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1.  Factors affecting outcome of primary percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2013;9(4):241-246.
BACKGROUND
Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the main treatment for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We investigated factors affecting the major complications of this procedure.
METHODS
This case-control study assessed 200 patients receiving primary PCI for STEMI. Effects of some factors including age, sex, coronary artery risk factors, left ventricular function, thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow, and number of involved vessels on major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were studied.
RESULTS
Two thirds of patients were male but sex had no significant effect on MACE. Similarly, age, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia did not significantly affect the incidence of MACE. However, Killip class, left ventricular ejection fraction, diabetes, TIMI flow, and type of involved vessels had significant relations with the incidence of MACE.
CONCLUSION
According to our findings, factors such as diabetes, left ventricular function, left anterior descending artery involvement, and low TIMI flow are risk factors of MACE.
PMCID: PMC3746947  PMID: 23970919
Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention; ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction; Major Adverse Cardiac Events
2.  Diagnostic performance of 64-row coronary CT angiography in detecting significant stenosis as compared with conventional invasive coronary angiography 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2013;9(2):157-163.
BACKGROUND
The aim of the present study is to evaluate the accuracy of 64-multidetector-row computed tomography angiography (CTA) in comparison to conventional invasive angiography (CIA) in the diagnosis of significant stenosis (≥ 50%) of coronary artery tree.
METHODS
Assessment of CTA in the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) was performed in patients referred because of symptoms or stress studies suggestive of ischemia. For this purpose, among more than 1000 cases of coronary CTA in a 20 months period a study population of 54 patients suspected to have significant stenosis of the coronary artery tree was investigated. The CIA procedure was performed in these patients one month after CTA. The accuracy of CTA in detecting significant stenosis was compared to CIA.
RESULTS
For vessel based analysis of 179 coronary vessels, CTA had a sensitivity of 96%, specificity of 87.5%, positive predictive value of 90.5%, and negative predictive value of 94.6%. For patient-base analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of CTA were 97.9%, 28.6%, 66.6%, and 90.2%, respectively.
CONCLUSION
The findings of this study reveal that CT angiography with 64-slice scanner could be considered as a suitable technique for rapid triage of patients presenting to hospitals with chest pain. High values of sensitivity and PPV reveal the good performance of CTA in detecting CAD.
PMCID: PMC3653245  PMID: 23690817
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD); Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA); Conventional Invasive Angiography (CIA)
3.  Effects of streptokinase on reflow in rescue percutaneous coronary intervention 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2013;9(1):22-28.
BACKGROUND
Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is the preferred treatment method for ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, the required equipments are not available in all hospitals. Thus, due to shortage of time, some patients receive thrombolysis therapy first. Patients with chest pain and/or persistent ST segment elevation will then undergo rescue percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The present study evaluated and compared the frequency of no-reflow phenomenon and 24-hour complications after PCI among patients who underwent PPCI or rescue PCI.
METHODS
This cross-sectional study assessed no-reflow phenomenon, 24-hour complications, and thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow in patients admitted to Chamran Hospital (Isfahan, Iran) with a diagnosis of STEMI during March-September, 2011. Subjects underwent PPCI if they had received eptifibatide. Rescue PCI was performed if patients had chest pain and/or persistent ST segment elevation despite receiving streptokinase (SK). Demographic characteristics, history of diseases, medicine, angiography findings, PCI type, and complications during the first 24 hours following PCI were collected. Data was then analyzed by Student’s t-test, chi-square test, and logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS
A total number of 143 individuals, including 67 PPCI cases (46.9%) and 76 cases of rescue PCI (53.1%), were evaluated. The mean age of the participants was 58.92 ± 11.16 years old. Females constituted 18.2% (n = 26) of the whole population. No-reflow phenomenon was observed in 51 subjects (37.1%). Although 9 patients (6.3%) died during the first 24 hours after PCI, neither the crude nor the model adjusted for age and gender revealed significant relations between rescue PCI and death or no-reflow phenomenon. Rescue PCI and no-reflow phenomenon were not significantly correlated even after adjustments for age, gender, history of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, smoking, platelets number, myocardial infarction level, the extent of stenosis, and the involved artery.
