Obesity contributes much to the development of knee osteoarthritis. However, the association between obesity and outcome after knee replacement is controversial. We investigated whether there was an association between the preoperative body mass index (BMI) of patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and their quality of life (QoL) and physical function 3–5 years after surgery.
197 patients who had undergone primary TKA participated in a 3–5 year follow-up study. The outcome measures were the patient-reported Short Form 36 (SF-36) and the American Knee Society score (KSS).
Ordinal logistic regression analysis (adjusted for age, sex, disease, and surgical approach) revealed a statistically significant correlation between BMI and 9 of the 14 outcome measures. For all outcome measures, we found an odds ratio (OR) of < 1. A difference in BMI of 1 kg/m2 increased the risk of a lower score from a minimum of 2% (OR = 0.98 (0.93–1.03); p = 0.5) (Mental Component score) to a maximum of 13% (OR = 0.87 (0.82–0.93); p < 0.001) (KSS function score).
Our findings indicate that TKA patients’ preoperative BMI is a predictor of the clinical effect and patients’ quality of life 3–5 years postoperatively. A high BMI increases the risk of poor QoL (SF-36) and physical function (KSS).
Background and purpose
Earlier studies have suggested that the hip extension angle and the hip flexor moment in walking are affected by hip dysplasia, but to our knowledge there have been no reports on running or evaluations of self-reported health. We evaluated differences in walking, running, and self-reported health between young adults with symptomatic hip dysplasia and healthy controls.
Patients and methods
Walking and running in 32 patients with hip dysplasia, mean 34 (18–53) years old, was compared with walking and running in 32 controls, mean 33 (18–54) years old. Joint kinematics and kinetics—quantified by the peak hip extension angle and the peak net joint moment of hip flexion during walking and running—were recorded using a motion-capture system, and health was evaluated using the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS).
The peak hip extension angle during walking was less in the patients than in the controls (–10.4 (SD 4.8) degrees vs. –13.2 (SD 4.5) degrees; p = 0.02). Similarly, the peak net joint moment of hip flexion during walking was lower in the patients than in the controls (0.57 (SD 0.13) N*m/kg vs. 0.70 (SD 0.22) N*m/kg; p = 0.008). In all dimensions of HAGOS, the patients scored lower than the controls. Furthermore, the hip extension angle and the net joint moment of hip flexion correlated with the HAGOS subscales pain and physical function in sport and recreation.
Patients with symptomatic hip dysplasia do modify walking and running, and we therefore suggest that the impairment found in this study should play an important role in the evaluation of later operative and training interventions.
A periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is the preferred joint preserving treatment for young adults with symptomatic hip dysplasia and no osteoarthritis. In symptomatic dysplasia of the hip, there is labral pathology in up to 90% of cases. However, no consensus exists as to whether a labral tear should be treated before the periacetabular osteotomy (PAO), treated simultaneously with the PAO, or left alone and only treated if symptoms persist after the PAO. This review is an update of aspects of labral anatomy and function, the etiology of labral tears in hip dysplasia, and diagnostic assessment of labral tears, and we discuss treatment strategies for coexisting labral tears and hip dysplasia.
The surface texture, localization, and magnitude of the surface material applied to the femoral stem can facilitate bone ingrowth and influence the survival of total hip arthroplasties. Clinical and radiographic studies have shown superior bone ingrowth in proximally porous-coated stems with a diaphyseal grit-blasted surface in comparison to a smooth diaphyseal surface. Surface textures—especially porous surface material—have been suggested to have a sealing effect against migration of polyethylene debris along the implant-bone interface and to reduce the inflammatory response, leading to a prolonged implant survival.
Patients and methods
Between 2004 and 2006, we conducted a randomized, controlled trial (RCT) involving 50 patients with non-inflammatory arthritis. They received either a distally tapered, extended coated stem or a straight, proximally coated stem. During surgery, tantalum markers were inserted into the greater and lesser trochanter. Implant migration was evaluated at 3, 12, and 24 months postoperatively by radiostereometric analysis. The primary endpoint was stem migration 2 years after surgery.
All femoral components in both groups showed pronounced distal translation, with the highest rate of translation occurring between 0 and 3 months. After 2 years, the mean distal translation was 2.67 (95% CI: –3.93 to –1.42) mm for the tapered, extended coated stem and 1.80 (–2.45 to –1.15) mm for the straight, proximally coated stem. Half of the tapered, extended coated stems and two-thirds of the straight, proximally coated stems had migrated more than 1 mm. No difference between the 2 stems could be seen with regard to translation or rotation at any time point. After 2 years, 2 hips have been reoperated due to mechanical loosening of the stem.
