Metallo-β-lactamase enzymes confer resistance to a wide variety of commonly used antibiotics; this resistance poses a significant threat to human health where it arises in a pathogenic bacterium. Here, the structure of the novel metallo-β-lactamase NDM-1, which is capable of providing resistance against a broad spectrum of antibacterial agents, has been solved.
Antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens poses a serious threat to human health and the metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) enzymes are responsible for much of this resistance. The recently identified New Delhi MBL 1 (NDM-1) is a novel member of this family that is capable of hydrolysing a wide variety of clinically important antibiotics. Here, the crystal structure of NDM-1 from Klebsiella pneumoniae is reported and its structure and active site are discussed in the context of other recently deposited coordinates of NDM-1.
metallo-β-lactamases; New Delhi MBL 1; antibiotic resistance
Comparison of the Fab structure in the free and antigen-bound form indicates an induced-fit mechanism of IL-13 recognition by antibody C836 through rigid-body rotation of the VL and VH domains.
C836 is a neutralizing monoclonal antibody to human interleukin IL-13 generated by mouse immunization. The crystal structure of the C836 Fab was determined at 2.5 Å resolution and compared with the IL-13-bound form determined previously. This comparison indicates an induced-fit mechanism of antigen recognition through rigid-body rotation of the VL and VH domains. The magnitude of this rearrangement is one of the largest observed for antibody–protein interactions.
monoclonal antibodies; induced fit; VL/VH packing
ATP-citrate lyase catalyzes the production of acetyl-CoA from citrate, CoA and ATP. Crystals were grown of the amino-terminal portion of the human enzyme in the presence of tartrate, ATP and magnesium ions. The crystal structure shows the inhibitor tartrate and the product ADP–Mg2+ bound to the protein.
Human ATP-citrate lyase (EC 220.127.116.11) is the cytoplasmic enzyme that catalyzes the production of acetyl-CoA from citrate, CoA and ATP. The amino-terminal portion of the enzyme, containing residues 1–817, was crystallized in the presence of tartrate, ATP and magnesium ions. The crystals diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution. The structure shows ADP–Mg2+ bound to the domain that possesses the ATP-grasp fold. The structure demonstrates that this crystal form could be used to investigate the structures of complexes with inhibitors of ATP-citrate lyase that bind at either the citrate- or ATP-binding site.
ATP-citrate lyase; ATP-grasp domain
The crystal structures of both native manganese SOD2 and iron-substituted SOD2 from S. cerevisiae were solved. The surface-potential properties showed a similar pattern to those of Cu/Zn-SODs.
The manganese-specific superoxide dismutase SOD2 from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a protein that resides in the mitochondrion and protects it against attack by superoxide radicals. However, a high iron concentration in the mitochondria results in iron misincorporation at the active site, with subsequent inactivation of SOD2. Here, the crystal structures of SOD2 bound with the native metal manganese and with the ‘wrong’ metal iron are presented at 2.05 and 1.79 Å resolution, respectively. Structural comparison of the two structures shows no significant conformational alteration in the overall structure or in the active site upon binding the non-native metal iron. Moreover, residues Asp163 and Lys80 are proposed to potentially be responsible for the metal specificity of the Mn-specific SOD. Additionally, the surface-potential distribution of SOD2 revealed a conserved positively charged electrostatic zone in the proximity of the active site that probably functions in the same way as in Cu/Zn-SODs by facilitating the diffusion of the superoxide anion to the metal ion.
superoxide dismutases; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; SOD2
Structures of the nucleocapsid protein of human respiratory syncytial virus have been obtained from two crystal forms. The packing in one crystal form suggests that ionic interactions contribute to the stability of the native helical form of HRSVN.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a frequent cause of respiratory illness in infants, but there is currently no vaccine nor effective drug treatment against this virus. The RSV RNA genome is encapsidated and protected by a nucleocapsid protein; this RNA–nucleocapsid complex serves as a template for viral replication. Interest in the nucleocapsid protein has increased owing to its recent identification as the target site for novel anti-RSV compounds. The crystal structure of human respiratory syncytial virus nucleocapsid (HRSVN) was determined to 3.6 Å resolution from two crystal forms belonging to space groups P212121 and P1, with one and four decameric rings per asymmetric unit, respectively. In contrast to a previous structure of HRSVN, the addition of phosphoprotein was not required to obtain diffraction-quality crystals. The HRSVN structures reported here, although similar to the recently published structure, present different molecular packing which may have some biological implications. The positions of the monomers are slightly shifted in the decamer, confirming the adaptability of the ring structure. The details of the inter-ring contacts in one crystal form revealed here suggest a basis for helical packing and that the stabilization of native HRSVN is via mainly ionic interactions.