CONCLUSION
According to the present study, although SK is more effective than eptifibatide in resolution of thrombosis and clots, rescue PCI did not differ from PPCI in terms of the incidence of no-reflow phenomenon or short-term complications.
PMCID: PMC3653257  PMID: 23696756
Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention; Rescue Percutaneous Coronary Intervention; No-Reflow Phenomenon
4.  Parental perceptions of weight status of their children 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2013;9(1):61-69.
BACKGROUND
Understanding the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents is important for planning appropriately to control their children’s weight. We aimed to study these variables in parents of normal, underweight, overweight, and obese children.
METHODS
This cross-sectional study targeted the parents of normal, underweight, overweight, and obese children, who were selected using multistage random sampling method. The parents’ knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors about the weight status of their children, weight management, obesity, diet, lifestyle, and related psychosocial factors were evaluated using a validated questionnaire. The questionnaire, which had been validated, consisted of 12 demographic, 8 knowledge, 19 attitude and beliefs, and 25 behavior questions. Mean knowledge, attitude and beliefs, and behavior scores were compared across three subgroups of parents. Student’s independent t-test, ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to study the correlation between different demographic and socioeconomic factors, and the studied variables.
RESULTS
90% of parents were aware that obesity is a disease, and 92% knew that eating too much fast food would lead to obesity in children. Only 5% assumed that obese children are healthier than non-obese children. The mean scores of the three subgroups showed no significant difference in knowledge, attitude and beliefs, and behavior. Families with fathers, whose education level was higher than high school diploma, rated their children’s weight status as overweight or obese significantly less than families with fathers, whose education level was high school diploma or lower (8.5% vs. 16.5%, respectively, P = 0.014). Only 12% of parents tried to help their children lose weight at least once, and only 6% arranged sport activities for the family members. In 57% and 41% of families, the child, respectively, decided how much time was enough to watch TV, and how much chocolates and sweets to eat. 46% of children watched TV for more than 2 hours/day, and 49% of children watched TV while eating meals. The mean total score of boys’ parents was significantly lower than that of girls’ parents (P < 0.05). Families with low income, with no medical insurance, or not owning a house thought that the cost of registration in sport activities for children was too high (P < 0.03).
CONCLUSION
Some parents unreasonably rated the weight status of their children as overweight/obese. It is suggested that further studies be carried out to evaluate and improve parents’ knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding their children’s weight.
PMCID: PMC3653261  PMID: 23696761
Children; Obesity; Overweight; Knowledge; Attitude; Belief; Behavior
5.  Renal ablation for treatment of hypertension without Symplicity catheter: The first human experience 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2013;9(1):82-88.
BACKGROUND
Hypertension (HTN) treatment has remained insufficient. New modalities such as “Symplicity method” for the treatment of HTN are a priority, especially in patients with resistant hypertension. In this study, we describe our first experience with a novel percutaneous treatment modality, without using Symplicity catheter.
METHODS
30 Patients who were resistant to at least three types of antihypertensive medical therapy were selected. Patients received percutaneous renal artery denervation, without Symplicity catheter method, and were followed up for 1 week, 1, 3, and 6 months later after treatment. Ambulatory 24-hour blood pressure (BP) Holter was performed 1 week before intervention and after 1 month. The primary outcome was change in 24-hour ambulatory BP and change in office and home-based BP measurements.
RESULTS
The mean age of the studied patients was 52 ± 15.4 years and 43.3% (n = 13) were female. Systolic and diastolic BP at baseline was 163 ± 17.2 and 95 ± 8.2 mmHg, respectively. Patients took 3.6 ± 1.3 hypertensive medications. Systolic and diastolic BP at 1-week, 1-month, 3-month and 6-month after renal denervation significantly decreased compared to the baseline (P < 0.0001). Average BP derived from 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring changed in parallel with office-based BP measurements. Most of patients (50%) who underwent renal denervation had reductions of 10 mmHg or greater in systolic BP and 56.7% of them had reductions of 5 mmHg or greater in diastolic BP. 33.3% of patients also achieved the target of systolic BP less than 140 mmHg and 60% achieved the target of diastolic BP less than 90 mmHg. No patients showed vascular damage at final angiography.
CONCLUSION
Catheter based renal ablation was associated with a significant reduction in both systolic and diastolic BP, on top of maximal medical therapy, which persisted throughout 6 months follow-up in the first-in-man study without the Symplicity catheter.
