Background and purpose
Because of the varying structure of dysplastic hips, the optimal realignment of the joint during periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) may differ between patients. Three-dimensional (3D) mechanical and radiological analysis possibly accounts better for patient-specific morphology, and may improve and automate optimal joint realignment.
Patients and methods
We evaluated the 10-year outcomes of 12 patients following PAO. We compared 3D mechanical analysis results to both radiological and clinical measurements. A 3D discrete-element analysis algorithm was used to calculate the pre- and postoperative contact pressure profile within the hip. Radiological angles describing the coverage of the joint were measured using a computerized approach at actual and theoretical orientations of the acetabular cup. Quantitative results were compared using postoperative clinical evaluation scores (Harris score), and patient-completed outcome surveys (q-score) done at 2 and 10 years.
The 3D mechanical analysis indicated that peak joint contact pressure was reduced by an average factor of 1.7 subsequent to PAO. Lateral coverage of the femoral head increased in all patients; however, it did not proportionally reduce the maximum contact pressure and, in 1 case, the pressure increased. This patient had the lowest 10-year q-score (70 out of 100) of the cohort. Another hip was converted to hip arthroplasty after 3 years because of increasing osteoarthritis.
The 3D analysis showed that a reduction in contact pressure was theoretically possible for all patients in this cohort, but this could not be achieved in every case during surgery. While intraoperative factors may affect the actual surgical outcome, the results show that 3D contact pressure analysis is consistent with traditional PAO planning techniques (more so than 2D analysis) and may be a valuable addition to preoperative planning and intraoperative assessment of joint realignment.
Background and purpose Because of the varying structure of dysplastic hips, the optimal realignment of the joint during periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) may differ between patients. Three-dimensional (3D) mechanical and radiological analysis possibly accounts better for patient-specific morphology, and may improve and automate optimal joint realignment.
Patients and methods We evaluated the 10-year outcomes of 12 patients following PAO. We compared 3D mechanical analysis results to both radiological and clinical measurements. A 3D discrete-element analysis algorithm was used to calculate the pre- and postoperative contact pressure profile within the hip. Radiological angles describing the coverage of the joint were measured using a computerized approach at actual and theoretical orientations of the acetabular cup. Quantitative results were compared using postoperative clinical evaluation scores (Harris score), and patient-completed outcome surveys (q-score) done at 2 and 10 years.
Results The 3D mechanical analysis indicated that peak joint contact pressure was reduced by an average factor of 1.7 subsequent to PAO. Lateral coverage of the femoral head increased in all patients; however, it did not proportionally reduce the maximum contact pressure and, in 1 case, the pressure increased. This patient had the lowest 10-year q-score (70 out of 100) of the cohort. Another hip was converted to hip arthroplasty after 3 years because of increasing osteoarthritis.
Interpretation The 3D analysis showed that a reduction in contact pressure was theoretically possible for all patients in this cohort, but this could not be achieved in every case during surgery. While intraoperative factors may affect the actual surgical outcome, the results show that 3D contact pressure analysis is consistent with traditional PAO planning techniques (more so than 2D analysis) and may be a valuable addition to preoperative planning and intraoperative assessment of joint realignment.
Background and purpose It has been speculated that the prevalence of metal allergy may be higher in patients with implant failure. We compared the prevalence and cause of revisions following total hip arthroplasty (THA) in dermatitis patients suspected to have contact allergy and in patients in general with THA. Furthermore, we compared the prevalence of metal allergy in dermatitis patients with and without THA.
Materials and methods The Danish Hip Arthroplasty Registry (DHAR) contained detailed information on 90,697 operations. The Gentofte patch-test database contained test results for patients suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis (n = 18,794). Cases (n = 356) were defined as patch-tested dermatitis patients who also had primary THA performed. Two age- and sex-matched controls (n = 712) from the patch-test database were sought for each case.
Results The prevalence of revision was similar in cases (12%) and in patients from the DHAR (13%). The prevalence of metal allergy was similar in cases and controls. However, the prevalence of metal allergy was lower in cases who were patch-tested after operation (6%) than in those who were patch-tested before operation (16%) (OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1–8).
