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1.  Hypothesis: are neoplastic macrophages/microglia present in glioblastoma multiforme? 
ASN NEURO  2011;3(4):e00064.
Most malignant brain tumours contain various numbers of cells with characteristics of activated or dysmorphic macrophages/microglia. These cells are generally considered part of the tumour stroma and are often described as TAM (tumour-associated macrophages). These types of cells are thought to either enhance or inhibit brain tumour progression. Recent evidence indicates that neoplastic cells with macrophage characteristics are found in numerous metastatic cancers of non-CNS (central nervous system) origin. Evidence is presented here suggesting that subpopulations of cells within human gliomas, specifically GBM (glioblastoma multiforme), are neoplastic macrophages/microglia. These cells are thought to arise following mitochondrial damage in fusion hybrids between neoplastic stem cells and macrophages/microglia.
doi:10.1042/AN20110011
PMCID: PMC3178415  PMID: 21834792
fusion; glioblastoma multiforme; glioma; macrophage; microglia; phagocytosis; AIF1, allograft inflammatory factor 1; CNS, central nervous system; GFAP, glial fibrillary acidic protein; GBM, glioblastoma multiforme; IL, interleukin; MDSC, myeloid-derived suppressor cell; MNGC, multinucleated giant cell; PXA, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma; ROS, reactive oxygen species; RTG, retrograde; TAM, tumour-associated macrophage; VM, vasculogenic mimicry

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