PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-12 (12)
 

Clipboard (0)
None
Journals
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Relationship between legumes consumption and metabolic syndrome: Findings of the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2014;10(1):18-24.
BACKGROUND
Epidemiologic studies have shown an inverse association between dietary fiber and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the association between MetS and consumption of legumes in adults in Isfahan, Iran.
METHODS
This cross-sectional study was carried out on 2027 individuals who were a subsample of the 3rd phase of the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP). Basic characteristics information such as age, sex, smoking status, and physical activity were collected using a questionnaire. A validated 48-item food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary behaviors. Blood pressure, waist circumference (WC), glucose, triacylglycerols, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured, and MetS was defined based on Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. Multiple logistic regression models examined associations of frequency consumption of legumes with MetS occurrence and its components.
RESULTS
All MetS components were less prevalent among subjects with regular legume intake (P < 0.01). Legume intake was inversely associated with the risk of MetS, after adjustment for confounding factors in women. Life style adjusted odds ratio of Mets between highest and lowest tertile and no consumption (as reference category) of legume intake were 0.31 (0.13, 0.70), 0.38 (0.17, 0.87), respectively, in women (P = 0.01).
CONCLUSION
This study showed that age has a crucial role in MetS incidence; therefore, after further age adjustment to lifestyle adjusted model there was no significant difference in lower and higher tertile of legume intake and MetS.
PMCID: PMC4063515  PMID: 24963309
Legumes; Metabolic Syndrome; Iran
2.  Comparison of cost-effectiveness and postoperative outcome of device closure and open surgery closure techniques for treatment of patent ductus arteriosus 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2014;10(1):37-40.
BACKGROUND
Various devices have been recently employed for percutaneous closure of the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Although the high effectiveness of device closure techniques has been clearly determined, a few studies have focused on the cost-effectiveness and also postoperative complications of these procedures in comparison with open surgery. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcome and cost-effectiveness of PDA occlusion by Amplatzer and coil device in comparisong with open surgery.
METHODS
In this cross-sectional study, a randomized sample of 201 patients aged 1 month to 16 years (105 patients with device closure and 96 patients with surgical closure) was selected. The ratio of total pulmonary blood flow to total systemic blood flow, the Qp/Qs ratio, was measured using a pulmonary artery catheter. The cost analysis included direct medical care costs associated with device implantation and open surgery, as well as professional fees. All costs were calculated in Iranian Rials and then converted to US dollars.
RESULTS
There was no statistical difference in mean Qp/Qs ratio before the procedure between the device closure group and the open surgery group (2.1 ± 0.7 versus 1.7 ± 0.6, P = 0.090). The mean measured costs were overall higher in the device closure group than in open closure group (948.87 ± 548.76 US$ versus 743.70 ± 696.91 US$, P < 0.001). This difference remained significant after adjustment for age and gender (Standardized Beta = 0.160, P = 0.031). PDA closure with the Amplatzer ductal occluder (1053.05 ± 525.73 US$) or with Nit-Occlud coils (PFM) (912.73 ± 565.94 US$, P < 0.001) was more expensive than that via open surgery. However, the Cook detachable spring coils device closure (605.65 ± 194.62 US$, P = 0.650) had a non-significant cost difference with open surgery. No event was observed in the device closure group regarding in-hospital mortality or morbidity; however, in another group, 2 in-hospital deaths occurred, two patients experienced pneumonia and seizure, and one suffered electrolyte abnormalities including hyponatremia and hypocalcemia.
CONCLUSION
Although open surgery seems to be less expensive than device closure technique, because of lower mortality and morbidity, the latter group is more preferable.