Interpretation We found that the risk of surgical revision was not increased in patients with metal allergies and that the risk of metal allergy was not increased in cases who were operated, in comparison to controls. Despite some important study limitations, our observations add to the evidence that the risk of complications in metal allergic patients seems limited.
Background Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) is a common genetically and clinically heterogeneous skeletal dysplasia characterized by early-onset osteoarthritis, mainly in the hip and knee, and mild-to-moderate short stature. Here we report on a 6-generation MED family with 17 affected members.
Method The clinical and radiographic data on the 12 affected members still living were scrutinized. A structured inquiry comprising state of health and MED-related symptoms since birth up to the present time and the osteoarthritis outcome (KOOS) questionnaire were sent to all living family members with MED. The 5 known gene loci for autosomal dominant MED were analyzed for linkage, using fluorescence-labeled microsatellite markers. Linkage was ascertained with markers close to the COL9A2 gene, which was analyzed for mutations by sequencing.
Results We identified an exon 3 donor splice mutation in the COL9A2 gene in all affected family members. Clinical, radiographic, and questionnaire data from affected family members suggested that MED caused by COL9A2 mutations starts in early childhood with knee pain accompanied by delayed ossification of femoral epiphyses. The disease then either stabilizes during puberty or progresses with additional joints becoming affected; joint surgery might be necessary. The progression of the disease also affects muscles, with increasing atrophy, resulting in muscle fatigue and pain. Muscular atrophy has not been reported earlier in cases with COL9A2 mutations.
Interpretation In a patient with clinically suspected or verified MED, it is important to perform DNA-based analysis to identify a possible disease-causing mutation. This information can be used to carry out genetic risk assessment of other family members and to achieve an early and correct diagnosis in the children.
Background and purpose Venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality following hip fracture. Previous work has not identified any risk factors associated with the type of hip fracture. We report the incidence of and risk factors for development of symptomatic VTE in patients following a hip fracture.
Patients and methods In this prospective study, we collected information on 5,300 consecutive patients who were admitted to a single unit with a hip fracture—in terms of their pre-admission status, details of any operation performed, and details of complications in the form of symptomatic venous thromboembolism. All patients received thromboprophylaxis with heparin.
Results The incidence of symptomatic VTE was 2.2% (95% CI: 1.8–2.6). 85% of these events occurred within 5 weeks of the fracture. The statistically significant risk factors for symptomatic VTE were better preoperative mobility, living in one's own home, high mental test score, high preoperative hemoglobin, inter-trochanteric fractures, and fixation with a dynamic hip screw. In multivariate analysis adjusting for sex and age, type of residence on admission, type of fracture, and hemoglobin values on admission remained independently significant.
Interpretation We found that the rate of symptomatic VTE using thromboprophylaxis with heparin was low but that there were a number of groups that were at a significantly higher risk of developing VTE. The patients who are particularly at risk appear to be those with a subtrochanteric or intertrochanteric hip fracture; here, the incidence of symptomatic VTE was twice that of intracapsular hip fractures.
Background and purpose Parathyroid hormone (PTH) has attracted considerable interest as a bone anabolic agent. Recently, it has been suggested that PTH can also enhance bone repair after fracture and distraction osteogenesis. We analyzed bone density and strength of the newly regenerated mineralized tissue after intermittent treatment with PTH in rabbits, which undergo Haversian bone remodeling similar to that in humans.
Methods 72 New Zealand White rabbits underwent tibial mid-diaphyseal osteotomy and the callus was distracted 1 mm/day for 10 days. The rabbits were divided into 3 groups, which received injections of PTH 25 µg/kg/day for 30 days, saline for 10 days and PTH 25 µg/kg/day for 20 days, or saline for 30 days. At the end of the study, the rabbits were killed and the bone density was evaluated with DEXA. The mechanical bone strength was determined by use of a 3-point bending test.
Results In the 2 PTH-treated groups the regenerate callus ultimate load was 33% and 30% higher, absorbed energy was 100% and 65% higher, BMC was 61% and 60% higher, and callus tissue volume was 179% and 197% higher than for the control group.
