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1.  Prosthetic joint infections – a need for health economy studies 
Acta Orthopaedica  2014;85(3):218-220.
PMCID: PMC4062785  PMID: 24758324
2.  Consensus document on prosthetic joint infections 
Acta Orthopaedica  2013;84(6):507-508.
PMCID: PMC3851661  PMID: 24286568
3.  Bacterial colonization and resistance patterns in 133 patients undergoing a primary hip- or knee replacement in Southern Sweden 
Acta Orthopaedica  2013;84(1):87-91.
Background and purpose
Prosthetic joint infections can be caused by bacteria derived from the patient’s skin. The aim of the study was: (1) to determine which bacteria colonize the nose and groin in patients planned for primary hip or knee arthroplasty, (2) to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns, and (3) to monitor changes in bacterial colonization and resistance patterns connected to surgery.
Patients and methods
2 weeks before scheduled primary hip or knee arthroplasty, culture samples were taken from the anterior nares and from the groin of 133 consecutive patients. At surgery, cloxacillin was given prophylactically and cement with gentamicin was used. 2 weeks after surgery, another set of samples were taken from 120 of these patients. Bacterial findings and resistance patterns were analyzed.
Preoperatively, 95% of the patients had coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) in the groin and 77% in the nose. The proportion of patients with a methicillin-resistant CNS in the groin increased from 20% preoperatively to 50% postoperatively (p < 0.001), and the proportion of patients with a gentamicin-resistant CNS in the groin increased from 5% to 45% (p < 0.001). 28% of the patients had Staphylococcus aureus in the nose preoperatively, and 7% in the groin. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was found in the nose of 1 patient.
In southern Sweden, beta-lactams were effective against 99% of the Staphylococcus aureus strains and 80% of the CNS strains colonizing the patients undergoing primary hip or knee arthroplasty. Gentamicin protects against most CNS strains in cemented primary joint replacements.
PMCID: PMC3584610  PMID: 23409844
4.  Metal-on-metal joint bearings and hematopoetic malignancy 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(6):553-558.
This is a review of the hip arthroplasty era. We concentrate on new metal bearings, surface replacements, and the lessons not learned, and we highlight recent reports on malignancies and joint implants. A low incidence of blood malignancies has been found in bone marrow taken at prosthetic surgery. The incidence is increased after replacement with knee implants that release very low systemic levels of metal ions. A carcinogenic effect of the high levels of metal ions released by large metal-on-metal implants cannot be excluded. Ongoing Swedish implant registry studies going back to 1975 can serve as a basis for evaluation of this risk.
PMCID: PMC3555450  PMID: 23140092
5.  Prevention of deep infection in joint replacement surgery 
Acta Orthopaedica  2010;81(6):660-666.
PMCID: PMC3216074  PMID: 21110700
6.  Surgery for knee osteoarthritis in younger patients 
Acta Orthopaedica  2010;81(2):161-164.
Background and purpose In Sweden, surgery for knee osteoarthritis (OA) in patients younger than 55 years of age has doubled during the last 10 years. We evaluated the use of 3 surgical alternatives: high tibial osteotomy (HTO), unicompartmental arthroplasty (UKA), and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We also examined the outcome, expressed by rate of revision.
Methods The numbers of all procedures during 1998–2007 were obtained from the Swedish Knee Arthroplasty Register (SKAR) (UKA < 55 years: n = 1,050; UKA ≥ 55 years: n = 7,743; TKA < 55 years: n = 2,832; TKA ≥ 55 years: n = 62,829) and the National Board of Health and Welfare (NHW) (HTO 25–55 years: n = 2,266). The revision rate (presented as life tables) was based on the SKAR material for arthroplasties. For HTOs, a single institutional series of 450 patients aged 30–64 years was used to calculate the revision rate and to compare it to that for UKAs (n = 4,799; age 30–64 years).
Results During the 10 years, the use of TKA in patients younger than 55 years increased fivefold. While UKA increased threefold, its use diminished in the last 2 years. Although the use of HTO halved during the period, it is still used more often than UKA. The risk of revision increased in patients younger than 55 years and was lower for TKA (9%) than for UKA (24%). The revision rate was similar for HTO (17%) and for UKA (17%) in patients aged 30–64 years.
Interpretation TKA is the preferred method for young OA patients in Sweden today. The use of HTO and UKA has diminished, and as the few operations are spread over many hospitals, there is a risk of gradual loss of experience with respect to patient selection and surgical routine—with a negative effect on outcome. Thus, there is a risk that these treatment alternatives for younger patients will eventually be abandoned.
PMCID: PMC2852150  PMID: 19968599
7.  Knee arthroplasty in Denmark, Norway and Sweden 
Acta Orthopaedica  2010;81(1):82-89.
