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1.  Normal range of bleeding time in urban and rural areas of Borujerd, west of Iran 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2014;10(4):199-202.
Bleeding time (BT) is the oldest and simplest test for assessing the platelets (Plts) function. BT can affect by several factors such as race and diet, which has a wide reference range. The aim of this project is to determine the normal range of BT in Borujerd, Iran. Determining the normal range of BT can help us to modify the definition of bleeding disorder and aspirin resistance.
This was cross-sectional study carried out in 2011-2012. Subjects with a history of coagulation disorders or a positive family history of coagulation disorders, consumption of anti-Plts, anti-histamines, and phenothiazine in the previous month and subject with Plt less than 150,000 were excluded. The samples were 505 volunteers who were referred from 16 urban and 9 rural clusters to research center. BT of the samples was determined according to Ivy simplate method considering national standard protocol in the selected persons. Normal range was calculated as mean ± 2 standard deviation.
Of 505 volunteers, 50.4% were female. The range of BT was 2.8-2.95 min with mean of 2.79 ± 0.78 min. Range and mean of BT in women was 2.83-3.06 min and 2.88 ± 0.87 min, and range and mean of BT in men was 2.7-2.9 min and 2.69 ± 0.67 min; this difference was significant (P = 0.012). BT in urban and rural participants was 2.78 ± 0.79 and 2.77 ± 0.73 min. There was no significant difference between BT in urban and rural participants.
The normal range of BT in Boroujerd was in the lower limit of the normal universal range. In this study, BT was significantly different in both genders, but its correlation with age, blood group, and place of residency was not significant.
PMCID: PMC4173314  PMID: 25258635
Bleeding Time; Blood Platelet; Iran
2.  Determination of normal range of bleeding time in rural and urban residents of Borujerd, Iran: A pilot study 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2012;8(3):136-142.
Bleeding time test is used to assess the function of platelets in human body. The aim of this project was thus to estimate the sample size required to determine the normal range of bleeding time (BT) in Borujerd (a city in Iran). A pilot study was designed to determine the range of normal BT in a small group of normal people. The total sample size for the next study was then calculated according to the results.
In order to determine the sample size, a total of 33 volunteers participated in this study. The normal range of BT was determined by Ivy method. Written informed consents were obtained from all participants and their clinical history was recorded. The sampling was performed once for each participant. However, the results were interpreted by two observers. The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the research center at Lorestan University of Medical Sciences (Iran).
In this study, 33 normal participants (20 women and 13 men) were divided into four age groups of 35-44, 45-54, 55-64 and over 64 years old. Maximum and minimum BTs in men were 209 (in the age group of 35-44 years) and 150 seconds (in the age group of over 64 years), respectively. On the other hand, the corresponding values in women were 194 (in 55-64 year-old subjects) and 145 seconds (in women over 64 years of age). Considering the aforementioned results, the total sample size for the next study was determined to be 580 normal subjects by two-sample t-test power analysis at a power of 0.91816.
There was a significant difference between the normal range of BT in participants of Borujerd and previously recorded range in other studies. Moreover, normal BT in men decreased by aging. This study did not show any special order in increasing or decreasing BT in women.
PMCID: PMC3557001  PMID: 23358456
Platelet; Bleeding Time; Ivy Method; Gender
3.  Evaluation of fibrinolytic medical therapy for patients with acute myocardial infarction 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2012;8(1):46-49.
Fibrinolytic therapy is the standard therapeutic method for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study endeavored to assess the delay in arrival to the emergency department and door to needle time for thrombolytic therapy.
This study was conducted on 80 patients with AMI whom referred to our clinic from January 2009 to January 2010. We measured time of arrival, needle time and door to needle time for all patients. Moreover, the relations of these times to some variables such as age, gender and the referred shift of emergency department personnel were calculated.
A total of 80 patients, 62 (77.5%) male and 18 (22.5%) female were evaluated for thrombolytic therapy. The arrival time of overnight shifts was 14.59 ± 1.23 minutes shorter than other shifts. The median door to needle time was 46.56 minutes and the mean time of the onset of chest pain to arrival at the emergency department was 19.44 minutes. Seventy-two patients (90%) received fibrinolytic therapy within the first 30 minutes of arrival. The needle time was significantly longer in the night shift (P < 0.05) (between 8 to 14 minutes), while the time of receiving Streptokinase therapy in the other shifts was not meaningfully different. Finally there was a statistically significant difference between the referred shifts and needle time (P < 0.05).
Despite our good results for door to needle time, to improve and attain the gold standard’s limits in administering fibrinolytic therapy, improvement of policies like training the personnel to shorten this time is recommend.
PMCID: PMC3448456  PMID: 23056101
Fibrinolytic Therapy; Door to Needle Time; Acute Myocardial Infarction
4.  Nifedipine, Captopril or Sublingual Nitroglycerin, Which can Reduce Blood Pressure the Most? 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2011;7(3):102-105.
Hypertension (HTN) is one of the most important problems in all parts of the world. Although the disease is usually asymptomatic, its diagnosis and treatment are easy. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of Nifedipine (Adalat®), Captopril and sublingual Nitroglycerin on reducing blood pressure (BP).
This study was a parallel group randomized controlled trial. From the patients referred to our heart clinic, 120 patients with severe HTN were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomly allocated into 3 groups A, B, and C. The patients were advised to use 5 drops of Adalat in group A, Captopril 25 mg sublingually in group B, and 1 sublingual Nitroglycerin pearl in group C. The BP was measured every 20 minutes during one hour.
Systolic BP was reduced significantly by Adalat and Captopril compared with sublingual Nitroglycerin in the 20th, 40th and 60th minutes (P = 0.001), but there was no significant difference between Adalat and captopril in reducing systolic BP. In addition, the result of reducing diastolic BP was not significantly different among the three groups.
We saw the same effect on reducing BP by Captopril, Adalat, and sublingual Nitroglycerin. Among these three drugs, the side effects of Captopril were the least frequent. Adalat caused headache and flushing. Thus, it seems Captopril can be used instead of Adalat in medical centers.
PMCID: PMC3347854  PMID: 22577455
Adalat; Captopril; Nitroglycerin; Severe Hypertension

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