Interpretation We found that treatment with PTH during distraction osteogenesis resulted in substantially higher mineralized tissue volume, mineral content, and bending strength. This suggests that treatment with PTH may benefit new bone formation during distraction osteogenesis and could form a basis for clinical application of this therapy in humans.
Background Necrosis and inflammation in peri-implant soft tissues have been described in failed second-generation metal-on-metal (MoM) resurfacing hip arthroplasties and in the pseudotumors associated with these implants. The precise frequency and significance of these tissue changes is unknown.
Method We analyzed morphological and immunophenotypic changes in the periprosthetic soft tissues and femoral heads of 52 revised MoM arthroplasties (fracture in 21, pseudotumor in 13, component loosening in 9, and other causes in 9 cases).
Results Substantial necrosis was observed in the periprosthetic connective tissue in 28 of the cases, including all pseudotumors, and 5 cases of component loosening. A heavy, diffuse inflammatory cell infiltrate composed mainly of HLA-DR+/CD14+/CD68+ macrophages and CD3+ T cells was seen in 45 of the cases. Perivascular lymphoid aggregates composed of CD3+ cells and CD20+ B cells were noted in 27 of the cases, but they were not seen in all cases of component loosening or pseudotumors. Plasma cells were noted in 30 cases. Macrophage granulomas were noted in 6 cases of component loosening. In the bone marrow of the femoral head, a macrophage and T cell response was seen in 31 of the cases; lymphoid aggregates were noted in 19 of the cases and discrete granulomas in 1 case.
Interpretation Our findings indicate that there is a spectrum of necrotic and inflammatory changes in response to the deposition of cobalt-chrome (Co-Cr) wear particles in periprosthetic tissues. Areas of extensive coagulative necrosis and a macrophage and T lymphocyte response occur in implant failure and pseudotumors, in which there is also granuloma formation. The pathogenesis of these changes is uncertain but it may involve both a cytotoxic response and a delayed hypersensitivity (type IV) response to Co-Cr particles.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and related enzymes (ADAMs, ADAMTS) and their inhibitors control matrix turnover and function. Recent advances in our understanding of musculoskeletal conditions such as tendinopathy, arthritis, Dupuytren's disease, degenerative disc disease, and bone and soft tissue healing suggest that MMPs have prominant roles. Importantly, MMPs are amenable to inhibition by cheap, safe, and widely available drugs such as the tetracycline antibiotics and the bisphosphonates. This indicates that these MMP inhibitors, if proven effective for any novel indication, may be quickly brought into clinical practice.
Background and purpose One of the main concerns regarding resurfacing arthroplasty is the viability of the remaining part of the femoral head, and the postoperative risk of a femoral neck fracture or collapse. In contrast to radiographic methods, positron emission tomography using the radiotracer [18F]-fluoride (Fluoride-PET) enables us to visualize the viability of bone in the remaining part of the head, despite the presence of the covering metal component.
Patients and methods This is preliminary prospective study of 14 patients who underwent an ASR resurfacing arthroplasty. Apart from clinical and radiographic analyses, all patients were analyzed by PET scan 1 week, 4 months, and 1 year after surgery.
Results 1 patient had a minor region of osteonecrosis on PET scan at 1 week and at 4 months. After 1 year, the necrosis had increased to include most of the head. 2 other patients, normal at 4 months, had developed equally large osteonecrosis at 1 year. A fourth patient had a minor osteonecrosis at 1 year. None of the patients had clinical symptoms, and the necrotic areas were not visible on plain radiographs.
Conclusions We found Fluoride PET to be a sensitive and useful method for evaluation of bone metabolism at resurfacing arthroplasty. 3 of the 14 patients had developed osteonecrosis, involving most of the head at 1 year. The late onset of the phenomenon does not support the hypothesis of surgically damaged vascularity. The presence of this complication together with the lack of visibility on plain radiographs gives reason for concern.
Background Resurfacing is a popular alternative to a standard hip replacement in young arthritic patients. Despite bone preservation around the femoral component, there is little information regarding the bone quality.
Patients and methods 32 patients underwent consecutive Birmingham hip resurfacing. The bone density of the femoral neck was measured preoperatively and then at 6 weeks, 3 months, 1 year, and 2 years. The femoral neck was divided into regions of interest. Results were available for 27 hips in 26 patients.
