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1.  Dietary intakes and leptin concentrations 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2014;10(5):266-272.
Leptin, a peptide contained 146 amino-acids, is mostly secreted from adipose tissue and it has a critical role on regulation of body weight, body fat mass, appetite, and food intakes. We tried to review the previous evidence regarding the effects of dietary intakes, including consumption of carbohydrates, fats and protein on concentrations of leptin concentration.
We searched in PubMed search engine to January 2013 by using the following key words: dietary intake, diet, dietary fat, high-fat diet, dietary carbohydrate, high carbohydrate diet, dietary protein, high protein diet in combination with leptin, adipokine. Then, we recruited 35 articles to review in the present study.
It seems that beside the amount of fats, type of fatty acids have the key roles on circulating leptin concentration. Energy intake also significantly associated with the hormone. Studies regarding the association between carbohydrate intake and concentration of lepton have been reached to contradictory results. It seems that protein intake can increase the lepton activity.
Findings from several studies suggest that a diet display an important role on change the concentration of lepton.
PMCID: PMC4251481  PMID: 25477984
Diet; Carbohydrate; Protein; Fat; Leptin
2.  The association of genetic variations with sensitivity of blood pressure to dietary salt: A narrative literature review 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2014;10(3):169-174.
Salt sensitivity of blood pressure (BP) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity. Up to 50% of patients with essential hypertension are salt-sensitive, as manifested by a rise in BP with salt intake. Several genetic variations have been identified as being associated with salt sensitivity. The present study aimed to review the evidence on the effect of gene polymorphisms on the salt sensitivity of BP. We searched in PubMed website from 1990 to 2011, with the use of following keywords: “hypertension, dietary salt, polymorphisms, and blood pressure”. The effect of sodium intake on BP differed by genotype at the genes of the renin-angiotensin system, aldosterone synthase, cytochrome p450 3A, epithelial sodium channel genes, genes of sympathetic nervous system, β-3 subunit of G-protein, alpha-adducin, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, Kallikrein-Kinin system. These approaches suggest that these polymorphisms may be potentially useful genetic markers of BP response to dietary salt. There is evidence that genetic predisposition modulates the BP response to diet. Therefore, diet and nutrition can mitigate or enhance the effects of genetic predisposition. Increasing our knowledge of this relationship can lead to individualized treatment and increased understanding of hypertension.
PMCID: PMC4144382  PMID: 25161689
Hypertension; Genetics; Diet Therapy
3.  Pediatric patients with renal disease and cardiovascular complications: A literature review 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2014;10(2):118-128.
The cardiovascular burden of end stage renal disease (ESRD) in children has recently received more attention, and some authors have recommended that the origins of the increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality be found in childhood. In this comprehensive review of the literature, we aim to review the main and most recent studies evaluating cardiovascular risk factors in pediatric kidney disease patients. The literature suggests that ESRD, even in the pediatric population, is associated with a high rate of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and needs serious attention. Unfortunately, there is extreme scarcity of data on the efficacy of preventive strategies on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients with renal disease. Therefore, authors of the current article recommend future studies to be directed to find beneficial and/or potential harmful effects of different interventions conventionally used in this population, including lifestyle modifications and pharmaceutical therapy on cardiovascular indices. Moreover, the effects of these drugs on the renal function of children with minimal kidney disease should be evaluated.
PMCID: PMC4144367  PMID: 25161680
Cardiovascular Complication; Children; Kidney Disease; Pediatrics
4.  Pivotal role of microRNA-33 in metabolic syndrome: A systematic review 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2013;9(6):372-376.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a major public health concerns and increase in the incidence of MetS caused a rise in the rates of global morbidity, and mortality due to cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Lifestyle modification, a healthy diet, and pharmacological treatment and bariatric surgery are recommended in order to control this syndrome. Molecular mechanisms of metabolic disorders are essential in order to develop novel, valid therapeutic strategies. MicroRNA-33 plays imperative regulatory roles in a variety of biological processes including collaboration with sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) to maintain cholesterol homeostasis, high-density lipoprotein formation, fatty acid oxidation, and insulin signaling. Investigation of these molecules and their genetic targets may potentially identify new pathways involved in complex metabolic disease processes, improve our understanding of metabolic disorders, and influence future approaches to the treatment of obesity. This article reviews the role of miRNA-33 in metabolic syndrome, and highlights the potential of using miRNA-33 as a novel biomarker and therapeutic target for this syndrome.
PMCID: PMC3933058  PMID: 24575141
MicroRNA-33; Insulin Resistance Syndrome X; Regulatory Role
5.  The relationship between inflammatory markers, angiogenesis, and obesity 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2013;9(4):247-253.
Obesity is recognized as a chronic low grade and systemic inflammatory disease. Angiogenesis is critical for adipose tissue expansion. Several evidences have demonstrated that angiogenesis sustains inflammation by preparing oxygen and nutrients for inflammatory cells and inflammation in turn can cause insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The understanding of mechanisms of obesity especially main roles of inflammation and angiogenesis in fat mass expansion can lead to therapeutic approaches in growing field of obesity and its related disorders. In this review, we studied the relationship between obesity, angiogenesis, and inflammation.