PMCID: PMC3653263  PMID: 23696764
Renal Denervation; Resistant Hypertension; Catheter
6.  Primary percutaneous coronary intervention in the Isfahan province, Iran; A situation analysis and needs assessment 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2013;9(1):38-44.
BACKGROUND
Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is considered as a choice of treatment in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). PPCI has been performed in the Isfahan Province for several years. This study was performed to describe the situation, and determine in-hospital and early (30 days) clinical outcomes of the patients in order to provide sufficient evidence to evaluate and modify this treatment modality if necessary.
METHODS
All patients, who underwent PPCI for STEMI from July to December 2011 at Chamran and Saadi Hospitals (PPCI centers in the Isfahan Province), were included in this case series study. Premedication, angioplasty procedure, and post-procedural treatment were performed using standard protocols or techniques. All discharged patients were followed for 30 days by phone. Endpoints consisted of clinical success rate, and in-hospital and 30 day major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) (death, reinfarction, stroke, and target vessel revascularization).
RESULTS
93 patients (83 (89.2%) at Chamran Hospital and 10 (10.8%) patients at Saadi Hospital) had PPCI. Mean Age of the patients was 59.60 ± 11.10 and M/F ratio was 3.89. From the 181 involved vessels (involved vessels/patient ratio = 1.97 ± 0.70), the treatment of 105 lesions (lesions/patient ratio = 1.13 ± 0.368) was attempted. The clinical success rate was 72%. Pain-to-door and door-to-balloon times were, respectively, 255.1 ± 221.4 and 148.9 ± 168.5 min. The reason for failure was impaired flow (n = 17 (18.3%)), failure to cross with a guidewire (n = 2 (2.2%)), suboptimal angiographic results (n = 2 (2.2%)), and death in one patient. The in-hospital and 30 days MACE rates were, respectively, 8.6% and 3.2%.
CONCLUSION
Low success rate in our series could be due to prolonged pain-to-door and door-to-balloon times and lack of an established, definite protocol to regularly perform PPCI in a timely fashion. We should resolve these problems and improve our techniques in order to prevent and treat slow/no-reflow phenomenon.
PMCID: PMC3653265  PMID: 23696758
Acute Coronary Syndrome; Myocardial Infarction; Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty; Cardiogenic Shock; No-Reflow Phenomenon
7.  Association of helicobacter pylori infection with severity of coronary heart disease 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2012;7(4):138-141.
BACKGROUND:
There are few literatures evaluating the association between cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) positive strains of Helicobacter pylori (HP) and the severity of coronary heart disease (CHD). This study was designed to investigate this association.
METHODS:
Medical and drug history of 112 consecutive patients who were candidate for coronary angiography were taken. Fasting blood samples were obtained to measure C-reactive protein (CRP), anti Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin G (anti-HP IgG), anti-CagA antibody (Ab) and interlukine-6 (IL6). According to angiography reports, participants were divided into patients with mild (n = 69) and with sever CHD (n = 36). To measure the association between CagA positive strains of HP with the severity of CHD, multivariate logistic regression tests were used by adjusting age, sex, history of diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia (DLP), and/or hypertension (HTN), CRP status and IL-6 level.
RESULTS:
The analysis was concluded on 105 subjects. HP infection and CagA Ab were not significantly higher compared to the patients with severe and mild CHD (P = 0.28 and P = 0.68, respectively). Colonization of CagA positive HP did not significantly associate with severity of CHD (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.33–3. 39).
CONCLUSION:
Colonization of CagA positive HP was not an independent risk factor for severe coronary heart disease.
PMCID: PMC3413081  PMID: 23205045
Helicobacter Pylori; CagA; Coronary Heart Disease; Severity
8.  Is helicobacter pylori infection a risk factor for coronary heart disease? 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2012;8(1):5-8.
BACKGROUND
There is still controversy about association of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection with coronary heart disease (CHD). This study designed to evaluate this association in a sample of Iranians Population.