Results The overall femoral neck bone density showed a trend towards a decrease at 6 weeks and 3 months but returned to the preoperative level at 1 year, and was maintained at 2 years. The combined superior regions of the neck showed a statistically significant decrease in bone density at 6 weeks and 3 months. This returned to preoperative levels at 1 year and was maintained at 2 years.
Interpretation Bone density appears to decrease at 6 weeks and 3 months, suggesting that care is necessary until bone density begins to recover.
Background and purpose Three-dimensionally (3D-) embedded chondrocytes have been suggested to maintain the chondrocytic phenotype. Furthermore, mechanical stress and growth factors have been found to be capable of enhancing cell proliferation and ECM synthesis. We investigated the effect of mechanical loading and growth factors on reactivation of the 3D-embedded chondrocytes.
Methods Freshly isolated chondrocytes from rat articular cartilage were grown in monolayer cultures and then in collagen gel. Real-time RT-PCR and histological analysis for aggrecan and type II and type I collagen was performed to evaluate their chondrocytic activity. Then, the 3D-embedded chondrocytes were cultured under either mechanical loading alone or in combination with growth factor. The dynamic compression (5% compression, 0.33 Hz) was loaded for 4 durations: 0, 10, 60, and 120 min/day. The growth factor administered was either basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2).
Results Mechanical loading statistically significantly reactivated the aggrecan and type II collagen expression with loading of 60 min/day as compared to the other durations. The presence of BMP-2 and bFGF clearly enhanced the aggrecan and type II collagen expression of 3D-embedded chondrocytes. Unlike previous reports using monolayer chondrocytes, however, BMP-2 or bFGF did not augment the chondrocytic phenotype when applied together with mechanical loading.
Interpretation Dynamic compression effectively reactivated the dedifferentiated chondrocytes in 3D culture. However, the growth factors did not play any synergistic role when applied with dynamic compressive loading, suggesting that growth factors should be administered at different time points during regeneration of the transplantation-ready cartilage.
Background and purpose Two-dimensional computerized radiographic techniques are frequently used to measure in vivo polyethylene (PE) wear after total hip arthroplasty (THA), and several variables in the clinical set-up may influence the amount of wear that is measured. We compared the repeatability and concurrent validity of linear PE wear on plain radiographs using the same software but a different number of radiographs.
Methods We used either 1, 2, or 6 anteroposterior (AP) hip radiographs of 11 patients from a clinical THA series with 12 years of follow-up, and measured the PE wear with the software PolyWare 3D Pro. Repeatability within and concurrent validity between the different numbers of radiograph strategies were assessed using limits of agreement (LOAs) and bias.
Results Observed median wear (range) in mm was 3.4 (1.6–4.6), 2.3 (0.7–4.9), and 4.0 (2.6–6.2) for the 1-, 2-, and 6-radiograph strategies. For repeatability, no bias (p > 0.41) was observed. LOAs around the bias were ± 0.6, ± 0.4, and ± 1.2 mm for the 1-, 2-, and 6-radiograph strategies. For concurrent validity, a bias (± LOA) between all pairwise comparisons was observed (p < 0.02) with 0.8 mm (± 2.5) between the 1- and 2-radiograph strategies, 1.0 mm (± 2.2) between the 1- and 6-radiograph strategies, and 1.8 mm (± 1.2) between the 2- and 6-radiograph strategies.
Interpretation The number of radiographs used for wear measurement with a shadow-casting analysis method on plain AP radiographs influences the amount of linear wear measured. Results of PE wear obtained with PolyWare in studies using a different number of radiographs are not comparable.
Background and purpose Reports regarding the relationship between delayed surgery and mortality in femoral neck fracture patients are contradictory. We could not find any study in the literature investigating delayed arrival to hospital and delayed surgery as separate factors affecting mortality in femoral neck fracture patients, which was the purpose of our study.
Patients and methods We analyzed 265 consecutive patients with displaced femoral neck fractures. We recorded the time period from trauma to admission, and to surgery, and correlated it to mortality during the first postoperative year.
Results We found that arrival within 6 hours had 0.4 times (CI 0.2–0.8) reduction of the risk of death within 1 year compared to those who arrived later, whereas delayed surgery after admission did not have a statistically significant effect on mortality.
