Structures of ERK2 in complexes with ATP and with ADP are presented and are compared with the apo form of the protein in the same monoclinic crystal form and with the closest structural homolog cyclin-dependent kinase 2, for which an ATP-complex structure is available.
Extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1 and ERK2) are members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family. Constitutive activation of the ERK proteins contributes to the development and progression of numerous human tumors. Thus, ERK1 and ERK2 are promising targets for the design and the development of anticancer drugs. The detailed structural analysis of ERK complexed with ATP can provide valuable information for the design of new ligands that can bind in the ATP-binding pocket and inhibit ERK activity. In this study, the structures of apo-form ERK2 and of its complexes with the substrate ATP and the product ADP were determined. Comparison with the structural homolog cyclin-dependent kinase 2 reveals differences in the way that the ATP binding to the protein is mediated by magnesium. Only minor conformational changes are identified that occur upon substrate binding, and these are limited to the active-site residues.
mitogen-activated protein kinases; ERK2
The periplasmic glucose-binding protein from T. maritima consists of two domains with the ligand β-d-glucose buried between them. The two domains adopt a closed conformation.
ABC transport systems have been characterized in organisms ranging from bacteria to humans. In most bacterial systems, the periplasmic component is the primary determinant of specificity of the transport complex as a whole. Here, the X-ray crystal structure of a periplasmic glucose-binding protein (GBP) from Thermotoga maritima determined at 2.4 Å resolution is reported. The molecule consists of two similar α/β domains connected by a three-stranded hinge region. In the current structure, a ligand (β-d-glucose) is buried between the two domains, which have adopted a closed conformation. Details of the substrate-binding sites revealed features that determine substrate specificity. In toto, ten residues from both domains form eight hydrogen bonds to the bound sugar and four aromatic residues (two from each domain) stabilize the substrate through stacking interactions.
glucose-binding proteins; ABC transporters; hinge motion; closed conformation
P. aeruginosa peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase was cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals obtained diffracted to 1.77 Å resolution.
The peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase enzyme from the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pth; EC 220.127.116.11) has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized for X-ray structural analysis. Suitable crystals were grown using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method after one week of incubation against a reservoir solution consisting of 20% polyethylene glycol 4000, 100 mM Tris pH 7.5, 10%(v/v) isopropyl alcohol. The crystals were used to obtain the three-dimensional structure of the native protein at 1.77 Å resolution. The structure was determined by molecular replacement of the crystallographic data processed in space group P6122 with unit-cell parameters a = b = 63.62, c = 155.20 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. The asymmetric unit of the crystallographic lattice was composed of a single copy of the enzyme molecule with a 43% solvent fraction, corresponding to a Matthews coefficient of 2.43 Å3 Da−1. The crystallographic structure reported here will serve as the foundation for future structure-guided efforts towards the development of novel small-molecule inhibitors specific to bacterial Pths.
peptidyl-tRNA hydrolases; peptidyl-tRNA; Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Crystal structures of the LpxA protein from A. baumannii were solved in apo forms that were suitable for structure-based antibacterial drug discovery.
Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative pathogenic bacterium which is resistant to most currently available antibiotics and that poses a significant health threat to hospital patients. LpxA is a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of the lipopolysaccharides that are components of the bacterial outer membrane. It is a potential target for antibacterial agents that might be used to fight A. baumannii infections. This paper describes the structure determination of the apo form of LpxA in space groups P212121 and P63. These crystal forms contained three and one protein molecules in the asymmetric unit and diffracted to 1.8 and 1.4 Å resolution, respectively. A comparison of the conformations of the independent protein monomers within and between the two crystal asymmetric units revealed very little structural variation across this set of structures. In the P63 crystal form the enzymatic site is exposed and is available for the introduction of small molecules of the type used in fragment-based drug discovery and structure-based lead optimization.
bacterial proteins; drug targets
DdrB from D. radiodurans has been crystallized in complex with ssDNA and diffraction data have been collected to 2.3 Å resolution.
The remarkable ability of members of the Deinococcus family to recover from extreme DNA damage is in part owing to their robust DNA-repair mechanisms. Of particular interest is their ability to repair hundreds of double-strand DNA breakages through a rapid and efficient mechanism involving novel proteins that are uniquely found in Deinococcus spp. One such protein, DdrB, which is thought to play a role early in DSB repair, has been crystallized in complex with ssDNA and data have been collected to 2.3 Å resolution.
