the Norwegian Canine Cancer Register was found to be 0.16%, and a breed predisposition was identified. The breed predisposition observed in the current study indicates a genetic susceptibility to gastric carcinoma.
Dog; Gastric carcinoma; Breed; Proportional morbidity ratio; Cancer registration
Convincing evidence exist that carnitine synthesis and uptake of carnitine into cells is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARA), a transcription factor which is physiologically activated during fasting or energy deprivation. Sows are typically in a negative energy balance during peak lactation. We investigated the hypothesis that genes involved in carnitine synthesis and uptake in the liver of sows are up-regulated during peak lactation.
Transcript levels of several PPARα target genes involved in fatty acid uptake (FABP4, SLC25A20), fatty acid oxidation (ACOX1, CYP4A24) and ketogenesis (HMGCS2, FGF21) were elevated in the liver of lactating compared to non-lactating sows (P < 0.05). In addition, transcript levels of genes involved in carnitine synthesis (ALDH9A1, TMLHE, BBOX1) and carnitine uptake (SLC22A5) in the liver were greater in lactating than in non-lactating sows (P < 0.05). Carnitine concentrations in liver and plasma were about 20% and 50%, respectively, lower in lactating than in non-lactating sows (P < 0.05), which is likely due to an increased loss of carnitine via the milk.
The results of the present study show that PPARα is activated in the liver of sows during lactation which leads to an up-regulation of genes involved in carnitine synthesis and carnitine uptake. The PPARα mediated up-regulation of genes involved in carnitine synthesis and uptake in the liver of lactating sows may be regarded as an adaptive mechanism to maintain hepatic carnitine levels at a level sufficient to transport excessive amounts of fatty acids into the mitochondrion.
Lactation; Sow; Liver; PPARα pathway; Carnitine