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1.  Depth profiling of polymer films with grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering 
A procedure for obtaining depth-specific scattering profiles of laterally defined nanostructure using grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering is described.
A model-free method of reconstructing depth-specific lateral scattering from incident-angle-resolved grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) data is proposed. The information on the material which is available through variation of the X-ray penetration depth with incident angle is accessed through reference to the reflected branch of the GISAXS process. Reconstruction of the scattering from lateral density fluctuations is achieved by solving the resulting Fredholm integral equation with minimal a priori information about the experimental system. Results from simulated data generated for hypothetical multilayer polymer systems with constant absorption coefficient are used to verify that the method can be applied to cases with large X-ray penetration depths, as typically seen with polymer materials. Experimental tests on a spin-coated thick film of a blend of diblock copolymers demonstrate that the approach is capable of reconstruction of the scattering from a multilayer structure with the identification of lateral scattering profiles as a function of sample depth.
PMCID: PMC2724987  PMID: 19349663
depth profiling; grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering; block copolymers

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