PMCID: PMC3746949  PMID: 23970920
Obesity; Angiogenesis; Inflammation
6.  Psychological factors and coronary heart disease 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2013;9(1):102-111.
Although psychological factors play an important role in coronary heart diseases (CHD), it seems there is a need for more researches in this respect. The present study aimed to review psychological factors, including depression, anxiety and stress related to etiology and prognosis of CHD.
This was a review on medical and psychological literatures, particularly in the years 1995-2012.
As protective factor or risk factor, psychological factors play an important role in CHD.
Given the findings of this study, it seems necessary that we pay attention to psychological factors, as independent risk factors or protective factors for CHD.
PMCID: PMC3653260  PMID: 23690809
Coronary Heart Disease; Psychological Factors; Depression; Anxiety; Stress
7.  The first Iranian recommendations on prevention, evaluation and management of high blood pressure 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2012;8(3):97-118 .
This paper presents the complete report of the first Iranian Recommendations on Prevention, Evaluation and Management of High Blood Pressure. The purpose is to provide an evidence-based approach to the prevention, management and control of hypertension (HTN) by adapting the most internationally known and used guidelines to the local health care status with consideration of the currently available data and based on the locally conducted researches on HTN as well as social and health care requirements. A working group of national and international experts participated in discussions and collaborated in decision-making, writing and reviewing the whole report. Multiple subcommittees worked together to review the recent national and international literature on HTN in different areas. We used the evaluation tool that is called "AGREE" and considered a score of > 60% as a high score. We adapted the Canadian Hypertension Education Program (CHEP), the United Kingdom's National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) and the US-based joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC7). The key topics that are highlighted in this report include: The importance of ambulatory and self-measurement of blood pressure, evaluation of cardiovascular risk in HTN patients, the role of lifestyle modification in the prevention of HTN and its control with more emphasis on salt intake reduction and weight control, introducing pharmacotherapy suitable for uncomplicated HTN or specific situations and the available drugs in Iran, highlighting the importance of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers and calcium channel blockers as the first line therapy in many situations, the non-use of beta blockers as the first time treatment except in specific conditions, treating HTN in women, children, obese and elderly patients, the patient compliance to improve HTN control, practical guidelines to improve the patient's information on knowing their risk and self-care as well as a quick reference guide that can serve as simplified guidelines for physicians. The working team decided to update these recommendations every two years.
PMCID: PMC3557580  PMID: 23362408
High Blood Pressure; Prevention; Treatment; Control; Iran
8.  Dietary Choline and Betaine Intakes and Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases: Review of Epidemiological Evidence 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2011;7(2):78-86.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the most important causes of human mortality in the world. Higher intakes of choline and betaine have been shown to be associated with lower plasma homocysteine levels (the putative CVD risk factor). This study aimed to review the evidence on the association between dietary intakes of choline and betaine and traditional/novel CVD risk factors.
We searched in PubMed website from 1990 to 2009, with the use of following keywords: "dietary choline and betaine, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, inflammation". The cross-sectional and prospective studies as well as the clinical trials were recruited in this investigation.
Dietary intakes of “choline”/“choline and betaine” were not significantly associated with CVD risk; however, the higher intakes of choline and betaine were associated with higher serum concentrations of CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α. Individuals with high plasma choline levels were obese and had elevated plasma triglycerides, HDL and non-HDL cholesterol levels; whereas high plasma betaine levels were inversely associated with these biochemical markers. Both choline and betaine supplementation resulted in increased blood lipid profiles.
Although dietary intakes of choline and betaine were not significantly associated with CVD incidence, the long-term consumption of these nutrients have been shown to prevent CVD mortality by decreasing inflammation and other risk factors.
PMCID: PMC3347848  PMID: 22577451
Choline; Betaine; Cardiovascular Diseases; Metabolic Syndrome; Inflammation.
9.  Systemic thrombolysis in the upper extremity deep vein thrombosis 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2011;7(1):40-46.
Almost 4% of all patients with venous thrombosis have upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) and the incidence of UEDVT increases over time. The frequency of post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) after UEDVT is not low and upper extremity PTS is a potentially major morbidity that adversely affects quality of life, particularly if the dominant arm is involved. We discuss briefly the role of thrombolytic therapy in the treatment of upper extremity deep vein thrombosis and also the role of systemic thrombolysis in selected patients.
PMCID: PMC3347843  PMID: 22577443
Venous Thrombosis; Post-thrombotic Syndrome; Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis; Paget-Schroetter Syndrome; Effort Induced Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis; Central Venous Catheter Thrombosis; Thoracic Outlet Syndrome; Axillary Vein; Subclavian Vein
10.  The Efficacy of Citroline in the Treatment of Ischemic Stroke and Primary Hypertensive Intracereral Hemorrhage; A Review Article 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2010;6(3):122-125.
