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1.  Cholesterol Dependence of HTLV-I Infection 
Cholesterol-rich plasma membrane microdomains are important for entry of many viruses, including retro-viruses. Depletion of cholesterol with 2-hydroxypropyl-╬▓-cyclodextrin inhibits entry of human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1) and HTLV-I envelope pseudotyped lentivirus particles. Using a soluble fusion protein of the HTLV-I surface envelope protein with the immunoglobulin Fc domain, the HTLV-I receptor was found to colocalize with a raft-associated marker and to cluster in specific plasma membrane microdomains. Depletion of cholesterol did not alter receptor binding activity, suggesting a requirement for cholesterol in a postbinding virus entry step.
doi:10.1089/aid.2005.21.43
PMCID: PMC2671014  PMID: 15665643
2.  Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Accessory Protein p12I Modulates Calcium-Mediated Cellular Gene Expression and Enhances p300 Expression in T Lymphocytes 
Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), an aggressive CD4+ T lymphocyte malignancy. Activation of T lymphocytes is required for effective retroviral integration into the host cell genome and subsequent viral replication, but the molecular mechanisms involved in HTLV-1-mediated T cell activation remain unclear. HTLV-1 encodes various accessory proteins such as p12I, which has been demonstrated to be critical for HTLV-1 infectivity in vivo in rabbits and in vitro in quiescent primary human T lymphocytes. This hydrophobic protein localizes in the endoplasmic reticulum, increases intracellular calcium, and activates nuclear factor of activated T cell-mediated transcription. To further elucidate the role of p12I in regulation of cellular gene expression, we performed gene array analysis on stable p12I-expressing Jurkat T cells, using Affymetrix U133A arrays. Our data indicate that p12I altered the expression of genes associated with a network of interrelated pathways including T cell signaling, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Expression of several calcium-regulated genes was found to be altered by p12I, consistent with known properties of the viral protein. Gene array findings were confirmed by semiquantitative RT-PCR in Jurkat T cells and primary CD4+ T lymphocytes. Furthermore, dose-dependent expression of p12I in Jurkat T cells resulted in significant increases in p300 and p300-dependent transcription. This is the first report of a viral protein influencing the transcription of p300, a rate-limiting coadapter critical in HTLV-1-mediated T cell activation. Collectively, our data strongly indicate that HTLV-1 p12I modulates cellular gene expression patterns to hasten the activation of T lymphocytes and thereby promote efficient viral infection.
doi:10.1089/aid.2005.21.273
PMCID: PMC2668121  PMID: 15943569

Results 1-2 (2)