HRSVN; human respiratory syncytial virus; nucleocapsid proteins
The crystal structure of recombinant UbiX has been determined to 1.5 Å resolution.
The ubiX gene (PA4019) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been annotated as encoding a putative 3-octaprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate decarboxylase from the ubiquinone-biosynthesis pathway. Based on a transposon mutagenesis screen, this gene was also implicated as being essential for the survival of this organism. The crystal structure of recombinant UbiX determined to 1.5 Å resolution showed that the protein belongs to the superfamily of homo-oligomeric flavine-containing cysteine decarboxylases. The enzyme assembles into a dodecamer with 23 point symmetry. The subunit displays a typical Rossmann fold and contains one FMN molecule bound at the interface between two subunits.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa; PA4019; aromatic acid decarboxylases
The structure of a complex of an endoglucanase with cellotriose was determined with a hexagonal unit cell and showed how the substrate interacts with the enzyme.
The endoglucanase EglA from Piromyces rhizinflata found in cattle stomach belongs to the GH5 family of glycoside hydrolases. The crystal structure of the catalytic domain of EglA shows the (β/α)8-barrel fold typical of GH5 enzymes. Adjacent to the active site of EglA, a loop containing a disulfide bond not found in other similar structures may participate in substrate binding. Because the active site was blocked by the N-terminal His tag of a neighbouring protein molecule in the crystal, enzyme–substrate complexes could not be obtained by soaking but were prepared by cocrystallization. The E154A mutant structure with a cellotriose bound to the −3, −2 and −1 subsites shows an extensive hydrogen-bonding network between the enzyme and the substrate, along with a stacking interaction between Trp44 and the −3 sugar. A possible dimer was observed in the crystal structure, but retention of activity in the E242A mutant suggested that the enzyme probably does not function as a dimer in solution. On the other hand, the first 100 amino acids encoded by the original cDNA fragment are very similar to those in the last third of the (β/α)8-barrel fold, indicating that EglA comprises at least two catalytic domains acting in tandem.
carbohydrate utilization; catalytic domain; cellulase; molecular interactions
Sortase A from S. pneumoniae has been crystallized in two crystal forms: diamond-shaped (construct ΔN59SrtA) and rod-shaped (construct ΔN81SrtA). The diamond-shaped crystals diffracted poorly to 4.0 Å resolution and belonged to a tetragonal system, whereas the rod-shaped crystals diffracted to 2.91 Å resolution and belonged to space group P21.
Sortases are cell-membrane-anchored cysteine transpeptidases that are essential for the assembly and anchoring of cell-surface adhesins in Gram-positive bacteria. Thus, they play critical roles in virulence, infection and colonization by pathogens. Sortases have been classified into four types based on their primary sequence and the target-protein motifs that they recognize. All Gram-positive bacteria express a class A housekeeping sortase (SrtA). Sortase A from Streptococcus pneumoniae (NP_358691) has been crystallized in two crystal forms. Diamond-shaped crystals of ΔN59SrtA diffracted to 4.0 Å resolution and belonged to a tetragonal system with unit-cell parameters a = b = 122.8, c = 86.5 Å, α = β = γ = 90°, while rod-shaped crystals of ΔN81SrtA diffracted to 2.91 Å resolution and belonged to the monoclinic space group P21 with unit-cell parameters a = 66.8, b = 103.47, c = 74.79 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 115.65°. The Matthews coefficient (V
M = 2.77 Å3 Da−1) with ∼56% solvent content suggested the presence of four molecules in the asymmetric unit for ΔN81SrtA. Also, a multi-copy search using a monomer as a probe in the molecular-replacement method resulted in the successful location of four sortase molecules in the asymmetric unit, with statistics R = 41.61, R
free = 46.44, correlation coefficient (CC) = 64.31, CCfree = 57.67.
sortases; cysteine transpeptidases; Streptococcus pneumoniae
The hexameric ND1 fragment of p97/VCP was crystallized in complex with the UBX domain of FAF1. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 3.60 Å resolution and the crystals belonged to space group I222.