Stroke is a medical emergency with a mortality rate higher than most forms of cancer. It is the second leading cause of death in developed countries and the most common cause of serious, long-term disability in adults.
Primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a major clinical problem that accounts for 15% of all acute stroke hospitalizations. Currently, there is no medical therapy available for these patients, with options being limited to supportive care or invasive neurosurgical evacuation. The damage induced by an ICH appears to be related to a combination of different factors. In addition to direct mechanical disruption from the hematoma, surrounding injury secondary to edema formation and ischemia are contributing factors for brain injury following ICH. Citicoline (cytidine-5-diphosphocholine) is an essential precursor for the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine that is key component of cell membranes. Citicoline is a naturally occurring endogenous compound. For clinical use, the sodium salt of this compound usually utilized. During ischemia, phosphatidylcholine is broken down into free fatty acids, which in turn are used to generate free radicals that potentiate ischemic injury. Citicoline is a neuroprotectant drug with some beneficial effects in human ischemic stroke and primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) with an excellent safety profile.
In the current paper, we review published papers regarding use of citicoline in the treatment of human ischemic stroke and primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).
PMCID: PMC3347821  PMID: 22577428
Citicoline; Treatment; Ischemic Stroke; Intracerebral Hemorrhage
11.  What Every Cardiologist Should Know about H1N1? 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2010;6(3):118-121.
The world is witnessing ever fastest growing pandemic with high morbidity and mortality that excessive volume of airline travels spread influenza infection; so physicians with various specialties should know and consider the impact of current pandemic on their daily practice. Among influenza A viruses that infect humans, an influenza A virus emerged that had shifted to H1N1. Primarily, the results of pandemic of H1N1 were in younger humans without preexisting immunity. Attack rates of swine influenza are relatively high, but mortality is relatively low and mortality rate is highest in the very young, the very old, and the immunosuppressed. In this new pandemic, there is not more evidence of the interface of H1N1 with chronic diseases; however, we expect that the Swine flu such as the previous influenza pandemics can change the course of many chronic diseases.
In this review, we want to show the impacts of swine flu on cardiovascular system and disease. We will also discuss the importance of vaccination in chronic cardiovascular disease.
PMCID: PMC3347827  PMID: 22577427
H1N1 virus; Vaccination; Cardiovascular disease; Myocarditis
12.  Some Notes on Stem Cell Therapy in Cardiovascular Diseases 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2010;6(2):78-81.
Cardiovascular diseases have become an increasing clinical issue worldwide. Acute ischaemic injury and chronic cardiomyopathies lead to permanent loss of cardiac tissue and ultimately heart failure. Current therapies widely aim to attenuate the pathological changes that occur after injury and to reduce risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. However, they do not improve the patient's quality of life or the prognosis more than moderate. A new challenge in the treatment of the cardiovascular disease is cellular transplantation or cellular cardiomyoplasty. Different types of stem cells have been used for stem cell therapy. Clinical trials using primary bone-marrow-derived cells and skeletal myoblasts have also shown some encouraging results. An additional clinical and pre-clinical study to further enhance the beneficial effects of cell therapy is necessary. Recent studies have shown that there are various pools of putative resident stem cells in an adult heart, raising the hope that these cells can contribute to the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
PMCID: PMC3347814  PMID: 22577419
Stem Cell Therapy; Cardiovascular Disease; Iran
13.  Iatrogenic Femoral Artery Pseudoaneurysm (REVIEW OF TREATMENT OPTIONS) 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2010;6(2):74-77.
Atherosclerosis, which is a result of gradual deposition of lipids in the lower part of blood vessel endothelium, is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity around the world. It has been proved that some inflammatory blood markers such as fibrinogen can predict the risk for cardiovascular disease conditions, not only in cardiovascular patients, but also in those who do not have any manifestations of the atherosclerotic development. In this study, the effect of cornus mas l. was evaluated on fibrinogen of hypercholesterolemic rabbits and it was also compared with lovastatin drug.
In this study, 25 New Zealand adult male rabbits were randomly divided into five groups of five. They were treated for 60 days by 5 different diets, namely basic, high cholesterol, regular plus 1 g/kgBW cornus mas L. powder, high cholesterol plus 1 g/kgBW cornus mas L. powder, and high cholesterol plus 10 mg/kgBW lovastatin. At the beginning and at the end of this period, blood samples were collected from the rabbits and their serum fibrinogen levels were measured.
Cornus mas L. powder and lovastatin significantly decreased fibrinogen levels in comparison with high cholesterol group (P < 0.05). Furthermore cornus mas L. powder could reduce the fibrinogen level more than lovastatin (P < 0.05).
The results indicated that consumption of cornus mas L. might be beneficial in atherosclerotic patients due to its reducing effects on fibrinogen.
PMCID: PMC3347815  PMID: 22577418
Atherosclerosis; Fibrinogen; Lovastatin; Rabbits

Results 1-13 (13)