DdrB; Deinococcus radiodurans; DNA repair
The production, purification, crystallization and crystallographic analysis of H-1 Parvovirus, a gene-therapy vector, are reported.
Crystals of H-1 Parvovirus (H-1PV), an antitumor gene-delivery vector, were obtained for DNA-containing capsids and diffracted X-rays to 2.7 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 255.4, b = 350.4, c = 271.6 Å, β = 90.34°. The unit cell contained two capsids, with one capsid per crystallographic asymmetric unit. The H-1PV structure has been determined by molecular replacement and is currently being refined.
H-1 Parvovirus; viruses; antitumor gene delivery
A crystal of Tm-1, which is an inhibitor protein of Tomato mosaic virus RNA replication, was obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 293 K and diffracted X-rays to 2.7 Å resolution. It belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 77.97, b = 105.28, c = 110.62 Å, α = 94.6, β = 109.3, γ = 108.0°.
Tm-1, an inhibitor protein of Tomato mosaic virus RNA replication, contains two conserved domains: an uncharacterized domain at its N-terminus and a TIM-barrel-like domain at its C-terminus. The N-terminal domain of Tm-1 has an inhibitory activity and its three-dimensional structure has not been determined. Here, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of the N-terminal domain of Tm-1 are reported. A three-wavelength MAD data set was collected from a selenomethionine-labelled crystal and processed to 2.7 Å resolution. The crystal belonged to the triclinic space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 77.97, b = 105.28, c = 110.62 Å, α = 94.6, β = 109.3, γ = 108.0°.
Tm-1; Tomato mosaic virus; replication protein
The crystal structure of the uracil complex of Vaccinia virus uracil DNA glycosylase (D4) has been determined at 2.03 Å resolution.
Poxvirus uracil DNA glycosylases are the most diverse members of the family I uracil DNA glycosylases (UNGs). The crystal structure of the uracil complex of Vaccinia virus uracil DNA glycosylase (D4) was determined at 2.03 Å resolution. One uracil molecule was located in the active-site pocket in each of the 12 noncrystallographic symmetry-related D4 subunits. Although the UNGs of the poxviruses (including D4) feature significant differences in the characteristic motifs designated for uracil recognition and in the base-excision mechanism, the architecture of the active-site pocket in D4 is very similar to that in UNGs of other organisms. Overall, the interactions of the bound uracil with the active-site residues are also similar to the interactions previously observed in the structures of human and Escherichia coli UNG.
uracil DNA glycosidase; Vaccinia virus
Two structures of human Siah1 at 1.95 and 1.58 Å resolution provide more complete models for this protein and identify conformational variability in the subdomain organization.
Siah1 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that contributes to proteasome-mediated degradation of multiple targets in key cellular processes and which shows promise as a therapeutic target in oncology. Structures of a truncated Siah1 bound to peptide-based inhibitors have been reported. Here, new crystallization conditions have allowed the determination of a construct encompassing dual zinc-finger subdomains and substrate-binding domains at significantly higher resolution. Although the crystals appear isomorphous, two structures present distinct states in which the spatial orientation of one zinc-finger subdomain differs with respect to the rest of the dimeric protein. Such a difference, which is indicative of conformational freedom, infers potential biological relevance related to recognition of binding partners. The crystallization conditions and improved models of Siah1 may aid future studies investigating Siah1–ligand complexes.
E3 ubiquitin ligase; seven-in-absentia homologue 1 (Siah1); zinc finger
The structure of the putative aminoacrylate peracid reductase RutC of the rut operon, a member of the YjgF family, is reported.
RutC is the third enzyme in the Escherichia coli rut pathway of uracil degradation. RutC belongs to the highly conserved YjgF family of proteins. The structure of the RutC protein was determined and refined to 1.95 Å resolution. The crystal belonged to space group P21212 and contained six molecules in the asymmetric unit. The structure was solved by SAD phasing and was refined to an R
work of 19.3% (R
free = 21.7%). The final model revealed that this protein has a Bacillus chorismate mutase-like fold and forms a homotrimer with a hydrophobic cavity in the center of the structure and ligand-binding clefts between two subunits. A likely function for RutC is the reduction of peroxy-aminoacrylate to aminoacrylate as a part of a detoxification process.