The UBX domain of Fas-associated factor 1 (FAF1) binds to the N domain of p97/VCP, a multi-functional hexameric ATPase, and FAF1 thus inhibits the proteasome-mediated protein-degradation process assisted by p97/VCP. Here, crystallization of the hexameric p97/VCP ND1 fragment in complex with the FAF1 UBX domain is reported. Wild-type p97/VCP ND1 in complex with FAF1 UBX crystallized into very thin sheet-shaped crystals which turned out to be of poor diffraction quality. Therefore, in order to acquire a better diffraction-quality crystal, three mutants of p97/VCP ND1 were generated based on the surface-entropy reduction method. Of these, a triple mutant was the most successful in producing diffraction-quality crystals suitable for subsequent structural analysis. X-ray data were collected to 3.60 Å resolution and the crystals belonged to space group I222, with unit-cell parameters a = 166.28, b = 170.04, c = 255.99 Å. The Matthews coefficient and solvent content were estimated to be 5.78 Å3 Da−1 and 78.72%, respectively.
p97; VCP; FAF1; UBX
Alkyl hydroperoxide reductase from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 was expressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data to 2.5 Å resolution revealed that the crystals belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 80, b = 102, c = 109.6 Å.
Alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (AhpC) is a key component of a large family of thiol-specific antioxidant (TSA) proteins distributed among prokaryotes and eukaryotes. AhpC is involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive sulfur species (RSS). Sequence analysis of AhpC from the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 shows that this protein belongs to the 1-Cys class of peroxiredoxins (Prxs). It has recently been reported that enhanced expression of this protein in Escherichia coli offers tolerance to multiple stresses such as heat, salt, copper, cadmium, pesticides and UV-B. However, the structural features and the mechanism behind this process remain unclear. To provide insights into its biochemical function, AhpC was expressed, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Diffraction data were collected to a maximum d-spacing of 2.5 Å using synchrotron radiation. The crystal belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 80, b = 102, c = 109.6 Å. The structure of AhpC from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 was determined by molecular-replacement methods using the human Prx enzyme hORF6 (PDB entry 1prx) as the template.
alkyl hydroperoxide reductase; AhpC; Anabaena sp. PCC 7120
Crystals of FimP from A. oris were obtained. To facilitate selenomethionine labelling, three methionines were introduced by site-directed mutagenesis.
Actinomyces oris is an oral bacterium important for the development of dental plaque. It expresses two forms of fimbriae: type 1 and type 2. FimP, which is the fimbrial protein that is polymerized into the stalk of the type 1 fimbriae, was cloned, overexpressed and crystallized. X-ray data were collected and processed to 2.2 Å resolution. The crystals belonged to space group P21212, with one molecule in the asymmetric unit. To facilitate structure determination using single anomalous dispersion, three methionines were introduced by site-directed mutagenesis. Crystals of selenomethionine-labelled protein were obtained by streak-seeding and diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution.
fimbria; biofilms; mutagenesis
The complex of MoPrP(120–232) and Fab POM1 has been crystallized (space group C2, unit-cell parameters a = 83.68, b = 106.9, c = 76.25 Å, β = 95.6°). Diffraction data to 2.30 Å resolution have been collected using synchrotron radiation.
Prion diseases are neurodegenerative diseases that are characterized by the conversion of the cellular prion protein PrPc to the pathogenic isoform PrPsc. Several antibodies are known to interact with the cellular prion protein and to inhibit this transition. An antibody Fab fragment, Fab POM1, was produced that recognizes a structural motif of the C-terminal domain of mouse prion protein. To study the mechanism by which Fab POM1 recognizes and binds the prion molecule, the complex between Fab POM1 and the C-terminal domain of mouse prion (residues 120–232) was prepared and crystallized. Crystals of this binary complex belonged to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 83.68, b = 106.9, c = 76.25 Å, β = 95.6°.
prions; antibodies; POM1
The rod domain of α-actinin-2 from E. histolytica, the aetiological agent of human amoebiasis, was crystallized and synchrotron diffraction data were collected from crystals vitrified in liquid nitrogen.