Interpretation Femoral neck fracture patients who arrived at hospital 6 hours or later after the trauma had increased mortality.
Background and purpose Few studies have been concerned with the patient's perception of the outcome of limb lengthening. We describe the psychological and social functioning after at least 2 years of follow-up in patients who had had a leg length discrepancy and who had undergone an Ilizarov limb lengthening procedure.
Patients and methods Self-esteem and perceived competence were measured in 37 patients (aged 17–30 years) both preoperatively and at a mean follow-up of 7 (2–14) years. At follow-up, health-related quality of life, functioning at school, daily activities, and treatment-related experiences were measured, and also retrospectively for the preoperative period.
Results Preoperative and follow-up scores for self-esteem were similar. Overall perceived competence scores at follow-up were comparable to that of a healthy normal population. Patients' perceived athletic competence was lower and their perceived level of behavioral conduct was higher. At follow-up, patients had more positive appraisal of their physical appearance. Most health-related quality of life scores were not significantly different to those of the healthy normal population, apart from a reduced gross motor function, less vitality, and more pain. Patients with a remaining leg length inequality (LLI) of more than 2 cm had lower quality of life scores for gross motor function, sleep, pain, vitality, and depressive feelings.
Interpretation At an average of 7 years after an Ilizarov limb lengthening procedure, patients still have physical restraints, but they appear to have normal psychosocial functioning, self-esteem, and perceived competence. These patients have quality of life scores comparable to those of norm groups, apart from a reduced gross motor function, less vitality and more pain. Residual LLI of more than 2 cm remains important even after long-term follow-up; these patients report lower quality of life.
Background and purpose Over the decades, improvements in surgery and perioperative routines have reduced the incidence of deep infections after total hip arthroplasty (THA). There is, however, some evidence to suggest that the incidence of infection is increasing again. We assessed the risk of revision due to deep infection for primary THAs reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register (NAR) over the period 1987–2007.
Method We included all primary cemented and uncemented THAs reported to the NAR from September 15, 1987 to January 1, 2008 and performed adjusted Cox regression analyses with the first revision due to deep infection as endpoint. Changes in revision rate as a function of the year of operation were investigated.
Results Of the 97,344 primary THAs that met the inclusion criteria, 614 THAs had been revised due to deep infection (5-year survival 99.46%). Risk of revision due to deep infection increased throughout the period studied. Compared to the THAs implanted in 1987–1992, the risk of revision due to infection was 1.3 times higher (95%CI: 1.0–1.7) for those implanted in 1993–1997, 1.5 times (95% CI: 1.2–2.0) for those implanted in 1998–2002, and 3.0 times (95% CI: 2.2–4.0) for those implanted in 2003–2007. The most pronounced increase in risk of being revised due to deep infection was for the subgroup of uncemented THAs from 2003–2007, which had an increase of 5 times (95% CI: 2.6–11) compared to uncemented THAs from 1987–1992.
Interpretation The incidence of deep infection after THA increased during the period 1987–2007. Concomitant changes in confounding factors, however, complicate the interpretation of the results.
Background and purpose There are rising concerns about the frequency of infection after arthroplasty surgery. Prophylactic antibiotics are an important part of the preventive measures. As their effect is related to the timing of administration, it is important to follow how the routines with preoperative prophylactic antibiotics are working.
Methods In 114 consecutive cases treated at our own university clinic in Lund during 2008, the time of administration of preoperative prophylactic antibiotic in relation to the start of surgery was recorded from a computerized operation report. In 291 other cases of primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA), randomly selected from the Swedish Knee Arthroplasty Register (SKAR), the type and dose of prophylactic antibiotic as well as the time of administration in relation to the inflation of a tourniquet and to the start of surgery was recorded from anesthetic records.
Results 45% (95% CI: 36–54) of the patients operated in Lund and 57% (CI: 50–64) of the TKAs randomly selected from the SKAR received the preoperative antibiotic 15–45 min before the start of surgery. 53% (CI: 46–61) received antibiotics 15–45 min before inflation of a tourniquet.