An excessive amount of migration of both stem types was seen 2 years postoperatively. It is of vital importance to follow this patient cohort since radiostereometric analysis is known to be predictive of late implant failure, especially in this study where pronounced early migration was observed. We recommend longer follow-up of both stem types.
Background and purpose
A proximal stem centralizer may be beneficial regarding cementing pressures, cement penetration, and stem alignment. We measured these parameters when cementing a mat-surfaced femoral component with and without the use of a proximal stem centralizer.
Material and methods
8 femoral prostheses with proximal centralizers and 8 femoral prostheses without proximal centralizers were cemented according to third-generation cementing technique in 8 pairs of embalmed cadaveric femora. We recorded intramedullary pressures (peak levels, the area under the pressure curves and mean pressure) with 6 pressure transducers during stem cementation. Computer tomographic scanning of specimens was performed to evaluate stem alignment after surgery. Thickness of the cement mantle, cement penetration, and stem centralization at the metaphyseal part of the femur were measured on cross sections using stereology.
There were no statistically significant differences in measured pressure and cement penetration values between the groups. There was similar cement distribution around the stems; however, in using a proximal centralizer, the cement mantle tended to be thinner laterally. Moreover, we found a larger variation in stem alignment on lateral projection in the proximal centralizer group.
No benefits regarding intramedullary pressures and cement penetration were obtained from cementation of a straight stem with a proximal stem centralizer. However, there was an increased risk of inferior stem positioning in the reamed medullary cavity using the centralizing device.
Background and purpose
Lasting stability of cementless implants depends on osseointegration into the implant surface, and long-term implant fixation can be predicted using radiostereometric analysis (RSA) with short-term follow-up. We hypothesized that there would be improved fixation of high-porosity trabecular metal (TM) tibial components compared to low-porosity titanium pegged porous fiber-metal (Ti) polyethylene metal backings.
In a prospective, parallel-group, randomized unblinded clinical trial, we compared cementless tibial components in patients aged 70 years and younger with osteoarthritis. The pre-study sample size calculation was 22 patients per group. 25 TM tibial components were fixed press-fit by 2 hexagonal pegs (TM group) and 25 Ti tibial components were fixed press-fit and by 4 supplemental screws (Ti group). Stereo radiographs for evaluation of absolute component migration (primary effect size) and single-direction absolute component migration (secondary effect size) were obtained within the first postoperative week and at 6 weeks, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years. American Knee Society score was used for clinical assessment preoperatively, and at 1 and 2 years.
There were no intraoperative complications, and no postoperative infections or revisions. All patients had improved function and regained full extension. All tibial components migrated initially. Most migration of the TM components (n = 24) occurred within the first 3 months after surgery whereas migration of the Ti components (n = 22) appeared to stabilize first after 1 year. The TM components migrated less than the Ti components at 1 year (p = 0.01) and 2 years (p = 0.004).
We conclude that the mechanical fixation of TM tibial components is superior to that of screw-fixed Ti tibial components. We expect long-term implant survival to be better with the TM tibial component.
Background and purpose
In vitro expansion of autologous chondrocytes is an essential part of many clinically used cartilage repair treatments. Native chondrocytes reside in a 3-dimensional (3D) network and are exposed to low levels of oxygen. We compared monolayer culture to combined 3D and hypoxic culture using quantitative gene expression analysis.
Cartilage biopsies were collected from the intercondylar groove in the distal femur from 12 patients with healthy cartilage. Cells were used for either monolayer or scaffold culture. The scaffolds were clinically available MPEG-PLGA scaffolds (ASEED). After harvesting of cells for baseline investigation, the remainder was divided into 3 groups for incubation in conditions of normoxia (21% oxygen), hypoxia (5% oxygen), or severe hypoxia (1% oxygen). RNA extractions were performed 1, 2, and 6 days after the baseline time point, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed using assays for RNA encoding collagen types 1 and 2, aggrecan, sox9, ankyrin repeat domain-37, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase relative to 2 hypoxia-stable housekeeping genes.
Sox9, aggrecan, and collagen type 2 RNA expression increased with reduced oxygen. On day 6, the expression of collagen type 2 and aggrecan RNA was higher in 3D culture than in monolayer culture.
Our findings suggest that there was a combined positive effect of 3D culture and hypoxia on cartilage-specific gene expression. The positive effects of 3D culture alone were not detected until day 6, suggesting that seeding of chondrocytes onto a scaffold for matrix-assisted chondrocyte implantation should be performed earlier than 2 days before implantation.