α-Actinins form antiparallel homodimers that are able to cross-link actin filaments. The protein contains three domains: an N-terminal actin-binding domain followed by a central rod domain and a calmodulin-like EF-hand domain at the C-terminus. Here, crystallization of the rod domain of Entamoeba histolytica α-actinin-2 is reported; it crystallized in space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 47.8, b = 79.1, c = 141.8 Å. A Matthews coefficient V
M of 2.6 Å3 Da−1 suggests that there are two molecules and 52.5% solvent content in the asymmetric unit. A complete native data set extending to a d-spacing of 2.8 Å was collected on beamline I911-2 at MAX-lab, Sweden.
α-actinin; Entamoeba histolytica; actin-binding proteins
In order to confirm the effect on cocrystallization, two N-terminally truncated variants of a thermostable endoglucanase from the thermophilic bacterium Fervidobacterium nodosum Rt17-B1 were constructed, purified and cocrystallized at 291 K.
It is well known that protein cocrystallization is affected by several parameters such as the ratio of the protein to the ligand, the reservoir solution, the pH and the temperature. Previously, spatial blocking by the N-terminus was observed in the active site in the crystal structure of the native protein of a thermostable endoglucanase from the thermophilic bacterium Fervidobacterium nodosum Rt17-B1 (FnCel5A). It was speculated that the N-terminal α-helix might form interactions with the substrate-binding residues and it was believed that this spatial block is special to some extent. In order to confirm the effect on cocrystallization, two N-terminally truncated variants of FnCel5A were constructed, purified and cocrystallized at 291 K. A crystal of FnCel5AND_12–343 in complex with cellobiose was obtained using PEG 8000 as a precipitant. A 2.2 Å resolution data set was collected. This crystal form (space group P41212, unit-cell parameters a = b = 47.3, c = 271.4 Å) differed from that of the native protein. One molecule is assumed to be present per asymmetric unit, which gives a Matthews coefficient of 2.05 Å3 Da−1.
cocrystallization; N-terminal peptide; thermophilic endo-β-1,4-glucanase
Crystals of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 from rice (O. sativa L.) belonged to a C-centred orthorhombic space group and diffraceted X-rays to 2.6 Å resolution.
Fragrant rice (Oryza sativa L.) betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (OsBADH2) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of fragrance aroma compounds. The extremely low activity of OsBADH2 in catalyzing the oxidation of acetaldehyde is believed to be crucial for the accumulation of the volatile compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) in many scented plants, including fragrant rice. Recombinant fragrant rice OsBADH2 was expressed in Escherichia coli as an N-terminal hexahistidine fusion protein, purified using Ni Sepharose affinity chromatography and crystallized using the microbatch method. Initial crystals were obtained within 24 h using 0.1 M Tris pH 8.5 with 30%(w/v) PEG 4000 and 0.2 M magnesium chloride as the precipitating agent at 291 K. Crystal quality was improved when the enzyme was cocrystallized with NAD+. Improved crystals were grown in 0.1 M HEPES pH 7.4, 24%(w/v) PEG 4000 and 0.2 M ammonium chloride and diffracted to beyond 2.95 Å resolution after being cooled in a stream of N2 immediately prior to X-ray diffraction experiments. The crystals belonged to space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 66.03, b = 183.94, c = 172.28 Å. An initial molecular-replacement solution has been obtained and refinement is in progress.
Oryza sativa L.; betaine aldehyde dehydrogenases; OsBADH2; fragrant rice
The 2AB protein derived from the nonstructural P2 region of hepatitis A virus has been cloned, purified and crystallized. The preliminary characterization of native and selenomethionine-derivative crystals is reported.
The Picornaviridae family contains a large number of human pathogens such as rhinovirus, poliovirus and hepatitis A virus (HAV). Hepatitis A is an infectious disease that causes liver inflammation. It is highly endemic in developing countries with poor sanitation, where infections often occur in children. As in other picornaviruses, the genome of HAV contains one open reading frame encoding a single polyprotein that is subsequently processed by viral proteinases to originate mature viral proteins during and after the translation process. In the polyprotein, the N-terminal P1 region generates the four capsid proteins, while the C-terminal P2 and P3 regions contain the enzymes, precursors and accessory proteins essential for polyprotein processing and virus replication. Here, the first crystals of protein 2AB of HAV are reported. The crystals belonged to space group P41 or P43, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 90.42, c = 73.43 Å, and contained two molecules in the asymmetric unit. Native and selenomethionine-derivative crystals diffracted to 2.7 and 3.2 Å resolution, respectively.
hepatitis A virus; picornaviruses; nonstructural P2 region; 2A; 2B
ChuZ–haemin complex crystals belonged to space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 106.474, b = 106.698, c = 52.464 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. Diffraction data have been collected to 2.4 Å resolution.
