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1.  Comparison of competing risks models based on cumulative incidence function in analyzing time to cardiovascular diseases 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2014;10(1):6-12.
BACKGROUND
Competing risks arise when the subject is exposed to more than one cause of failure. Data consists of the time that the subject failed and an indicator of which risk caused the subject to fail.
METHODS
With three approaches consisting of Fine and Gray, binomial, and pseudo-value, all of which are directly based on cumulative incidence function, cardiovascular disease data of the Isfahan Cohort Study were analyzed. Validity of proportionality assumption for these approaches is the basis for selecting appropriate models. Such as for the Fine and Gray model, establishing proportionality assumption is necessary. In the binomial approach, a parametric, non-parametric, or semi-parametric model was offered according to validity of assumption. However, pseudo-value approaches do not need to establish proportionality.
RESULTS
Following fitting the models to data, slight differences in parameters and variances estimates were seen among models. This showed that semi-parametric multiplicative model and the two models based on pseudo-value approach could be used for fitting this kind of data.
CONCLUSION
We would recommend considering the use of competing risk models instead of normal survival methods when subjects are exposed to more than one cause of failure.
PMCID: PMC4063516  PMID: 24963307
Competing Risks; Cumulative Incidence Function; Fine and Gray Model; Binomial Approach; Pseudo-value Approach; Cardiovascular Diseases
2.  Physical activity, sex, and socioeconomic status: A population based study 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2013;9(1):51-60.
BACKGROUND
The purpose of the present study was to investigate physical activity by socioeconomic status (SES) and sex in an Iranian adult population.
METHODS
In a cross-sectional study, 6622 adults, who participated in the Isfahan Healthy Heart program (IHHP) surveys in 2004 and 2005 and were living in urban areas, were studied. Daily leisure time, household, occupational, and transportation physical activity, and total physical activity were calculated and compared in 3 socioeconomic status groups classified by the two-step cluster analysis procedure.
RESULTS
Statistically significant variations were found in all physical activity levels, except transportation, by sex. Men were more active than women in all fields, except household physical activity. Leisure time physical activity of men and women were significantly higher in higher SES levels. There was an opposite correlation between SES and total physical activity in men.
CONCLUSION
Considering the importance of physical activity as a component of a healthy lifestyle, differences among varying socioeconomic status and sex must be considered while planning for healthy lifestyle programs. Women with low SES, in particular, may need more attention.
PMCID: PMC3653259  PMID: 23696760
Physical Activity; Socioeconomic Status; Leisure Time; Gender; Cluster Analysis
3.  The effectiveness of stress management intervention in a community-based program: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2012;7(4):176-183.
BACKGROUND:
This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of stress management training in improving the ability of coping with stress in a large population.
METHODS:
Five cross-sectional studies using multistage cluster random sampling were performed on adults aged ≥ 19 years between 2000 to 2005 in Isfahan and Najafabad (Iran) as intervention cities and Arak, Iran as the control city within the context of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. Stress management training was adapted according to age and education levels of the target groups. In a 45-minute home interview, demographic data, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and stress management questionnaires were collected. Data was analyzed by t-test, linear regression and general linear model.
RESULTS:
Trends of both adaptive and maladaptive coping skills and GHQ scores from baseline to the last survey were statistically significant in both intervention and reference areas (P < 0.001). While adaptive coping skills increased significantly, maladaptive coping skills decreased significantly in the intervention areas. Furthermore, stress levels decreased significantly in the intervention compared to the reference area.
CONCLUSION:
Stress management programs could improve coping strategies at the community level and can be considered in designing behavioral interventions
PMCID: PMC3413087  PMID: 23205052
Stress Management; Community; Intervention; Coping Strategies
4.  The correlation between blood pressure and hot flashes in menopausal women 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2012;8(1):32-35.
BACKGROUND
As blood pressure is higher in menopausal women than their peers with similar Body mass index (BMI), and considering hot flashes as one of the most common symptoms of menopause, this study was conducted to examine the 24-hour changes of blood pressure in menopausal women experiencing hot flashes.
METHODS
This cross-sectional study was performed on 26 menopausal 47-53 year-old women divided into 2 groups of 13. None of them had a history of internal diseases, hypertension, and hormone medications. Their blood pressure and heartbeat were recorded by a blood pressure Holter for 24 hours. The data was analyzed through student t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS11.5.
RESULTS
Systolic blood pressure of the symptomatic group was significantly higher than the asymptomatic group during waking hours (P < 0.05). However, the heartbeats and systolic blood pressure of the symptomatic group were higher than those in the other group in 24 hours. This difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05).
CONCLUSION
Similar to hot flashes, the increase in systolic blood pressure may arise from central sympathetic activity. Peripheral vasoconstriction and increased cardiac output, both caused by baroreflex dysfunction, might also have been responsible for increments in systolic blood pressure. Therefore, prospective studies are required to determine how the growing increase in blood pressure and the prevalence of hypertension differ in both groups.
PMCID: PMC3448399  PMID: 23056098
Women; Menopause; Blood Pressure; Hot Flashes
5.  Relationship Between Carotid Intima-Media Thickness with some Inflammatory Biomarkers, Ghrelin and Adiponectin in Iranians with and without Metabolic Syndrome in Isfahan Cohort Study 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2010;6(2):56-61.
BACKGROUND
Recent studies have confirmed inflammatory factors and metabolic syndrome (MetS) as important cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Recently measurement of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) has been used for evaluation of early atherosclerosis. This study was designed to assess the correlation between IMT with some inflammatory biomarkers, ghrelin and adiponectin in people with and without MetS in a cohort sample in Isfahan province.
METHODS
Among participants of Isfahan Cohort Study (ICS) by random sampling, 88 participants were selected and divided into case (with MetS) and control (without MetS) groups. A questionnaire including demographic data and CVD risk factors was completed for all of the participants. Physical examination and blood pressure, height, weight and waist circumference measurements were done for all subjects. Vascular echocardiography was done for evaluation of IMT of each carotid artery of both sides. Interlukin-6 (IL-6), interlukin-10 (IL-10), highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), ghrelin and adiponectin levels were measured using ELIZA method. Data were entered in SPSS15 software and analyzed by t-test, chi square, Pearson correlation and linear regression analyze.
RESULTS
The mean waist circumference, BMI, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, hs-CRP and IMT of left carotid artery were significantly higher in participants with Mets. There was significant correlation between left carotid IMT and IL-6 level in all patients (P = 0.03). After adjustment for age and sex, significant relationship in groups with MetS was only reported between the left IMT and IL-6 (P = 0.02). There was no relation between IMT and other inflammatory markers in subjects with and without MetS.
CONCLUSION
Significant correlation between IL-6 and IMT was reported in patients with MetS. While no significant correlation between IL-10, adiponectin and ghrelin with IMT was observed in metabolic syndrome group.
PMCID: PMC3347812  PMID: 22577415
Intima-media thickness (IMT); Carotid artery; hs-CRP; Ghrelin; Adiponectin IL-6; IL-10

Results 1-5 (5)