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1.  A new algorithm for hip fracture surgery 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(1):26-30.
Background and purpose
Treatment of hip fracture patients is controversial. We implemented a new operative and supervision algorithm (the Hvidovre algorithm) for surgical treatment of all hip fractures, primarily based on own previously published results.
Methods
2,000 consecutive patients over 50 years of age who were admitted and operated on because of a hip fracture were prospectively included. 1,000 of these patients were included after implementation of the algorithm. Demographic parameters, hospital treatment, and reoperations within the first postoperative year were assessed from patient records.
Results
931 of 1,000 operative procedures were performed according to the algorithm, as compared to only 726 of 1,000 prior to its introduction (p < 0.001). After implementation of the algorithm, junior registrars still performed half of the operations, but unsupervised procedures declined from 192 of 1,000 to 105 of 1,000 (p < 0.001). The rate of reoperations declined from 18% to 12% (p < 0.001 in a multiple Cox regression analysis), with a decline of 24% to 18% for intracapsular fractures and a decline of 13% to 7% for extracapsular fractures. The proportion of bed-days caused by reoperations was reduced from 24% of total hospitalization before the algorithm was introduced to 18% after it was introduced.
Interpretation
It is possible to implement an algorithm for treatment of all hip fracture patients in a large teaching hospital. In our case, the Hvidovre algorithm both raised the rate of supervision and reduced the rate of reoperations. The reduced reoperation rate saved many hospital bed-days.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2011.652887
PMCID: PMC3278653  PMID: 22248165
2.  Intramedullary nailing appears to be superior in pertrochanteric hip fractures with a detached greater trochanter 
Acta Orthopaedica  2011;82(2):166-170.
Background and purpose
In recent years, intramedullary nails (INs) for the treatment of pertrochanteric hip fractures have gained prominence relative to conventional, sliding hip screws (SHSs). There is little empirical background for this development, however. A previous series of ours suggested that the use of SHS was not adequate in situations with fragile or fractured lateral femoral walls, where it often led to lack of healing in a maximally telescoped position. We hypothesized that INs would be the superior implant in these specific circumstances.
Methods
We retrospectively examined 311 consecutive patients treated in our department between 2002 and 2008, with either an IN (n = 158) or an SHS (n = 153) mounted on a 4-hole side-plate, for an AO/OTA type 31A1–2 pertrochanteric fracture with a detached greater trochanter. The status of the lesser trochanter was assessed preoperatively and the integrity of the lateral femoral wall, fracture reduction, and position of the implants were assessed postoperatively. Reoperations due to technical failure were recorded for one year postoperatively.
Results
Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the groups were similar regarding demographic and biomechanical parameters. The lateral femoral wall was more frequently fractured during SHS implantation (42 patients) than in the IN group (9 patients) (p < 0.001). 6 (4%) of the 158 patients operated with IN had to be reoperated, as compared to 22 (14%) in the SHS group of 153 patients (p = 0.001).
Interpretation
IN had a lower reoperation rate than SHS in these pertrochanteric hip fractures with a detached greater trochanter. IN left more lateral femoral walls intact.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2011.566143
PMCID: PMC3235286  PMID: 21434790
3.  Cranial acetabular retroversion is common in developmental dysplasia of the hip as assessed by the weight bearing position 
Acta Orthopaedica  2010;81(4):436-441.
Background and purpose
The appearance of acetabular version differs between the supine and weight bearing positions in developmental dysplasia of the hip. Weight bearing radiographic evaluation has been recommended to ensure the best coherence between symptoms, functional appearance, and hip deformities. Previous prevalence estimates of acetabular retroversion in dysplastic hips have been established in radiographs recorded with the patient supine and with inclusion only if pelvic tilt met standardized criteria. We assessed the prevalence and the extent of acetabular retroversion in dysplastic hip joints in weight bearing pelvic radiographs.