Background and purpose
Adequate depth of cement penetration and cement mantle thickness is important for the durability of cemented cups. A flanged cup, as opposed to unflanged, has been suggested to give a more uniform cement mantle and superior cement pressurization, thus improving the depth of cement penetration. This hypothesis was tested experimentally.
Materials and methods
The same cup design with and without flange (both without cement spacers) was investigated regarding intraacetabular pressure, cement mantle thickness, and depth of cement penetration. With machine control, the cups were inserted into open-pore ceramic acetabular models (10 flanged, 10 unflanged) and into paired cadaver acetabuli (10 flanged, 10 unflanged) with prior pressurization of the cement.
No differences in intraacetabular pressures during cup insertion were found, but unflanged cups tended to migrate more towards the acetabular pole. Flanged cups resulted in thicker cement mantles because of less bottoming out, whereas no differences in cement penetration into the bone were observed.
Flanged cups do not generate higher cementation pressure or better cement penetration than unflanged cups. A possible advantage of the flange, however, may be to protect the cup from bottoming out, and there is possibly better closure of the periphery around the cup, sealing off the cement-bone interface.
Background and purpose
Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) is a highly accurate tool for assessment of polyethylene (PE) wear in total hip arthroplasty (THA); however, PE wear measurements in clinical studies are often limited to plain radiographs. We evaluated the agreement between PE wear measured with PolyWare software, which uses plain radiographs, and by model-based RSA, which uses stereo radiographs.
Measurements of PE wear postoperatively and at final follow-up (after mean 6 years) on plain radiographs of 12 patients after cementless THA were evaluated with PolyWare software and the results were compared with those from RSA as the gold standard (Model-based RSA using elementary geometrical shape models; EGS-RSA). With PolyWare, we either used the final radiographic follow-up (PW1) only or both the postoperative follow-up and the final follow-up (PW2).
The 2D mean wear measured (in mm) was 0.80, 1.07, and 0.60 for the PW2, PW1, and RSA method. 2D intra-method repeatability was similar for PW1 and RSA with limits of agreement (LOAs, in mm) of ± 0.22, and ± 0.23, respectively. 2D inter-method concurrent validity was best between PW1 and EGS-RSA with LOAs of ± 0.55. For 2D linear wear measurements, the PW1 method had a clinical repeatability similar to that of RSA.
PW1 is sufficient for retrospective determination of 2D wear from medium-term wear measurements above 0.5 mm, It alleviates the need for baseline plain radiographs, has a clinical precision similar to that of RSA, and is easy and inexpensive to use.
There have been few studies describing wound infiltration with additional intraarticular administration of multimodal analgesia for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). In this study, we assessed the efficacy of wound infiltration combined with intraarticular regional analgesia with epidural infusion on analgesic requirements and postoperative pain after TKA.
40 consecutive patients undergoing elective, primary TKA were randomized into 2 groups to receive either (1) intraoperative wound infiltration with 150 mL ropivacaine (2 mg/mL), 1 mL ketorolac (30 mg/mL), and 0.5 mL epinephrine (1 mg/mL) (total volume 152 mL) combined with intraarticular infusion (4 mL/h) of 190 mL ropivacaine (2 mg/mL) plus 2 mL ketorolac (30 mg/mL) (group A), or (2) epidural infusion (4 mL/h) of 192 mL ropivacaine (2 mg/mL) combined with 6 intravenous administrations of 0.5 mL ketorolac (30 mg/mL) for 48 h postoperatively (group E). For rescue analgesia, intravenous patient-controlled-analgesia (PCA) morphine was used.
Morphine consumption, intensity of knee pain (0–100 mm visual analog scale), and side effects were recorded. Length of stay and corrected length of stay were also recorded (the day-patients fulfilled discharge criteria).
The median cumulated morphine consumption, pain scores at rest, and pain scores during mobilization were reduced in group A compared to group E. Corrected length of stay was reduced by 25% in group A compared to group E.
Peri- and intraarticular analgesia with multimodal drugs provided superior pain relief and reduced morphine consumption compared with continuous epidural infusion with ropivacaine combined with intravenous ketorolac after TKA.