METHODS
Medical and drug history as well as fasting blood samples of 112 consecutive patients who were candidate for coronary angiography were taken on catheterization day. Fasting blood samples were used to measure C-reactive protein (CRP), anti H. pylori immunoglobulin G (anti H. pylori IgG) and interlukine-6 (IL6). According to angiography reports, participants were divided into patients with (n = 62) or without CHD (n = 43). To compare the association between H. pylori infection with CHD, multivariate logistic regression tests were used by adjusting sex and age, age and sex plus history of diabetes mellitus (DM), Dyslipidemia (DLP), and/or hypertension (HTN), CRP status and IL-6 level.
RESULTS
Sixty two patients with CHD and 43 participants without CHD were enrolled in the present study. The mean ages of patients with and without CHD were 62.4 261 9.5 and 59.0 261 10.5 years respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjusting for history of DM and/or DLP and/or HTN plus CRP status and IL-6 level showed significant association of H. pylori infection with CHD (OR 3.18, 95%CI 1.08-9.40).
CONCLUSION
H. pylori infection is one of the probable risk factors for CHD independent of history of DM, DLP, HTN, CRP status and IL-6 level.
PMCID: PMC3448393  PMID: 23056092
Helicobacter Pylori; Coronary Heart Disease; Angiography
9.  The correlation between blood pressure and hot flashes in menopausal women 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2012;8(1):32-35.
BACKGROUND
As blood pressure is higher in menopausal women than their peers with similar Body mass index (BMI), and considering hot flashes as one of the most common symptoms of menopause, this study was conducted to examine the 24-hour changes of blood pressure in menopausal women experiencing hot flashes.
METHODS
This cross-sectional study was performed on 26 menopausal 47-53 year-old women divided into 2 groups of 13. None of them had a history of internal diseases, hypertension, and hormone medications. Their blood pressure and heartbeat were recorded by a blood pressure Holter for 24 hours. The data was analyzed through student t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS11.5.
RESULTS
Systolic blood pressure of the symptomatic group was significantly higher than the asymptomatic group during waking hours (P < 0.05). However, the heartbeats and systolic blood pressure of the symptomatic group were higher than those in the other group in 24 hours. This difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05).
CONCLUSION
Similar to hot flashes, the increase in systolic blood pressure may arise from central sympathetic activity. Peripheral vasoconstriction and increased cardiac output, both caused by baroreflex dysfunction, might also have been responsible for increments in systolic blood pressure. Therefore, prospective studies are required to determine how the growing increase in blood pressure and the prevalence of hypertension differ in both groups.
PMCID: PMC3448399  PMID: 23056098
Women; Menopause; Blood Pressure; Hot Flashes
10.  Retained Jailed Wire: A Case Report and Literature Review 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2011;7(3):129-131.
Side branch wiring is not infrequently used to protect side branch flow after main vessel stenting. Rarely, it becomes difficult to retrieve the jailed wire behind the stent and therefore it may even be detached and remained in the circulation. This article presents a report of such a case and reviews treatment options.
PMCID: PMC3347859  PMID: 22577460
Jailed wire; Stent; Retrieval
11.  The effect of contrast dye injection and balloon inflation on QTC and QTC dispersion in 12 leads surface EKG during PTCA 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2011;7(1):7-10.
BACKGROUND
Considering that determining the effect of both contrast dye injection and balloon inflation on electrophysiological parameters would help us to predict the ischemic event during PTCA, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of these factors on QTc and QTc dispersion during PTCA in Isfahan.
METHODS
In this cross-sectional study, consecutive patients undergoing elective PTCA in Chamran hospital in Isfahan enrolled. All patients were in sinus rhythm. A 12-lead electrocardiogram was continuously recorded before (baseline) and during PTCA after dye injection and balloon inflation. QTc and QT dispersion was calculated in all 12 leads of electrocardiogram during the mentioned times and compared with each other.
RESULTS
33 patients with mean age of 49.1±16.2 years were studied. Anatomic distribution of the coronary artery stenosis was as follows: left anterior descending artery (LAD) in 76.7% patients, left circumflex (Cx) in 16.6% and right coronary (RCA) in 6.66%. Mean of QTc at baseline, after contrast dye injection and after balloon inflation was 423.9±28.5, 437±29 and 437±22 msec, respectively (P<0.05). Mean of QTc dispersion at baseline, after contrast dye injection and after balloon inflation was 92.3±7.2, 95.4±8.3 and 93.75±7.5, respectively (P>0.05).