Patients and methods
We assessed 95 dysplastic hip joints (54 patients) in weight bearing anteroposterior pelvic radiographs, measuring the acetabular height and the distance from the acetabular roof to the point of crossing of the acetabular rims, if present.
Results
Acetabular retroversion was found in 31 of 95 dysplastic hip joints. In 28 of 31 hip joints with retroversion, crossover of the acetabular rims was positioned within the cranial 30% sector. The degree of pelvic tilt differed between retroverted and non-retroverted dysplastic hip joints, though only reaching a statistically significant level in male dysplastic hip joints.
Interpretation
We identified cranial acetabular retroversion in one-third of dysplastic hip joints when assessed on weight bearing pelvic radiographs. If assessed on pelvic radiographs obtained with the patient supine, and with inclusion only if the degree of pelvic tilt meets standardized criteria, the prevalence of acetabular retroversion may be underestimated.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2010.501745
PMCID: PMC2917565  PMID: 20809742
4.  What is the role of clinical tests and ultrasound in acetabular labral tear diagnostics? 
Acta Orthopaedica  2009;80(3):314-318.
Background and purpose An acetabular labral tear is a diagnostic challenge. Various clinical tests have been described, but little is known about their diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. We investigated the diagnostic validity of clinical tests and ultra-sound as compared with MR arthrography.
Patients and methods We examined 18 patients (18 hips, 2 men, median age 43 (32–56) years) with impingement test, FABER test, resisted straight leg raise test, ultrasound, and MR arthrography. They had had previous periacetabular osteotomies due to symptomatic, acetabular dysplasia. All hips showed no or only slight signs of osteoarthritis (Tönnis grade 0–1).
Results MR arthrography identified labral tears in 17 of the 18 hips. Ultrasound had a sensitivity of 94%, a positive predictive value of 94%, and was false negative in only 1 case compared to MR arthrography. The impingement test had the best diagnostic ability of the clinical tests, with a sensitivity of 59% and a specificity of 100%. The positive predictive value was 100% while the negative predictive value was 13%.
Interpretation The impingement test is helpful in identifying acetabular labral tears. If this test is negative and if a labral tear is still suspected, ultrasound can reliably diagnose most tears of the acetabular labrum. MR arthrography is indicated in cases where ultrasound is negative, but the patient suffers continued, specific symptoms.
doi:10.3109/17453670902988402
PMCID: PMC2823204  PMID: 19421915
5.  A new measurement for posterior tilt predicts reoperation in undisplaced femoral neck fractures 
Acta Orthopaedica  2009;80(3):303-307.
Background and purpose Preoperative posterior tilt in undisplaced (Garden I–II) femoral neck fractures is thought to influence rates of reoperation. However, an exact method for its measurement has not yet been presented. We designed a new measurement for posterior tilt on preoperative lateral radiographs and investigated its association with later reoperation.
Patients and methods A consecutive series of 113 patients, ≥ 60 years of age with undisplaced (Garden I–II) femoral neck fractures treated with two parallel implants, was assessed regarding patient characteristics, radiographs, and rate of reoperation within the first year. In a subgroup of 50 randomly selected patients, reliability tests for measurement of posterior tilt were performed.
Results Intra-and interclass coefficients for the new measurement were ≥ 0.94. 23% (26/113) of patients were reoperated and increased posterior tilt was an accurate predictor of failure (p = 0.002). 14/25 of posteriorly tilted fractures ≥ 20° were reoperated, as compared to 12/88 of fractures with less tilt (p < 0.001). In multiple logistic regression analysis including sex, age, ASA score, cognitive function, new mobility score, time from admission to operation, surgeon's expertise, postoperative reduction, and implant positioning, a preoperative posterior tilt of ≥ 20° was the only significant predictor of reoperation (p < 0.001).
Interpretation The new measurement for posterior tilt appears to be reliable and able to predict reoperation in patients with undisplaced (Garden I–II) femoral neck fractures.
doi:10.3109/17453670902967281
PMCID: PMC2823202  PMID: 19634021

Results 1-5 (5)