Background and purpose
The appearance of acetabular version differs between the supine and weight bearing positions in developmental dysplasia of the hip. Weight bearing radiographic evaluation has been recommended to ensure the best coherence between symptoms, functional appearance, and hip deformities. Previous prevalence estimates of acetabular retroversion in dysplastic hips have been established in radiographs recorded with the patient supine and with inclusion only if pelvic tilt met standardized criteria. We assessed the prevalence and the extent of acetabular retroversion in dysplastic hip joints in weight bearing pelvic radiographs.
Patients and methods
We assessed 95 dysplastic hip joints (54 patients) in weight bearing anteroposterior pelvic radiographs, measuring the acetabular height and the distance from the acetabular roof to the point of crossing of the acetabular rims, if present.
Acetabular retroversion was found in 31 of 95 dysplastic hip joints. In 28 of 31 hip joints with retroversion, crossover of the acetabular rims was positioned within the cranial 30% sector. The degree of pelvic tilt differed between retroverted and non-retroverted dysplastic hip joints, though only reaching a statistically significant level in male dysplastic hip joints.
We identified cranial acetabular retroversion in one-third of dysplastic hip joints when assessed on weight bearing pelvic radiographs. If assessed on pelvic radiographs obtained with the patient supine, and with inclusion only if the degree of pelvic tilt meets standardized criteria, the prevalence of acetabular retroversion may be underestimated.
Background and purpose
The quality and quantity of bone is important for the success of joint prostheses and may be monitored by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Available protocols suggest that the knee should be positioned in full extension. This is not possible for most patients in the first days after surgery; however, deficits in extension normalize with rehabilitation. Individual knee flexion between the baseline and follow-up investigations may therefore be different. We investigated the sensitivity of bone mineral density (BMD) measurements to knee flexion in a phantom study and in patients. We suggest a protocol for clinical use.
2 phantom tibial bones with tibia components were secured in a clamp and BMD measurements were repeated 5 times at every 5° change in flexion from 0° to 20°. For clinical use, a soft foam positioner was produced, in which the lower leg could be placed in neutral rotation and with the knee in approximately 25° of flexion. The clinical repeatability was tested with double examinations in 38 patients. We investigated 3 regions of interest (ROIs) below the tibial plateau.
In the phantom study, just 5° of flexion was found to change the measured mean BMD. The reproducibility of clinical measurements (coefficient of variation) in the 3 ROIs assessed ranged from 1.8% to 3.7% for the anteroposterior scans, and from 3.4% to 6.2% for the lateral scans.
Knee flexion does affect the measured periprosthetic tibial BMD, and knee flexion should be the same at all clinical follow-ups. The protocol and soft foam positioner that we suggest permit precise and reliable assessment of BMD in the proximal tibia and they can be used in clinical work.
Background and purpose It has been speculated that the prevalence of metal allergy may be higher in patients with implant failure. We compared the prevalence and cause of revisions following total hip arthroplasty (THA) in dermatitis patients suspected to have contact allergy and in patients in general with THA. Furthermore, we compared the prevalence of metal allergy in dermatitis patients with and without THA.
Materials and methods The Danish Hip Arthroplasty Registry (DHAR) contained detailed information on 90,697 operations. The Gentofte patch-test database contained test results for patients suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis (n = 18,794). Cases (n = 356) were defined as patch-tested dermatitis patients who also had primary THA performed. Two age- and sex-matched controls (n = 712) from the patch-test database were sought for each case.
Results The prevalence of revision was similar in cases (12%) and in patients from the DHAR (13%). The prevalence of metal allergy was similar in cases and controls. However, the prevalence of metal allergy was lower in cases who were patch-tested after operation (6%) than in those who were patch-tested before operation (16%) (OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1–8).
Interpretation We found that the risk of surgical revision was not increased in patients with metal allergies and that the risk of metal allergy was not increased in cases who were operated, in comparison to controls. Despite some important study limitations, our observations add to the evidence that the risk of complications in metal allergic patients seems limited.
Background and purpose Two-dimensional computerized radiographic techniques are frequently used to measure in vivo polyethylene (PE) wear after total hip arthroplasty (THA), and several variables in the clinical set-up may influence the amount of wear that is measured. We compared the repeatability and concurrent validity of linear PE wear on plain radiographs using the same software but a different number of radiographs.
Methods We used either 1, 2, or 6 anteroposterior (AP) hip radiographs of 11 patients from a clinical THA series with 12 years of follow-up, and measured the PE wear with the software PolyWare 3D Pro. Repeatability within and concurrent validity between the different numbers of radiograph strategies were assessed using limits of agreement (LOAs) and bias.
