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AMB Express (2)
Bornscheuer, Uwe T (1)
Herter, Susanne (1)
Kadow, Maria (1)
Mikolasch, Annett (1)
Saß, Stefan (1)
Schauer, Frieder (1)
Thompson, Mark L (1)
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Study of enzymatic properties of phenol oxidase from nitrogen-fixing Azotobacter chroococcum
Thompson, Mark L
Azotobacter chroococcum is a widespread free-living soil bacterium within the genus of Azotobacter known for assimilation of atmospheric nitrogen and subsequent conversion into nitrogenous compounds, which henceforth enrich the nitrogen content of soils. A. chroococcum SBUG 1484, isolated from composted earth, exhibits phenol oxidase (PO) activity when growing under nitrogen-fixing conditions. In the present study we provide incipient analysis of the crude PO activity expressed by A. chroococcum SBUG 1484 within comparative analysis to fungal crude PO from the white-rot fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus SBUG-M 1044 and tyrosinase (PPO) from the mushroom Agaricus bisporus in an attempt to reveal desirable properties for exploitation with future recombinant expression of this enzyme. Catalytic activity increased with pre-incubation at 35°C; however 70% of activity remained after pre-treatment at 50°C. Native A. chroococcum crude PO exhibited not only strong preference for 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, but also towards related methoxy-activated substrates as well as substituted ortho-benzenediols from over 40 substrates tested. Presence of CuSO4 enhanced crude phenol oxidase activity up to 30%, whereas NaN3 (0.1 mM) was identified as the most inhibiting substance of all inhibitors tested. Lowest inhibition of crude PO activity occurred after 60 minutes of incubation in presence of 15% methanol and ethanol with 63% and 77% remaining activities respectively, and presence of DMSO even led to increasing oxidizing activities. Substrate scope and inhibitor spectrum strongly differentiated A. chroococcum PO activity comprised in crude extracts from those of PPO and confirmed distinct similarities to fungal PO.
Bacterial phenol oxidase; laccase; tyrosinase; Pycnoporus cinnabarinus; Agaricus bisporus; nitrogen fixation; cysts; melanin; oxygen protection
Recombinant expression and purification of the 2,5-diketocamphane 1,2-monooxygenase from the camphor metabolizing Pseudomonas putida strain NCIMB 10007
Bornscheuer, Uwe T
Three different Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs) were reported to be involved in the camphor metabolism by Pseudomonas putida NCIMB 10007. During (+)-camphor degradation, 2,5-diketocamphane is formed serving as substrate for the 2,5-diketocamphane 1,2-monooxygenase. This enzyme is encoded on the CAM plasmid and depends on the cofactors FMN and NADH and hence belongs to the group of type II BVMOs. We have cloned and recombinantly expressed the oxygenating subunit of the 2,5-diketocamphane 1,2-monooxygenase (2,5-DKCMO) in E. coli followed by His-tag-based affinity purification. A range of compounds representing different BVMO substrate classes were then investigated, but only bicyclic ketones were converted by 2,5-DKCMO used as crude cell extract or after purification. Interestingly, also (-)-camphor was oxidized, but conversion was about 3-fold lower compared to (+)-camphor. Moreover, activity of purified 2,5-DKCMO was observed in the absence of an NADH-dehydrogenase subunit.
Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases; camphor; Pseudomonas putida NCIMB 10007; 2,5-diketocamphane 1,2-monooxygenase; bicyclic ketones
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