The haem oxygenase ChuZ from Campylobacter jejuni, a major enteric pathogen in humans, is part of the iron-acquisition mechanism that is involved in bacterial survival and persistence in hosts. The ChuZ–haemin complex has been purified and crystallized and diffraction data have been collected to 2.4 Å resolution. The ChuZ–haemin complex crystals belonged to space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 106.474, b = 106.698, c = 52.464 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. The asymmetric unit contained one ChuZ monomer, with a Matthews coefficient of 2.58 Å3 Da−1.
haem oxygenases; Campylobacter jejuni; iron acquisition; pathogenesis
A truncated heterodimer of human PSPC1–NONO protein, a paraspeckle-specific complex, has been crystallized and the diffraction data collected to a resolution of 1.9 Å.
The paraspeckle component 1 (PSPC1) and non-POU-domain-containing octamer-binding protein (NONO) heterodimer is an essential structural component of paraspeckles, ribonucleoprotein bodies found in the interchromatin space of mammalian cell nuclei. PSPC1 and NONO both belong to the Drosophila behaviour and human splicing (DBHS) protein family, which has been implicated in many aspects of RNA processing. A heterodimer of the core DBHS conserved region of PSPC1 and NONO comprising two tandemly arranged RNA-recognition motifs (RRMs), a NONA/paraspeckle (NOPS) domain and part of a predicted coiled-coil domain has been crystallized in space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 90.90, b = 67.18, c = 94.08 Å, β = 99.96°. The crystal contained one heterodimer in the asymmetric unit and diffracted to 1.9 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation.
paraspeckles; PSPC1–NONO heterodimer; RNA-recognition motifs; DBHS-family proteins
The haemagglutinin subcomponent HA3 of the type B botulinum neurotoxin complex, which is important in toxin absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, has been expressed, purified and subsequently crystallized in two crystal forms at different pH values.
The haemagglutinin subcomponent HA3 of the type B botulinum neurotoxin complex, which is important in toxin absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, has been expressed, purified and subsequently crystallized in two crystal forms at different pH values. Form I belonged to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 357.4, c = 249.5 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. Form II belonged to space group I4132, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 259.0 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. Diffraction data were collected from these crystals to a resolution of 3.0 Å for both form I and form II.
type B botulinum neurotoxin complex; HA3 subcomponent; haemagglutinin
The crystallization of PBP4 from L. monocytogenes is reported.
Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), which catalyze peptidoglycan synthesis, have been extensively studied as a well established target of antimicrobial agents, including β-lactam derivatives. However, remarkable resistance to β-lactams has developed among pathogenic bacteria since the clinical use of penicillin began. Recently, the glycosyltransferase (GT) domain of class A PBPs has been proposed as an attractive target for antibiotic development as moenomycin-bound GT-domain structures have been determined. In this study, a class A PBP4 from Listeria monocytogenes was overexpressed, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Diffraction data were collected to 2.1 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystal belonged to the primitive orthorhombic space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 84.6, b = 127.8, c = 54.9 Å. The structural information will contribute to the further development of moenomycin-derived antibiotics possessing broad-spectrum activity.
penicillin-binding proteins; Listeria monocytogenes
The crystallization of the TLDc domain of oxidation resistance protein 2 from zebrafish is reported.
Cell metabolic processes are constantly producing reactive oxygen species (ROS), which have deleterious effects by triggering, for example, DNA damage. Numerous enzymes such as catalase, and small compounds such as vitamin C, provide protection against ROS. The TLDc domain of the human oxidation resistance protein has been shown to be able to protect DNA from oxidative stress; however, its mechanism of action is still not understood and no structural information is available on this domain. Structural information on the TLDc domain may therefore help in understanding exactly how it works. Here, the purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of the TLDc domain from zebrafish are reported. Crystals belonging to the orthorhombic space group P21212 were obtained and diffracted to 0.97 Å resolution. Selenomethionine-substituted protein could also be crystallized; these crystals diffracted to 1.1 Å resolution and the structure could be solved by SAD/MAD methods.
oxidation resistance proteins; TLDc domain
The successful preparation of a mutant KH domain representing the first KH domain of PCBP1 and its crystallization in complex with a C-rich DNA are reported. This structure is anticipated to provide high-resolution information that will allow better understanding of the basis of cytosine specificity by PCBPs.