Results Observed median wear (range) in mm was 3.4 (1.6–4.6), 2.3 (0.7–4.9), and 4.0 (2.6–6.2) for the 1-, 2-, and 6-radiograph strategies. For repeatability, no bias (p > 0.41) was observed. LOAs around the bias were ± 0.6, ± 0.4, and ± 1.2 mm for the 1-, 2-, and 6-radiograph strategies. For concurrent validity, a bias (± LOA) between all pairwise comparisons was observed (p < 0.02) with 0.8 mm (± 2.5) between the 1- and 2-radiograph strategies, 1.0 mm (± 2.2) between the 1- and 6-radiograph strategies, and 1.8 mm (± 1.2) between the 2- and 6-radiograph strategies.
Interpretation The number of radiographs used for wear measurement with a shadow-casting analysis method on plain AP radiographs influences the amount of linear wear measured. Results of PE wear obtained with PolyWare in studies using a different number of radiographs are not comparable.
Background and purpose Hydroxyapatite (HA) coating stimulates the osseointegration of cementless orthopedic implants. Recently, locally released osteogenic growth factors have also been shown experimentally to stimulate osseointegration so that bone fills gaps around orthopedic implants. Here, we have compared the effect of local release of TGF-β 1 and IGF-1 with that of hydroxyapatite coating on implant fixation.
Method Weight-bearing implants with a 0.75-mm surrounding gap were inserted bilaterally in the knees of 10 dogs. Growth factors were incorporated in a biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide) coating on porous coated titanium implants. Plasma-sprayed HA implants served as controls. The dogs were killed at 4 weeks and the implants were evaluated by mechanical push-out test and by histomorphometry.
Results There was no difference in any of the mechanical parameters. Bone ongrowth was 3-fold higher for HA-coated implants (p < 0.001). For growth factor-coated implants, bone volume was 26% higher in the inner half of the gap and 28% higher in the outer half compared to HA (p < 0.03).
Interpretation- The mechanical fixation of porous-coated titanium implants with local growth factor release is comparable to that of HA coating. While HA mainly stimulated bone ongrowth, local release of TGFβ 1 and IGF-1 stimulated gap healing.
Background and purpose Total hip replacement (THR) in congenitally dislocated hips (CDHs) according to Paavilainen includes placement of the cup in the original acetabulum and an extended trochanteric osteotomy with distal advancement of the trochanter. There have only been a few reports describing the outcome of this technique. Thus, we report the results of 19 THRs using the Paavilainen technique.
Methods 10 women and 5 men with an average age of 38 (16–73) years at the time of surgery (19 hips) were followed for mean 4.8 (1.5–10) years. The patients were evaluated clinically with the Harris hip score (HHS) and radiographically using the Gruen and Charnley classification.
Results All patients experienced substantial improvement in walking ability and relief of pain. Trendelenburg test was positive in 18 hips preoperatively, and only in 1 postoperatively. 1 case had transient incomplete peroneal palsy. There were 4 cases of intraoperative fissures of the proximal femur. No infections occurred, and no aseptic loosening was observed. 3 hips dislocated in the follow-up period; 2 were reduced open and 1 had a closed reduction. Due to wear of the polyethylene, 3 patients needed replacement of the liner.
Interpretation These intermediate to long-term results indicate that the Paavilainen technique provides a functional hip with a limited rate of complications. Wear of the polyethylene liner is, however, still an unresolved issue.
Background and purpose An acetabular labral tear is a diagnostic challenge. Various clinical tests have been described, but little is known about their diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. We investigated the diagnostic validity of clinical tests and ultra-sound as compared with MR arthrography.
Patients and methods We examined 18 patients (18 hips, 2 men, median age 43 (32–56) years) with impingement test, FABER test, resisted straight leg raise test, ultrasound, and MR arthrography. They had had previous periacetabular osteotomies due to symptomatic, acetabular dysplasia. All hips showed no or only slight signs of osteoarthritis (Tönnis grade 0–1).
Results MR arthrography identified labral tears in 17 of the 18 hips. Ultrasound had a sensitivity of 94%, a positive predictive value of 94%, and was false negative in only 1 case compared to MR arthrography. The impingement test had the best diagnostic ability of the clinical tests, with a sensitivity of 59% and a specificity of 100%. The positive predictive value was 100% while the negative predictive value was 13%.
Interpretation The impingement test is helpful in identifying acetabular labral tears. If this test is negative and if a labral tear is still suspected, ultrasound can reliably diagnose most tears of the acetabular labrum. MR arthrography is indicated in cases where ultrasound is negative, but the patient suffers continued, specific symptoms.