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1.  Validity, reliability, and responsiveness of the Self-reported Foot and Ankle Score (SEFAS) in forefoot, hindfoot, and ankle disorders 
Acta Orthopaedica  2014;85(2):187-194.
Background and purpose
The self-reported foot and ankle score (SEFAS) is a questionnaire designed to evaluate disorders of the foot and ankle, but it is only validated for arthritis in the ankle. We validated SEFAS in patients with forefoot, midfoot, hindfoot, and ankle disorders.
Patients and methods
118 patients with forefoot disorders and 106 patients with hindfoot or ankle disorders completed the SEFAS, the foot and ankle outcome score (FAOS), SF-36, and EQ-5D before surgery. We evaluated construct validity for SEFAS versus FAOS, SF-36, and EQ-5D; floor and ceiling effects; test-retest reliability (ICC); internal consistency; and agreement. Responsiveness was evaluated by effect size (ES) and standardized response mean (SRM) 6 months after surgery. The analyses were done separately in patients with forefoot disorders and hindfoot/ankle disorders.
Results
Comparing SEFAS to the other scores, convergent validity (when correlating foot-specific questions) and divergent validity (when correlating foot-specific and general questions) were confirmed. SEFAS had no floor and ceiling effects. In patients with forefoot disorders, ICC was 0.92 (CI: 0.85–0.96), Cronbach's α was 0.84, ES was 1.29, and SRM was 1.27. In patients with hindfoot or ankle disorders, ICC was 0.93 (CI: 0.88-0.96), Cronbach's α was 0.86, ES was 1.05, and SRM was 0.99.
Interpretation
SEFAS has acceptable validity, reliability, and responsiveness in patients with various forefoot, hindfoot, and ankle disorders. SEFAS is therefore an appropriate patient- reported outcome measure (PROM) for these patients, even in national registries.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2014.889979
PMCID: PMC3967263  PMID: 24564747
2.  Fixation of the fully hydroxyapatite-coated Corail stem implanted due to femoral neck fracture 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(2):153-158.
Background
Today, dislocated femoral neck fractures are commonly treated with a cemented hip arthroplasty. However, cementing of the femoral component may lead to adverse effects and even death. Uncemented stems may lower these risks and hydroxyapatite (HA) coating may enhance integration, but prosthetic stability and clinical outcome in patients with osteoporotic bone have not been fully explored. We therefore studied fixation and clinical outcome in patients who had had a femoral neck fracture and who had received a fully HA-coated stem prosthesis.
Patients and methods
50 patients with a dislocated femoral neck fracture were operated with the fully HA-coated Corail total or hemiarthroplasty. 38 patients, mean age 81 (70–96) years, were followed for 24 months with conventional radiographs, RSA, DEXA, and for clinical outcome.
Results
31 of the 38 implants moved statistically significantly up to 3 months, mainly distally, mean 2.7 mm (max. 20 mm (SD 4.3)), and rotated into retroversion mean 3.3º (–1.8 to 17) (SD 4.3) and then appeared to stabilize. Distal stem migration was more pronounced if the stem was deemed to be too small. There was no correlation between BMD and stem migration. The migration did not result in any clinically adverse effects.
Interpretation
The fully hydroxyapatite-coated Corail stem migrates during the first 3 months, but clinical outcome appears to be good, without any adverse events.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2011.641107
PMCID: PMC3339529  PMID: 22112154
3.  Validity, reliability, and responsiveness of a self-reported foot and ankle score (SEFAS) 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(2):197-203.
Background and purpose
A questionnaire was introduced by the New Zealand Arthroplasty Registry for use when evaluating the outcome of total ankle replacement surgery. We evaluated the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the modified Swedish version of the questionnaire (SEFAS) in patients with osteoarthritis or inflammatory arthritis before and/or after their ankle was replaced or fused.
Patients and methods
The questionnaire was translated into Swedish and cross-culturally adapted according to a standardized procedure. It was sent to 135 patients with ankle arthritis who were scheduled for or had undergone surgery, together with the foot and ankle outcome score (FAOS), the short form 36 (SF-36) score, and the EuroQol (EQ-5D) score. Construct validity was evaluated with Spearman’s correlation coefficient when comparing SEFAS with FAOS, SF-36, and EQ-5D, content validity by calculating floor and ceiling effects, test-retest reliability with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha (n = 62), agreement by Bland-Altman plot, and responsiveness by effect size and standardized response mean (n = 37).