PMCID: PMC4063518  PMID: 24963312
Cost-effectiveness; Outcome; Device Closure; Open Surgery Closure; Patent Ductus Arteriosus
3.  Pivotal role of microRNA-33 in metabolic syndrome: A systematic review 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2013;9(6):372-376.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a major public health concerns and increase in the incidence of MetS caused a rise in the rates of global morbidity, and mortality due to cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Lifestyle modification, a healthy diet, and pharmacological treatment and bariatric surgery are recommended in order to control this syndrome. Molecular mechanisms of metabolic disorders are essential in order to develop novel, valid therapeutic strategies. MicroRNA-33 plays imperative regulatory roles in a variety of biological processes including collaboration with sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) to maintain cholesterol homeostasis, high-density lipoprotein formation, fatty acid oxidation, and insulin signaling. Investigation of these molecules and their genetic targets may potentially identify new pathways involved in complex metabolic disease processes, improve our understanding of metabolic disorders, and influence future approaches to the treatment of obesity. This article reviews the role of miRNA-33 in metabolic syndrome, and highlights the potential of using miRNA-33 as a novel biomarker and therapeutic target for this syndrome.
PMCID: PMC3933058  PMID: 24575141
MicroRNA-33; Insulin Resistance Syndrome X; Regulatory Role
4.  Preconditioning by isoflurane as a volatile anesthetic in elective coronary artery bypass surgery 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2013;9(3):192-197.
BACKGROUND
Some pharmacological preconditioning approaches are utilized as an effective adjunct to myocardial protection, particularly following cardiac procedures. The current study addressed the potential clinical implications and protective effects of isoflurane as an anesthetic most applicable on postoperative myocardial function measured by cardiac biomarkers.
METHODS
46 patients were included in the study. In 23 of them, preconditioning was elicited after the onset of cardiopulmonary bypass via a 5-minute exposure to isoflurane (2.5 minimum alveolar concentration), followed by a 10-minute washout before aortic cross clamping and cardioplegic arrest. 23 case-matched control patients underwent an equivalent period (15 minutes) of pre-arrest isoflurane-free bypass. Outcome measurements included creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) levels until 24 hours after the surgery.
RESULTS
None of the differences in enzyme levels at baseline and 24 hours after surgery between the two groups reached the threshold of statistical significance. The level of CPK was significantly reduced 24 hours after surgery compared with the baseline in the two groups. However, the postoperative release of CPK was consistently smaller in the isoflurane-preconditioned group than in the control group. The release of CK-MB displayed a statistically similar pattern. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed the effect of isoflurane regimen on reducing CPK level within the 24 hours after surgery compared with placebo.
CONCLUSION
Our study supports the cardio protective effect of isoflurane and the role of pharmacological preconditioning of the human heart by this volatile anesthetic during elective coronary artery bypass surgery.
PMCID: PMC3681278  PMID: 23766776
Preconditioning; Isoflurane; Volatile Anesthetic; Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery
5.  Differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in boys and girls based on various definitions 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2013;9(1):70-76.
BACKGROUND
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing among children and adolescents. However, the prevalence of this disorder varies based on its different definitions. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of MetS in Iranian adolescents in junior high and high schools according to the definitions provided by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and De Ferranti.
METHODS
Overall, 1039 junior high school and 953 high school students were selected using multistage random sampling. Demographic data was collected using validated questionnaires. Fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were determined. Waist circumference and blood pressure were measured by trained individuals. Subjects with MetS were selected according to two definitions provided by the IDF and De Ferranti. Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used to compare the prevalence of MetS and its components based on sex, school level, and the two definitions.
RESULTS
The mean age of junior high and high school students was 13.11 ± 1.21ad 15.93 ± 1.07 years old, respectively. The prevalence of MetS among all participants was 4.8% and 12.7% according to the definitions by the IDF and De Ferranti, respectively. It was significantly higher among boys compared to girls. According to the IDF definition, low HDL-C and hypertension were the most frequent components. Based on the De Ferranti, abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridemia were the most frequent components.
CONCLUSION
The prevalence of MetS was higher in both groups of students based on De Ferranti definition compared to the IDF definition. The prevalence was not significantly different in boys and girls. Further studies to investigate the most suitable definition of MetS for Iranian adolescents are necessary.
PMCID: PMC3653251  PMID: 23696762
Metabolic Syndrome; Adolescence; International Diabetes Federation and De Ferranti
6.  Socioeconomic characteristics and controlled hypertension: Evidence from Isfahan Healthy Heart Program 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2013;9(1):77-81.