YjgF superfamily; rut operon; peroxy-aminoacrylate; aminoacrylate; RutC
This article describes the crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a protein construct (hCBS516–525) that contains the full-length cystathionine β-synthase from Homo sapiens (hCBS) and just lacks amino-acid residues 516–525.
Human cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) is a pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-dependent hemeprotein, whose catalytic activity is regulated by S-adenosylmethionine. CBS catalyzes the β-replacement reaction of homocysteine (Hcy) with serine to yield cystathionine. CBS is a key regulator of plasma levels of the thrombogenic Hcy and deficiency in CBS is the single most common cause of homocystinuria, an inherited metabolic disorder of sulfur amino acids. The properties of CBS enzymes, such as domain organization, oligomerization degree or regulatory mechanisms, are not conserved across the eukaryotes. The current body of knowledge is insufficient to understand these differences and their impact on CBS function and physiology. To overcome this deficiency, we have addressed the crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a protein construct (hCBS516–525) that contains the full-length CBS from Homo sapiens (hCBS) and just lacks amino-acid residues 516–525, which are located in a disordered loop. The human enzyme yielded crystals belonging to space group I222, with unit-cell parameters a = 124.98, b = 136.33, c = 169.83 Å and diffracting X-rays to a resolution of 3.0 Å. The crystal structure appears to contain two molecules in the asymmetric unit which presumably correspond to a dimeric form of the enzyme.
cystathionine β-synthase; CBS domain; homocysteine; cysteine biosynthesis; heme; pyridoxal-5′-phosphate; S-adenosylmethionine; transsulfuration pathway
This manuscript describes the crystallization of the full-length enzyme cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) from Apis mellifera, which maintains 46% sequence identity with the human homolog. Mutations in CBS cause hereditary homocystinuria in humans.
Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) is a pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the transsulfuration pathway, namely the condensation of serine with homocysteine to form cystathionine. Mutations in the CBS gene are the single most common cause of hereditary homocystinuria, a multisystemic disease affecting to various extents the vasculature, connective tissues and central nervous system. At present, the crystal structure of CBS from Drosophila melanogaster is the only available structure of the full-length enzyme. Here we describe a cloning, overexpression, purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a full-length CBS from Apis mellifera (AmCBS) which maintains 51 and 46% sequence identity with its Drosophila and human homologs, respectively. The AmCBS yielded crystals belonging to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 85.90, b = 95.87, c = 180.33 Å. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 3.0 Å. The crystal structure contained two molecules in the asymmetric unit which presumably correspond to the dimeric species observed in solution.
CBS domain; homocysteine; cysteine biosynthesis; heme; pyridoxal-5′-phosphate; S-adenosylmethionine; transsulfuration pathway
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen from Litopenaeus vannamei was recombinantly expressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were obtained and processed to 3 Å.
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a member of the sliding clamp family of proteins, interacts specifically with DNA replication and repair proteins through a small peptide motif called the PCNA-interacting protein or PIP box. PCNA is recognized as one of the key proteins involved in DNA metabolism. In the present study, the recombinant PCNA from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvPCNA) was heterologously overexpressed and purified using metal ion-affinity chromatography. Crystals suitable for diffraction grew overnight using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. LvPCNA crystals belong to space group C2 with unit-cell parameters a = 144.6, b = 83.4, c = 74.3 Å, β = 117.6°. One data set was processed to 3 Å resolution, with an overall R
meas of 0.09 and a completeness of 93.3%. Initial phases were obtained by molecular replacement using a homology model of LvPCNA as the search model. Refinement and structural analysis are underway. This report is the first successful crystallographic analysis of a marine crustacean decapod shrimp (L. vannamei) proliferating cell nuclear antigen.
proliferating cell nuclear antigen; Litopenaeus vannamei
Crystallization and diffraction analysis of a Ca2+-dependent PI-PLC from Streptomyces is reported. Optimization of crystals was completed using a drop-pinning technique and heavy-atom soaks to achieve high-quality diffraction to 1.23 Å.