Results
For construct validity, we correlated SEFAS with the other scores and 70% or more of our predefined hypotheses concerning correlations could be confirmed. There were no floor or ceiling effects. ICC was 0.92 (CI 95%: 0.88–0.95), Cronbach’s alpha 0.96, effect size was 1.44, and the standardized response mean was 1.00.
Interpretation
SEFAS is a self-reported foot and ankle score with good validity, reliability and responsiveness, indicating that the score can be used to evaluate patients with osteoarthritis or inflammatory arthritis of the ankle and outcome of surgery.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2012.657579
PMCID: PMC3339537  PMID: 22313352
4.  10-year survival of total ankle arthroplasties 
Acta Orthopaedica  2011;82(6):655-659.
Background and purpose
There is an ongoing need to review large series of total ankle replacements (TARs) for monitoring of changes in practice and their outcome. 4 national registries, including the Swedish Ankle Register, have previously reported their 5-year results. We now present an extended series with a longer follow-up, and with a 10-year survival analysis.
Patients and methods
Records of uncemented 3-component TARs were retrospectively reviewed, determining risk factors such as age, sex, and diagnosis. Prosthetic survival rates were calculated with exchange or removal of components as endpoint—excluding incidental exchange of the polyethylene meniscus.
Results
Of the 780 prostheses implanted since 1993, 168 (22%) had been revised by June 15, 2010. The overall survival rate fell from 0.81 (95% CI: 0.79–0.83) at 5 years to 0.69 (95% CI: 0.67–0.71) at 10 years. The survival rate was higher, although not statistically significantly so, during the latter part of the period investigated. Excluding the STAR prosthesis, the survival rate for all the remaining designs was 0.78 at 10 years. Women below the age of 60 with osteoarthritis were at a higher risk of revision, but age did not influence the outcome in men or women with rheumatoid arthritis. Revisions due to technical mistakes at the index surgery and instability were undertaken earlier than revisions for other reasons.
Interpretation
The results have slowly improved during the 18-year period investigated. However, we do not believe that the survival rates of ankle replacements in the near future will approach those of hip and knee replacements—even though improved instrumentation and design of the prostheses, together with better patient selection, will presumably give better results.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2011.636678
PMCID: PMC3247880  PMID: 22066551
5.  The Elite-Plus stem migrates more than the flanged Charnley stem 
Acta Orthopaedica  2010;81(3):280-285.
Background and purpose
The Charnley Elite-Plus stem was introduced in 1993 as a presumed improvement of the flanged Charnley stem. We started this study in 1996 to investigate the migratory pattern of the Elite-Plus stem.
Patients and methods
We followed 114 patients with osteoarthritis and a primary total hip replacement with the Elite-Plus stem. Mean age at the time of operation was 64 (50–76) years. The mean follow-up time was 6.5 (2–7) years. Radiographs were evaluated with respect to cementing technique, migration, and wear measured by radiostereometry (RSA).
Results
The stem survival was 98% (CI: 96–100) at 7 years and 92% (CI: 86–97) at 10 years. Mean migration of the femoral head was 0.35 mm (SD 0.3) medially, 0.51 mm (SD 0.6) distally, and 1.1 mm (SD 1.8) in the dorsal direction. Mean total point motion was 1.7 mm (SD 1.7). The migration of the stems stabilized after 5 years in the medial and dorsal directions, but continued to subside slightly. Migration along any of the axes was higher if the cementing technique was inferior.
Interpretation
Patients with a Charnley Elite-Plus stem and defects in the cement mantle or other signs of inferior implantation technique should be carefully monitored.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2010.480937
PMCID: PMC2876827  PMID: 20367422
6.  Hereditary hemochromatosis: a neglected diagnosis in orthopedics 
Acta Orthopaedica  2009;80(3):371-374.
doi:10.3109/17453670903035583
PMCID: PMC2823201  PMID: 19593723

Results 1-6 (6)