CONCLUSION
The findings of this research supports the fact that during PTCA a transient myocardial ischemia occurs but further studies is recommended to accurately determine the stages at which ischemia occurred and the extent of its effect of it on cardiac depolarization and repolarization periods.
PMCID: PMC3347837  PMID: 22577438
PTCA; QTc; QTc Dispersion; Balloon Inflation; Contrast Dye Injection
12.  Estimation of left ventricular end diastolic pressure (lvedp) in patients with ischemic heart disease by echocardiography and compare it with the results of cardiac catheterization 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2011;7(1):1-6.
BACKGROUND
Doppler echocardiography has been proposed as an appropriate non-invasive assay to estimate left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP). The aim of present research was to estimate the LVEDP in patients with ischemic heart disease by echocardiography and compare it with the results of cardiac catheterisation and to determine the effect of different echocardiographic variables on its measurement.
METHODS
In this descriptive-analytic study, patients with diagnosed ischemic heart disease were selected by nonrandomized sampling method. Selected population underwent M-mode and pulse doppler echocardiographic evaluation and parameters such as Q-Mitral valve E (Q-MVE), Q-Aortic valve closure (Q-AVC), Aortic valve closure-E (AVC-E), Q-Mitral valve closure/Aortic valve closure-E (Q-MVC/AVC-E), left ventricle-deceleration time (LV-DT), peak velocity-deceleration time (PV-DT) and A/E velocity time integral (A/E VTI) were evaluated. Immediately after echocardiography all patients underwent left heart catheterization for LVEDP measurement. The relation between different echocardiographic measurements and LVEDP, obtained by cardiac catheterization, was evaluated.
RESULTS
In this study, 47 patients with ischemic heart disease with mean age (±SD) of 53±13 were studied. There was a significant correlation between LVDEP and A/E VTI (r=0.44, P=0.001, and also between LVEDP and PV-DT in patients with A/E VTI ≥1.1(r=−0.58, P=0.02). There was a significant correlation between LVEDP and Q-MVC/AVC-E in patients with LVEDP >18mmHg (r=0.76, P=0.03) and those with LVEDP ≤18 mmHg and A/E VTI <1.1 (r=0.37, P=0.03). The correlation between LVEDP and A/E VTI was more significant in men, in patients aged >50 years with EF >55%, without LVH, without MR and those with coronary artery disease (P<0.05).
CONCLUSION
Some echocardiographic indices such as A/E VTI, Q-MVC/AVC-E and PV-DT are able to measure LVEDP especially in male patients aged >50 years, without LVH, without MR and those with coronary artery disease but it is necessary to determine specific conditions and factors affecting these indices, by further studies.
PMCID: PMC3347838  PMID: 22577437
LVEDP; Coronary Artery Disease; Echocardiography
13.  Percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy in a patient with situs inversus and dextrocardia: a case report 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2011;7(1):47-50.
BACKGROUND
Dextrocardia situs inversus refers to the heart being a mirror image situated on the right side of the body. Distorted cardiac anatomy provides technical difficulties during fluoroscopy-guided transcatheter procedures. This is even more difficult in the case with percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy (PTMC). Mitral valvuloplasty is a minimally invasive therapeutic procedure to correct an uncomplicated mitral stenosis by dilating the valve using a balloon. Here, we describe a case of a 25 years-old male with situs inversus and dextrocardia.
CASE REPORT
A 25 years-old man, having situs inversus and suffering from mitral stenosis was referred to hospital for PTMC. His initial examination findings were unremarkable and an electrocardiographic (ECG), trans-esophageal and transthoracic echocardiographic evaluation were performed. Mitral valve (MV) was dome shape and severely stenotic with mild mitral regurgitation (MR). Left ventricularejection Fraction (LVEF) was about 40%, Femoral arterial and venous punctures were made on the left side; the left femoral artery and vein were cannulated with a 5F arterial and 6F venous sheaths, respectively. Then special maneuvers were done to solve the mitral valve stenosis. At the end of the procedure, no MR was documented by checking LV angiogram and there were no signs of mitral stenosis (MS).