BACKGROUND
Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. It affects approximately 18.0% of Iranian adults. This study aimed to estimate age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension and its control among Iranian persons older 19 years of age. It also tried to find and socioeconomic factors associated with hypertension control in Iranian population.
METHODS
In Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) subjects were selected by multistage random sampling. The participants completed questionnaires containing demographic information, lifestyle habits, medical history, and consumption of relevant medications, especially antihypertensive agents. Income, marital status, and educational level were considered as socioeconomic factors. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg, or taking antihypertensive medications. Controlled hypertension was considered as systolic blood pressure < 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg among hypertensive subjects.
RESULTS
The prevalence of hypertension and controlled hypertension was 18.9% and 20.9%, respectively. We found significant relationships between hypertension and marital status, education, and income. At age ≥ 65 years old, odds ratio (OR) was 19.09 [95% confidence interval (CI): 15.01-24.28] for hypertension. Middle family income (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.58-0.87) and education level of 6-12 years (OR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.25-0.35) were significantly associated with increased risk of hypertension (P = 0.001). Among subjects aging 65 years old or higher, the OR of controlled hypertension was 2.64 (95% CI: 1.61-4.33). Married subjects had a higher OR for controlled hypertension (OR: 2.19; 95% CI: 1.36-3.52). Obesity had no significant relationships with controlled hypertension.
CONCLUSION
The IHHP data showed significant relationships between some socioeconomic factors and controlled hypertension. Therefore, as current control rates for hypertension in Iran are clearly unacceptable, we recommend preventive measures to control hypertension in all social strata of the Iranian population.
PMCID: PMC3653252  PMID: 23696763
Socioeconomic Factor; High Blood Pressure; Control
7.  Metabolic syndrome in Iranian elderly 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2012;7(4):157-161.
BACKGROUND:
This study aimed to compare Iranian elderly with the middle-aged population in terms of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components.
METHODS:
This cross-sectional study was conducted using the data from the third phase of the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. Male and female residents of Isfahan over 19 years of age were selected by multistage cluster random sampling. A questionnaire including demographic characteristics, health status, medical history, medications used, as well as waist circumference, weight, height, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures was completed for all participants. Fasting blood samples were obtained from all subjects and examined for fasting blood sugar and lipid profile. T-test and Mann-Whitney test were used for quantitative data and chi-square test was performed for qualitative data.
RESULTS:
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in individuals aged over 60 years was significantly higher than those under 60 (49.5% vs. 17.5%, respectively; P < 0.001). Metabolic syndrome was also more prevalent among elderly females than in males (59.2% vs. 39.8%, respectively; P < 0.005). Some anthropometric measures such as height, body mass index, abdominal circumference, waist-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio were significantly different in men and women below 60 years in comparison with those over 60 years (P < 0.05). Moreover, there were significant differences in most studied parameters between the elderly and non-elderly women (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION:
This study showed that metabolic syndrome has a relatively high prevalence in Iranian elderly people, especially in elderly women. Therefore, early diagnosis and management of the complication are recommended among this high-risk group to avoid the subsequent complications.
PMCID: PMC3413084  PMID: 23205049
Metabolic Syndrome; Elderly; Iran
8.  Initial clinical outcomes of intracoronary infusion of autologous progenitor cells in patients with acute myocardial infarction 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2012;7(4):162-167.
BACKGROUND:
Myocardial infarction (MI) is an irreversible cardiomyocytes injury which begins after 15–20 minutes of coronary artery occlusion. The extent of infarction is modulated by a number of factors including collateral blood supplies, medications, and ischemic preconditioning. Although angioplasty and thrombolytic agents can relieve the cause of the infarction, the time from the occlusion onset to reperfusion determines the degree of irreversible myocardial injury. Experimental studies suggested that stem cells and progenitor cells derived from bone marrow can be used in the repair of cardiac tissue after acute MI. This study was designed to investigate the feasibility, safety and initial clinical outcome of intracoronary infusion of autologous progenitor cells in patients with acute MI.