Background and purpose
The number of national arthroplasty registries is increasing. However, the methods of registration, classification, and analysis often differ.
We combined data from 3 Nordic knee arthroplasty registers, comparing demographics, methods, and overall results. Primary arthroplasties during the period 1997–2007 were included. Each register produced a dataset of predefined variables, after which the data were combined and descriptive and survival statistics produced.
The incidence of knee arthroplasty increased in all 3 countries, but most in Denmark. Norway had the lowest number of procedures per hospital—less than half that of Sweden and Denmark. The preference for implant brands varied and only 3 total brands and 1 unicompartmental brand were common in all 3 countries. Use of patellar button for total knee arthroplasty was popular in Denmark (76%) but not in Norway (11%) or Sweden (14%). Uncemented or hybrid fixation of components was also more frequent in Denmark (22%) than in Norway (14%) and Sweden (2%).
After total knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis, the cumulative revision rate (CRR) was lowest in Sweden, with Denmark and Norway having a relative risk (RR) of 1.4 (95% CI: 1.3–1.6) and 1.6 (CI: 1.4–1.7) times higher. The result was similar when only including brands used in more than 200 cases in all 3 countries (AGC, Duracon, and NexGen). After unicompartmental arthroplasty for osteoarthritis, the CRR for all models was also lowest in Sweden, with Denmark and Norway having RRs of 1.7 (CI: 1.4–2.0) and 1.5 (CI: 1.3–1.8), respectively. When only the Oxford implant was analyzed, however, the CRRs were similar and the RRs were 1.2 (CI: 0.9–1.7) and 1.3 (CI: 1.0–1.7).
We found considerable differences between the 3 countries, with Sweden having a lower revision rate than Denmark and Norway. Further classification and standardization work is needed to permit more elaborate studies.
PMCID: PMC2856209  PMID: 20180723
8.  Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty in patients aged less than 65 
Acta Orthopaedica  2010;81(1):90-94.
Introduction and purpose
In recent years, there has been renewed interest in using unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). Several studies have reported increasing numbers of UKAs for osteoarthritis in patients who are less than 65 years of age, with low revision rates. To describe and compare the use and outcome of UKA in this age group, we have combined data from the Australian and Swedish knee registries.
Patients and methods
More than 34,000 UKA procedures carried out between 1998 and 2007 were analyzed, and we focused on over 16,000 patients younger than 65 years to determine usage and to determine differences in the revision rate. Survival analysis was used to determine outcomes of revision related to age and sex, using any reason for revision as the endpoint.
Both countries showed a decreasing use of UKA in recent years in terms of the proportion of knee replacements and absolute numbers undertaken per year. The 7-year cumulative risk of revision of UKA in patients younger than 65 years was similar in the two countries. Patients younger than 55 years had a statistically significantly higher cumulative risk of revision than patients aged 55 to 64 years (19% and 12%, respectively at 7 years). The risk of revision in patients less than 65 years of age was similar in both sexes.
The results of the combined UKA data from the Australian and Swedish registries show a uniformity of outcome between countries with patients aged less than 65 having a higher rate of revision than patients who were 65 or older. Surgeons and patients should be aware of the higher risk of revision in this age group.
PMCID: PMC2856210  PMID: 20175656
9.  Inadequate timing of prophylactic antibiotics in orthopedic surgery. We can do better 
Acta Orthopaedica  2009;80(6):633-638.
Background and purpose There are rising concerns about the frequency of infection after arthroplasty surgery. Prophylactic antibiotics are an important part of the preventive measures. As their effect is related to the timing of administration, it is important to follow how the routines with preoperative prophylactic antibiotics are working.
Methods In 114 consecutive cases treated at our own university clinic in Lund during 2008, the time of administration of preoperative prophylactic antibiotic in relation to the start of surgery was recorded from a computerized operation report. In 291 other cases of primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA), randomly selected from the Swedish Knee Arthroplasty Register (SKAR), the type and dose of prophylactic antibiotic as well as the time of administration in relation to the inflation of a tourniquet and to the start of surgery was recorded from anesthetic records.
Results 45% (95% CI: 36–54) of the patients operated in Lund and 57% (CI: 50–64) of the TKAs randomly selected from the SKAR received the preoperative antibiotic 15–45 min before the start of surgery. 53% (CI: 46–61) received antibiotics 15–45 min before inflation of a tourniquet.
Interpretation The inadequate timing of prophylactic antibiotics indicates that the standards of strict antiseptic and aseptic routines in arthroplasty surgery are falling. The use of a simple checklist to ensure the surgical safety may be one way of reducing infections in arthroplasty surgery.
PMCID: PMC2823303  PMID: 19995312

Results 1-9 (9)