Polycytosine-binding proteins (PCBPs) are triple KH-domain proteins that play an important role in the regulation of translation of eukaryotic mRNA. They are also utilized by viral RNA and have been shown to interact with ssDNA. Underlying their function is the specific recognition of C-rich nucleotides by their KH domains. However, the structural basis of this recognition is only partially understood. Here, the preparation of a His-tagged KH domain is described, representing the first domain of PCBP1 that incorporates a C54S mutation as well as the addition of a C-terminal tryptophan. This construct has facilitated the preparation of highly diffracting crystals in complex with C-rich DNA (sequence ACCCCA). Crystals of the KH1–DNA complex were grown using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method in 0.1 M phosphate–citrate pH 4.2, 40%(v/v) PEG 300. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.77 Å resolution and the diffraction was consistent with space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 38.59, b = 111.88, c = 43.42 Å, α = γ = 90.0, β = 93.37°. The structure of the KH1–DNA complex will further our insight into the basis of cytosine specificity by PCBPs.
polycytosine-binding proteins; KH domains; cytosine specificity
eCGP123, an extremely stable GFP with photoswitching properties, has been expressed, purified and crystallized. A diffraction data set has been collected at 2.10 Å resolution.
Enhanced consensus green protein variant 123 (eCGP123) is an extremely thermostable green fluorescent protein (GFP) that exhibits useful negative reversible photoswitching properties. eCGP123 was derived by the application of both a consensus engineering approach and a recursive evolutionary process. Diffraction-quality crystals of recombinant eCGP123 were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as the precipitant. The eCGP123 crystal diffracted X-rays to 2.10 Å resolution. The data were indexed in space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 74.63, b = 75.38, c = 84.51 Å, α = 90.96, β = 89.92, γ = 104.03°. The Matthews coefficient (V
M = 2.26 Å3 Da−1) and a solvent content of 46% indicated that the asymmetric unit contained eight eCGP123 molecules.
green fluorescent proteins; thermostability; photoswitching; Dronpa
The gene for 3-ketosteroid Δ4-(5α)-dehydrogenase from R. jostii RHA1 was cloned and overexpressed in E. coli and the protein product was purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to space group C2221 and diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 1.6 Å.
3-Ketosteroid dehydrogenases are flavoproteins which play key roles in steroid ring degradation. The enzymes are abundantly present in actinobacteria, including the catabolic powerhouse Rhodococcus jostii and the pathogenic species R. equi and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The gene for 3-ketosteroid Δ4-(5α)-dehydrogenase [Δ4-(5α)-KSTD] from R. jostii RHA1 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. His-tagged Δ4-(5α)-KSTD enzyme was purified by Ni2+–NTA affinity chromatography, anion-exchange chromatography and size-exclusion chromatography and was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Seeding greatly improved the number of crystals obtained. The crystals belonged to space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 99.2, b = 114.3, c = 110.2 Å. Data were collected to a resolution of 1.6 Å.
3-ketosteroid dehydrogenases; Rhodococcus jostii RHA1
The C-terminal domain of FbiB, a bifunctional protein that is essential for the biosynthesis of cofactor F420 in M. tuberculosis, has been expressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution and were suitable for structure determination.
During cofactor F420 biosynthesis, the enzyme F420-γ-glutamyl ligase (FbiB) catalyzes the addition of γ-linked l-glutamate residues to form polyglutamylated F420 derivatives. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Rv3262 (FbiB) consists of two domains: an N-terminal domain from the F420 ligase superfamily and a C-terminal domain with sequence similarity to nitro-FMN reductase superfamily proteins. To characterize the role of the C-terminal domain of FbiB in polyglutamyl ligation, it has been purified and crystallized in an apo form. The crystals diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution using a synchrotron source and belonged to the tetragonal space group P41212 (or P43212), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 136.6, c = 101.7 Å, α = β = γ = 90°.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis; F420 biosynthesis; FbiB