Interpretation The inadequate timing of prophylactic antibiotics indicates that the standards of strict antiseptic and aseptic routines in arthroplasty surgery are falling. The use of a simple checklist to ensure the surgical safety may be one way of reducing infections in arthroplasty surgery.
Background and purpose Giant cell tumors (GCTs) of bone rarely affect the pelvis. We report on 20 cases that have been treated at our institution during the last 20 years.
Methods 20 patients with histologically benign GCT of the pelvis were included in this study. 9 tumors were primarily located in the iliosacral area, 6 in the acetabular area, and 5 in the ischiopubic area. 8 patients were treated by intralesional curettage and 6 by intralesional resection with additional curettage of the margins. 3 patients with iliacal tumors were treated by wide resection. 2 patients were treated by a combination of external beam irradiation and surgery, and 1 patient solely by irradiation. In addition, 9 patients received selective arterial embolization one day before surgery. Of the 6 patients with acetabular tumors, 1 secondarily received an endoprosthesis and 1 was primarily treated by hip transposition. The patients were followed for a median time of 3 (1–11) years.
Results 1 patient with a pubic tumor developed a local recurrence 1 year after intralesional resection and additional curettage of the margins. The recurrence presented as a small soft tissue mass within the scar tissue of the gluteal muscles and was treated by resection. No secondary sarcoma was detected and none of the patients developed pulmonary metastases or multicentricity. No major complication occurred during surgery.
Interpretation We conclude that most GCTs of the pelvis can be treated by intralesional procedures. For tumors of the iliac wing, wide resection can be an alternative. Surgical treatment of tumors affecting the acetabular region often results in functional impairment. Pre-surgical selective arterial embolization appears to be a safe procedure that may reduce the risk of local recurrence.
Background and purpose Immobilization in external rotation (ER) for shoulder dislocation has been reported to improve the coaptation of Bankart lesions to the glenoid. We compared the position of the labrum in patients treated with immobilization in ER or internal rotation (IR). A secondary aim was to evaluate the rate of Bankart lesions.
Patients and methods 55 patients with primary anterior shoulder dislocation, aged between 16 and 40 years, were randomized to immobilization in ER or IR. Computer tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed shortly after the injury. After the immobilization, MRI arthrography was performed. We evaluated the rate of Bankart lesions and measured the separation and displacement of the labrum as well as the length of the detached part of the capsule on the glenoid neck.
Results Immobilization in ER reduced the number of Bankart lesions (OR = 3.8, 95% CI: 1.1 –13; p = 0.04). Separation decreased to a larger extent in the ER group than in the IR group (mean difference 0.6 mm, 95% CI: 0.1 – 1.1, p = 0.03). Displacement of the labrum and the detached part of the capsule showed no significant differences between the groups.
Interpretation Immobilization in ER results in improved coaptation of the labrum after primary traumatic shoulder dislocation.
Background Notching of the anterior femoral cortex in distal femoral fractures following TKR has been observed clinically and studied biomechanically. It has been hypothesized that femoral notching weakens the cortex of the femur, which can predispose to femoral fractures in the early postoperative period. We examined the relationship between notching of the anterior femoral cortex during total knee replacement (TKR) and supracondylar fracture.
Patients and methods Postoperative lateral radiographs of 200 TKRs were reviewed at an average of 9 (6–15) years postoperatively. 72 knees (41%) showed notching of the anterior femoral cortex. Notches were classified into 4 grades using the Tayside classification as follows. Grade I: violation of the outer table of the anterior femoral cortex; grade II: violation of the outer and the inner table of the anterior femoral cortex; grade III: violation up to 25% of the medullary canal (from the inner table to the center of the medullary canal); grade IV: violation up to 50% of the medullary canal (from the inner table to the center of the medullary canal) and unclassifiable.
Results The interobserver variability of the classification system using Cohen's Kappa score was found to be substantially reliable. 3 of the 200 TKRs sustained later supracondylar fractures. One of these patients had grade II femoral notching and the other 2 showed no notching. The patient with femoral notching sustained a supracondylar fracture of the femur following a simple fall at home 9 years after TKR.
Interpretation There is no relationship between minimal anterior femoral notching and supracondylar fracture of the femur in TKR.