A recombinant metal-dependent phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) from Streptomyces antibioticus has been crystallized by the hanging-drop method with and without heavy metals. The native crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P222, with unit-cell parameters a = 41.26, b = 51.86, c = 154.78 Å. The X-ray diffraction results showed significant differences in the crystal quality of samples soaked with heavy atoms. Additionally, drop pinning, which increases the surface area of the drops, was also used to improve crystal growth and quality. The combination of heavy-metal soaks and drop pinning was found to be critical for producing high-quality crystals that diffracted to 1.23 Å resolution.
phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipases C; PI-PLCs; Streptomyces antibioticus
Here, crystal structures of Ara1 in apo and NADPH-complexed forms are presented at 2.10 and 2.00 Å resolution, respectively.
The primary role of yeast Ara1, previously mis-annotated as a d-arabinose dehydrogenase, is to catalyze the reduction of a variety of toxic α,β-dicarbonyl compounds using NADPH as a cofactor at physiological pH levels. Here, crystal structures of Ara1 in apo and NADPH-complexed forms are presented at 2.10 and 2.00 Å resolution, respectively. Ara1 exists as a homodimer, each subunit of which adopts an (α/β)8-barrel structure and has a highly conserved cofactor-binding pocket. Structural comparison revealed that induced fit upon NADPH binding yielded an intact active-site pocket that recognizes the substrate. Moreover, the crystal structures combined with computational simulation defined an open substrate-binding site to accommodate various substrates that possess a dicarbonyl group.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Ara1; aldo–keto reductases; substrate-binding pocket; induced fit
Crystal data on a putative portal protein from the thermostable bacteriophage G20C indicate that it forms a 12-subunit assembly.
In tailed bacteriophages and several animal viruses, the portal protein forms the gateway through which viral DNA is translocated into the head structure during viral particle assembly. In the mature virion the portal protein exists as a dodecamer, while recombinant portal proteins from several phages, including SPP1 and CNPH82, have been shown to form 13-subunit assemblies. A putative portal protein from the thermostable bacteriophage G20C has been cloned, overexpressed and purified. Crystals of the protein diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution and belonged to space group P4212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 155.3, c = 115.4 Å. The unit-cell content and self-rotation function calculations indicate that the protein forms a circular 12-subunit assembly.
putative portal protein; Thermus thermophilus; bacteriophage G20C
A phosphomimetic mutation in subunit ∊ dramatically increases reproducibility for crystallization of Escherichia coli ATP synthase catalytic complex (F1) (subunit composition α3β3γ∊). Diffraction data were collected to ∼3.15 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation.
The bacterial ATP synthase (FOF1) of Escherichia coli has been the prominent model system for genetics, biochemical and more recently single-molecule studies on F-type ATP synthases. With 22 total polypeptide chains (total mass of ∼529 kDa), E. coli FOF1 represents nature’s smallest rotary motor, composed of a membrane-embedded proton transporter (FO) and a peripheral catalytic complex (F1). The ATPase activity of isolated F1 is fully expressed by the α3β3γ ‘core’, whereas single δ and ∊ subunits are required for structural and functional coupling of E. coli F1 to FO. In contrast to mitochondrial F1-ATPases that have been determined to atomic resolution, the bacterial homologues have proven very difficult to crystallize. In this paper, we describe a biochemical strategy that led us to improve the crystallogenesis of the E. coli F1-ATPase catalytic core. Destabilizing the compact conformation of ∊’s C-terminal domain with a phosphomimetic mutation (∊S65D) dramatically increased crystallization success and reproducibility, yielding crystals of E. coli F1 that diffract to ∼3.15 Å resolution.
Crystallization; FOF1-ATP synthase; phosphomimetic mutation; ∊ subunit
The crystallization and initial diffraction analysis of human Drp1 GTPase-GED fusion protein are reported.