METHODS:
Patients with a history of anterior MI and a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) less than 35 % who were candidates for coronary angioplasty were randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to either control or bone marrow cell groups (each including 16 patients). Thallium scan and 17-segment echocardiography analysis for regional wall motion abnormality were performed before and 1 and 6 months after intracoronary infusion of bone marrow cells. The same tests were also conducted for the control group at identical time intervals. Quantitative variables were compared by independent t-test and paired t-test. Statistical significance was assumed at a value of P < 0.05.
RESULTS:
LVEF in the case and control groups increased to 39.37 ± 2.47% and 31.00 ± 1.87%, respectively (P = 0.069 and 0.1, respectively). Wall motion abnormality index (WMAI) decreased insignificantly in both groups. Perfusion defect scores (PDSs) decreased significantly in the case group.
CONCLUSION:
In this study, autologous mesenchymal stem cell transplantation by intracoronary catheter during angioplasty in patients with a history of severe LV dysfunction caused mild increases in LVEF.
PMCID: PMC3413085  PMID: 23205050
Myocardial Infarction Left Ventricular Failure; Stem Cell
9.  Hypertension control in industrial employees: findings from SHIMSCO study 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2012;7(4):191-196.
BACKGROUND:
Hypertension prevention and control are among the most important public health priorities. We evaluated the impacts of a workplace intervention project “Stop Hypertension in Mobarakeh Steel Company” (SHIMSCO) on controlling hypertension in industrial workers.
METHODS:
The study was carried out in Mobarakeh Steel Company in Isfahan among 7286 male workers and employees. All individuals were evaluated for the presence of hypertension (HTN). According to examinations, 500 subjects with systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mmHg, and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg, and/or those using antihypertensive medications were confirmed to have HTN and thus included in this study. They were questioned for sociodemographic characteristics, past medical history and medication use. They received an educational program including healthy lifestyle and self-care recommendations of HTN management and control as well as training for accurate blood pressure measurement and home monitoring for two years. SBP, DBP, weight, height and routine lab tests were measured for all hypertensive subjects before and after the interventions. Paired t-test, generalized estimation equation (GEE) and ordinary linear regression (OLR) were used for statistical analysis in SPSS.
RESULTS:
The comparison of SBP and DBP before and after the educational program showed significant reductions in both parameters (−7.97 ± 14.72 and −2.66 ± 9.96 mmHg, respectively). However, a greater decrease was detected in case of DBP. GEE showed SBP and DBP to decrease about −0.115 and −0.054 mmHg/month. OLR also revealed reductions of 4.88 and 2.57 mmHg respectively in SBP and DBP upon adding each antihypertensive drug.
CONCLUSION:
SHIMSCO, a 3-year interventional project in workplaces, was effective in reducing SBP and DBP among hypertensive employees and workers. We conclude that implementing simple educational programs in worksites can improve the management and control of hypertension and perhaps other chronic diseases.
PMCID: PMC3413089  PMID: 23205054
Hypertension; Worksite; Industrial; Blood Pressure; Control
10.  Can the infusion of isotonic fluids or vasopressors prevent hemodynamic changes in cardiac surgery patients? 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2012;8(3):161-163.
BACKGROUND
A common problem in cardiac surgery patients is decreased central venous pressure (CVP) and systemic blood pressure during transfer from operation room to intensive care unit (ICU). Since these reductions may lead to dangerous complications, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of vasopressors and isotonic fluids on hemodynamic status of cardiac surgery patients during their transfer to ICU.
METHODS
This randomized single-blind clinical trial was conducted in Chamran Hospital (Isfahan, Iran). A total number of 75 consecutive patients undergoing planned first-time coronary artery bypass grafting entered our study. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), CVP, and pulse rate (PR) were recorded at 5 to 10 minutes before leaving operating room and immediately after hospitalization in the ICU. Subjects in the first group received 7 cc/kg intravenous normal saline (as an isotonic fluid) within 5-10 minutes. The second group received 10 mg ephedrine before being transferred to the ICU.
