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AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses (1)
AIDS research and human retroviruses (1)
ALLAN, JONATHAN S. (1)
BROUSSARD, SUZANNE R. (1)
COMUZZIE, ANTHONY G. (1)
HENEINE, WALID (1)
LANFORD, ROBERT E. (1)
LEIGHTON, KAREN L. (1)
LELAND, M. MICHELLE (1)
MICHAELS, MARIAN G. (1)
MILLER, CHRISTOPHER J. (1)
STARZL, THOMAS E. (1)
SWITZER, WILLIAM M. (1)
WHITEHEAD, EVELYN M. (1)
Year of Publication
Does Viral Tropism Play a Role in Heterosexual Transmission of HIV? Findings in the SIV–Rhesus Macaque Model
MILLER, CHRISTOPHER J.
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Substantial effort is being directed toward generating vaccines that can prevent the heterosexual transmission of HIV-1. If “Selection” for specific variants during sexual intercourse occurs, then vaccines should be designed to prevent transmission of these specific viruses. Using the SIV–rhesus macaque model to test the hypothesis that specific HIV genotypes are more efficient at producing infection by sexual transmission, it was possible to demonstrate that the genotypic determinants that permit SIV or SHIV to produce systemic infection differ depending on the route of virus inoculation. This finding supports the conclusion that there is selection for viral genotypes during sexual transmission of HIV. However, the ability of a virus to grow in rhesus macaque monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro does not predict the outcome of intravaginal inoculation with that virus. We did find that after intravenous inoculation all the vaginally transmitting viruses produced plasma antigenemia and high levels of plasma viral RNA. In contrast, although the nontransmitting viruses infect rhesus macaques after intravenous inoculation, the infection that occurs after intravenous inoculation is characterized by a lack of viral antigen in plasma and low levels of plasma viral RNA. On the basis of these results, it is clear that viruses which are adapted to replicate to high levels in vivo are transmitted by vaginal inoculation. This principle may also apply to the transmission of HIV in humans.
Amplification of Simian Retroviral Sequences from Human Recipients of Baboon Liver Transplants
ALLAN, JONATHAN S.
BROUSSARD, SUZANNE R.
MICHAELS, MARIAN G.
STARZL, THOMAS E.
LEIGHTON, KAREN L.
WHITEHEAD, EVELYN M.
COMUZZIE, ANTHONY G.
LANFORD, ROBERT E.
LELAND, M. MICHELLE
SWITZER, WILLIAM M.
AIDS research and human retroviruses
Investigations into the use of baboons as organ donors for human transplant recipients, a procedure called xenotransplantation, have raised the specter of transmitting baboon viruses to humans and possibly establishing new human infectious diseases. Retrospective analysis of tissues from two human transplant recipients with end-stage hepatic disease who died 70 and 27 days after the transplantation of baboon livers revealed the presence of two simian retroviruses of baboon origin, simian foamy virus (SFV) and baboon endogenous virus (BaEV), in multiple tissue compartments. The presence of baboon mitochondrial DNA was also detected in these same tissues, suggesting that xenogeneic “passenger leukocytes” harboring latent or active viral infections had migrated from the xenografts to distant sites within the human recipients. The persistence of SFV and BaEV in human recipients throughout the posttransplant period underscores the potential infectious risks associated with xenotransplantation.
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