The mechano-enzyme dynamin-related protein 1 plays an important role in mitochondrial fission and is implicated in cell physiology. Dysregulation of Drp1 is associated with abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and neuronal damage. Drp1 shares structural and functional similarities with dynamin 1 with respect to domain organization, ability to self-assemble into spiral-like oligomers and GTP-cycle-dependent membrane scission. Structural studies of human dynamin-1 have greatly improved the understanding of this prototypical member of the dynamin superfamily. However, high-resolution structural information for full-length human Drp1 covering the GTPase domain, the middle domain and the GTPase effector domain (GED) is still lacking. In order to obtain mechanistic insights into the catalytic activity, a nucleotide-free GTPase-GED fusion protein of human Drp1 was expressed, purified and crystallized. Initial X-ray diffraction experiments yielded data to 2.67 Å resolution. The hexagonal-shaped crystals belonged to space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 53.59, b = 151.65, c = 43.53 Å, one molecule per asymmetric unit and a solvent content of 42%. Expression of selenomethionine-labelled protein is currently in progress. Here, the expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of the Drp1 GTPase-GED fusion protein are presented, which form a basis for more detailed structural and biophysical analysis.
dynamin-related protein 1; GTPase domain; GTPase effector domain
The pH 6 antigen Psa displayed on the surface of Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes plague in humans, consists of polymers of a single protein subunit termed PsaA. Donor-strand complemented PsaA was purified and crystallized.
Yersinia pestis has been responsible for a number of high-mortality epidemics throughout human history. Like all other bacterial infections, the pathogenesis of Y. pestis begins with the attachment of bacteria to the surface of host cells. At least five surface proteins from Y. pestis have been shown to interact with host cells. Psa, the pH 6 antigen, is one of them and is deployed on the surface of bacteria as thin flexible fibrils that are the result of the polymerization of a single PsaA pilin subunit. Here, the crystallization of recombinant donor-strand complemented PsaA by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method is reported. X-ray diffraction data sets were collected to 1.9 Å resolution from a native crystal and to 1.5 Å resolution from a bromide-derivatized crystal. These crystals displayed the symmetry of the orthorhombic space group P2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 26.3, b = 54.6, c = 102.1 Å. Initial phases were derived from single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering experiments, resulting in an electron-density map that showed a single molecule in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Sequence assignment was aided by residues binding to bromide ions of the heavy-atom derivative.
Psa; pilins; Yersinia pestis; PsaA
A proteolytically stable fragment of a plasmid replication initiation protein from the thermophile G. stearothermophilus has been biochemically characterized, crystallized and diffraction data collected to a resolution of 2.5 Å.
Antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens poses an ever-increasing risk to human health. In antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus this resistance often resides in extra-chromosomal plasmids, such as those of the pT181 family, which replicate via a rolling-circle mechanism mediated by a plasmid-encoded replication initiation protein. Currently, there is no structural information available for the pT181-family Rep proteins. Here, the crystallization of a catalytically active fragment of a homologous replication initiation protein from the thermophile Geobacillus stearothermophilus responsible for the replication of plasmid pSTK1 is reported. Crystals of the RepSTK1 fragment diffracted to a resolution of 2.5 Å and belonged to space group P212121.
rolling-circle replication; plasmid pSTK1; plasmid pT181; replication initiation proteins; Staphylococcus aureus; Geobacillus stearothermophilus
The crystal structure of C. jejuni anabolic ornithine transcarbamoylase has been determined at a resolution of 2.7 Å in an unliganded state.
Anabolic ornithine transcarbamoylase (aOTC) catalyzes the reaction between carbamoyl phosphate (CP) and l-ornithine (ORN) to form l-citrulline and phosphate in the urea cycle and l-arginine biosynthesis. The crystal structure of unliganded aOTC from Campylobacter jejuni (Cje aOTC) was determined at 2.7 Å resolution and refined to an R
work of 20.3% and an R
free of 24.0%. Cje aOTC is a trimer that forms a head-to-head pseudohexamer in the asymmetric unit. Each monomer is composed of an N-terminal CP-binding domain and a C-terminal ORN-binding domain joined by two interdomain helices. The Cje aOTC structure presents an open conformation of the enzyme with a relatively flexible orientation of the ORN-binding domain respective to the CP-binding domain. The conformation of the B2–H3 loop (residues 68–78), which is involved in binding CP in an adjacent subunit of the trimer, differs from that seen in homologous proteins with CP bound. The loop containing the ORN-binding motif (DxxxSMG, residues 223–230) has a conformation that is different from those observed in unliganded OTC structures from other species, but is similar to those in structures with bound ORN analogs. The major differences in tertiary structure between Cje aOTC and human aOTC are described.