CONCLUSION
Mirror-image dextrocardia, as in our case, has been estimated to occur with a prevalence of 1:10,000. However, there are only a few case reports in the literature on PTMC in similar settings. This might be due to the fact that many of these patients undergo surgical commissurotomy due to the technical difficulties involved in a percutaneous procedure in general. Trans-septal catheterization is considered a technical challenge in anatomically malpositioned hearts, as it is fraught with a higher risk of cardiac perforation. Despite the challenging anatomy, PTMC has been demonstrated to be a safe and feasible option for MS in patients with unusual cardiac anatomy.
PMCID: PMC3347841  PMID: 22577444
PTMC; Dextrocardia; Surgical Commissurotomy
14.  Immediate results and six-month outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention in a referral heart center in Isfahan, Iran 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2011;7(1):24-30.
BACKGROUND
There is a lack of data in our society on the outcomes, complications, and prognostic factors in patients with coronary artery disease who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We evaluated the success rate, early and late outcomes, and prognostic factors in a referral university center in Isfahan, IRAN.
METHODS
This prospective cohort study was conducted in Chamran University Hospital in Isfahan (IRAN) from March 2010 to February 2011. Patients consequently were included if they have the indication for emergent or elective PCI. Outcomes included procedural success, complications, and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) during hospitalization and 6 months follow-up.
RESULTS
A total of 282 patients (74.1% females) with mean age of 57.0±3.2 years were studied. Most of the patients (89.7%) underwent elective PCI. Angiographic and procedure success rates were 95.7% and 94.6%, respectively. In-hospital MACE included two cases of death (0.7%) and one MI (0.3%); 2/29 (6.9%) of the emergent PCI and 1/253 (0.4%) of the elective PCI cases. MACE during follow-up included three cases of death (1.0%) and two MI (0.7%); 2/252 (0.8%) of the elective PCI and 1/28 (3.5%) of the emergent PCI cases. The overall MACE was calculated as 8 cases (2.8%) which included 5/29 (17.2%) of the emergent and 3/253 (1.1%) of the elective cases; P<0.001. In multivariate analysis, none of the factors including gender, age, emergency of the procedure, lesion type, number of stenotic vessels, or stent type were associated with total MACE (P>0.05).
CONCLUSION
PCI is performed with an acceptable success rate in our center in Isfahan and mortality and complications are within the range reported by other highly specialized centers in IRAN. Further studies with larger sample size are needed to find predictive factors.
PMCID: PMC3347842  PMID: 22577441
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention; Myocardial Infarction; Acute Coronary Syndrome; Reperfusion Therapy; Outcome; Mortality
15.  Is there any Relationship Between C-Reactive Protein Level and Complex Coronary Plaques in Patients with Unstable Angina? 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2010;6(1):31-34.
BACKGROUND
Coronary artery disease is a leading cause of death in developed countries. On the other hand, increased level of CRP has been seen in atherosclerosis. According to this finding, we decided to conduct this study to assess the relationship between CRP and complex lesions of coronary arteries in patients with unstable angina.
METHODS
In this analytical cross sectional study which was conducted in 2007 in Chamran hospital, samples were collected using simple sampling and included 80 patients who referred to the hospital due to angina pectoris, had the diagnosis of unstable angina and were candidates of angiography. At first, a questionnaire was filled for each patient including demographic factors and their medical history. Then a blood sample was taken to assess level of CRP, FBS, and lipid profiles. The results of angiographic studies were considered by three cardiologists and abnormal patients were classified into simple and complex groups according to Ambrose criteria. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 15, t-student and chi-square tests.
RESULTS
Mean age of samples was 58.27 ± 6.23 years old. Considering the risk factors, most simple and complex lesions happened in obese patients however the only significant difference was observed in BMI between two groups (P < 0.05). Mean level of CRP in the population under study was 6.05 ± 4 mg/dl which was 1.37 ± 2 and 8.01 ± 6 in simple and complex groups respectively (P < 0.05). CRP mean was significantly higher in the group with complex lesions, less than 1 mg/dl in simple lesion and more than 4 mg/dl in complex lesions.
CONCLUSION
According to our findings, there is a significant difference considering CRP level in unstable angina patients who have complex lesions compared with simples ones. As complex plaques are more susceptible to develop coronary events, patients with a higher probability of complicated lesions can be screened.
PMCID: PMC3347811  PMID: 22577410
CRP; Simple and complex lesion; Unstable angina; Angiography

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