RESULTS
The mean age of participants was 61.0 ± 3.6 years. No significant change in PR was detected in normal saline group (P > 0.05). No significant differences were found in two groups in SBP before and after hospitalization in the ICU (P > 0.05). DBP and CVP had statistically significant reductions in both groups after hospitalization in the ICU (P < 0.001). The mean CVP was also reduced significantly (10.7 ± 2.9 vs. 8.2 ± 3.4; P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION
Significant reductions in mean values of DBP and CVP occur during cardiac surgery and after arrival to the ICU. These reductions cannot be prevented by administration of vasopressors, such as ephedrine, or infusion of isotonic fluids, such as normal saline. Further studies are required to assess whether more fluids, other types of fluids, or other drugs can stop this phenomenon.
PMCID: PMC3557008  PMID: 23359114
Ephedrine; Cardiac Surgery; Isotonic Fluids; Intensive Care Unit
11.  Predictive value of P-wave duration and dispersion in post coronary artery bypass surgery atrial fibrillation 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2012;8(2):59-62.
BACKGROUND
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common complication of cardiac surgery. Although it is managed easily, it can cause critical hemodynamic instabilities for intensive care patients. This observational study investigated the predictive power of P-wave dispersion (PWD) for the incidence of post cardiac surgery AF.
METHODS
Among patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG), 52 patients were selected randomly. Before the operation, ejection fraction, regional wall motion abnormality, and mitral regurgitation were determined by echocardiography. Angiographic data provided information about stenosed vessels. PWD was measured before and after CABG. The incidence of post-CABG AF was determined by rhythm monitoring.
RESULTS
There were no significant differences in age, sex, stenosed vessels, maximum P-wave duration, the prevalence of hypertension, smoking, mitral regurgitation, and regional wall motion abnormality between post-CABG AF and non-AF groups (P > 0.05). The mean prevalence of diabetes mellitus in post-CABG AF group was more than non-AF group (P = 0.036). The mean ejection fraction in post-CABG AF group was lower than non-AF group (P < 0.005). The mean PWD in AF group vs. non-AF group before CABG was 47.5 vs. 23.7 ms. The mean values of post-surgical PWD in AF and non-AF groups were 48.10 and 24.4 ms, respectively. Before CABG, the mean ejection fraction value and minimum P-wave duration in AF group were lower than non-AF group (P < 0.005). A reverse relation was present between minimum P wave duration and PWD (P < 0.001). There was a negative association between high ejection fraction values and decreased PWD (P = 0.002).
CONCLUSION
Our data suggested minimum P wave duration, PWD, and low ejection fraction are as good predictors of AF in patients undergoing isolated CABG. The absence of differences in age, sex, smoking, hypertension, mitral regurgitation, and regional wall motion abnormality in our study was in contrast with other reports. On the other hand, increased rate of post-CABG AF in our diabetic patients with lower ejection fraction supports other studies. Overall, minimum P wave duration, PWD, and low ejection fraction can be used for patient risk stratification of AF after CABG.
PMCID: PMC3463989  PMID: 23056104
Atrial Fibrillation; Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting; P-Wave Dispersion; Predictor
12.  Comparing Diagnostic Techniques of Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) and Doppler Ultrasonography in Determining Severity of Renal Artery Stenosis 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2011;7(2):58-62.
BACKGROUND
Renal artery stenosis is one of the important causes of hypertension and end stage renal failure. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and Doppler ultrasonography are non-invasive and safe diagnostic techniques that have also high sensitivity and specificity. Since the accuracy and reliability of these techniques depend upon technicians and softwares, we decided to evaluate and compare the sensitivity and specificity of these techniques in Isfahan.
METHODS
Our study included all the patients (37 patients) who underwent renal artery angiography during 2 years from May 2003 to May 2005 and up to six months after that had underwent MRA (21 patients) and Doppler sonography (16 patients) in Isfahan. Renal artery angiography was considered as the gold standard.
RESULTS
Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 100%, 25%, 25%, and 100% were obtained for MRA respectively. Specificity and positive predictive values (PPV) of Doppler sonography were 67%. Its sensitivity and negative predictive values (NPV) were 57%.
CONCLUSION
Although it seems that technician dependency, technical and software problems were the reasons of low specificity of gadolinium-enhanced MRA in our study, further studies with larger sample sizes are recommended.
PMCID: PMC3347845  PMID: 22577447
MRA; Doppler Ultrasonography; Renal Artery Stenosis.

Results 1-12 (12)