Campylobacter jejuni; anabolic ornithine transcarbamoylases; carbamoyl phosphate; l-ornithine; l-citrulline; arginine biosynthesis; biocatalysis
AIM2 is an innate immune sensor of microbial double-stranded DNA. The HIN-200 domain of mouse AIM2 bound to a 15 bp and an 18 bp dsDNA were crystallized and diffract to about 4.0 Å.
AIM2 (absent in melanoma 2) is an innate immune receptor for cytosolic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). The engagement of dsDNA by AIM2 activates the AIM2 inflammasome, resulting in the cleavage of pro-interleukin-1β by caspase-1. The DNA-binding HIN-200 domain of mouse AIM2 bound to a 15 bp dsDNA and to an 18 bp dsDNA was purified and crystallized. The AIM2 HIN-200 domain in complex with the 15 bp DNA crystallized in the cubic space group I23 or I213, with unit-cell parameter a = 235.60 Å. The complex of the AIM2 HIN-200 domain and the 18 bp DNA crystallized in a similar unit cell. Diffraction data for the two complexes were collected to about 4.0 Å resolution. Mutagenesis and DNA-binding studies suggest that mouse AIM2 uses a similar surface to human AIM2 to recognize DNA.
mouse AIM2; HIN-200 domain; DNA binding
Comparison of bound and unbound DNA in protein–DNA co-crystal complexes reveals insights into controller-protein binding and DNA distortion in transcriptional regulation.
The controller protein of the type II restriction–modification (RM) system Esp1396I binds to three distinct DNA operator sequences upstream of the methyltransferase and endonuclease genes in order to regulate their expression. Previous biophysical and crystallographic studies have shown molecular details of how the controller protein binds to the operator sites with very different affinities. Here, two protein–DNA co-crystal structures containing portions of unbound DNA from native operator sites are reported. The DNA in both complexes shows significant distortion in the region between the conserved symmetric sequences, similar to that of a DNA duplex when bound by the controller protein (C-protein), indicating that the naked DNA has an intrinsic tendency to bend when not bound to the C-protein. Moreover, the width of the major groove of the DNA adjacent to a bound C-protein dimer is observed to be significantly increased, supporting the idea that this DNA distortion contributes to the substantial cooperativity found when a second C-protein dimer binds to the operator to form the tetrameric repression complex.
transcriptional regulation; DNA-binding proteins; helix–turn–helix motif; DNA distortion
The 23S rRNA methyltransferase RlmJ from E. coli has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data to 1.85 Å resolution have been collected from the apo RlmJ crystals.
Methyltransferase RlmJ uses the cofactor S-adenosylmethionine to methylate the exocyclic nitrogen N6 of nucleotide A2030 in 23S rRNA during ribosome assembly in Escherichia coli. RlmJ with a C-terminal hexahistidine tag was overexpressed in E. coli and purified as a monomer using Ni2+-affinity and size-exclusion chromatography. The recombinant RlmJ was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method and a full data set was collected to 1.85 Å resolution from a single apo crystal. The crystals belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 46.9, b = 77.8, c = 82.5 Å, β = 104°. Data analysis suggested two molecules per asymmetric unit and a Matthews coefficient of 2.20 Å3 Da−1.
RlmJ; S-adenosylmethionine; methyltransferases; 23S rRNA; m6A2030; ribosome assembly; Escherichia coli
Serial femtosecond X-ray (SFX) diffraction extending beyond 6 Å resolution using T. thermophilus 30S ribosomal subunit crystals is reported.
High-resolution ribosome structures determined by X-ray crystallography have provided important insights into the mechanism of translation. Such studies have thus far relied on large ribosome crystals kept at cryogenic temperatures to reduce radiation damage. Here, the application of serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography (SFX) using an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) to obtain diffraction data from ribosome microcrystals in liquid suspension at ambient temperature is described. 30S ribosomal subunit microcrystals diffracted to beyond 6 Å resolution, demonstrating the feasibility of using SFX for ribosome structural studies. The ability to collect diffraction data at near-physiological temperatures promises to provide fundamental insights into the structural dynamics of the ribosome and its functional complexes.
30S ribosomal subunit; serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography; X-ray free-electron laser; ribosome