PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-5 (5)
 

Clipboard (0)
None
Journals
Authors
more »
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Longitudinal Assessment of Pigtailed Macaque Lower Genital Tract Microbiota by Pyrosequencing Reveals Dissimilarity to the Genital Microbiota of Healthy Humans 
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses  2012;28(10):1244-1249.
Abstract
Vaginal bacterial communities play an important role in human health and have been shown to influence HIV infection. Pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) are used as an animal model of HIV vaginal infection of women. Since the bacterial microbiota could influence retrovirus infection of pigtailed macaques, the genital microbiota in 10 cycling macaques was determined by pyrosequencing. The microbiota of all macaques was polymicrobial with a median of 13 distinct genera. Strikingly, the genera Sneathia and Fusobacterium, both in the phylum Fusobacteria, accounted for 18.9% and 13.3% of sequences while the next most frequent were Prevotella (5.6%), Porphyromonas (4.1%), Atopobium (3.6%), and Parvimonas (2.6%). Sequences corresponding to Lactobacillus comprised only 2.2% of sequences on average and were essentially all L. amylovorus. Longitudinal sampling of the 10 macaques over an 8-week period, which spanned at least one full ovulatory cycle, showed a generally stable presence of the major types of bacteria with some exceptions. These studies show that the microbiota of the pigtailed macaques is substantially dissimilar to that found in most healthy humans, where the genital microbiota is usually dominated by Lactobacillus sp. The polymicrobial makeup of the macaque bacterial populations, the paucity of lactobacilli, and the specific types of bacteria present suggest that the pigtailed macaque microbiota could influence vaginal retrovirus infection.
doi:10.1089/aid.2011.0382
PMCID: PMC3448102  PMID: 22264029
2.  HSV-2 infection increases HIV DNA detection in vaginal tissue of mice expressing human CD4 and CCR5 
AIDS research and human retroviruses  2009;25(11):1157-1164.
The goal of this study was to develop an in vivo murine model that can be used to study the influence of HSV-2 on HIV infection. Mice expressing transgenes for human CD4, CCR5 and Cyclin T1 were infected intra-vaginally with HSV-2 and 3-7 days later infected with HIV. HIV DNA was detected by real time PCR. The frequency of detection of HIV DNA was significantly higher (65%) in vaginal tissue of HSV-2-infected mice compared to mock-infected mice (35%) when HIV was given 3 days after HSV-2. HSV-2 infected mice also had significantly higher levels of HIV DNA in vaginal tissue. HIV DNA was not detected in vaginal tissue of mice lacking human CD4. Longer periods (5 or 7 days) between infection with HSV-2 and HIV did not increase the frequency of detection or the amount of HIV DNA detected. HIV DNA was also detected in lymph nodes from some of the mice that were infected intra-vaginally with HSV-2 and HIV. Flow cytometric and mRNA analysis of human CD4 in vaginal tissue suggested that HSV-2 infection increased the number of T cells expressing human CD4 in vaginal tissue. This study provides evidence that HIV infection of cells occurs in the vagina of mice expressing human CD4, CCR5 and Cyclin T1 and that HSV-2 infection increases HIV infection. These findings demonstrate that this model can be used to study the mechanisms responsible for increased susceptibility to HIV in HSV-2-infected persons and for testing preventative treatments.
doi:10.1089/aid.2009.0035
PMCID: PMC2826840  PMID: 19886831
3.  HSV Type 2 Infection Increases HIV DNA Detection in Vaginal Tissue of Mice Expressing Human CD4 and CCR5 
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses  2009;25(11):1157-1164.
Abstract
The goal of this study was to develop an in vivo murine model that can be used to study the influence of HSV-2 on HIV infection. Mice expressing transgenes for human CD4, CCR5, and Cyclin T1 were infected intravaginally with HSV-2 and 3–7 days later infected with HIV. HIV DNA was detected by real-time PCR. The frequency of detection of HIV DNA was significantly higher (65%) in vaginal tissue of HSV-2-infected mice compared to mock-infected mice (35%) when HIV was given 3 days after HSV-2. HSV-2-infected mice also had significantly higher levels of HIV DNA in vaginal tissue. HIV DNA was not detected in vaginal tissue of mice lacking human CD4. Longer periods (5 or 7 days) between infection with HSV-2 and HIV did not increase the frequency of detection or the amount of HIV DNA detected. HIV DNA was also detected in lymph nodes from some of the mice that were infected intravaginally with HSV-2 and HIV. Flow cytometric and mRNA analysis of human CD4 in vaginal tissue suggested that HSV-2 infection increased the number of T cells expressing human CD4 in vaginal tissue. This study provides evidence that HIV infection of cells occurs in the vagina of mice expressing human CD4, CCR5, and Cyclin T1 and that HSV-2 infection increases HIV infection. These findings demonstrate that this model can be used to study the mechanisms responsible for increased susceptibility to HIV in HSV-2-infected persons and for testing preventative treatments.
doi:10.1089/aid.2009.0035
PMCID: PMC2826840  PMID: 19886831
4.  Positive association between HIV RNA and IL-6 in the genital tract of Rwandan Women 
Infections and inflammation in the genital tract can influence HIV expression or HIV susceptibility. The goal of this study was to determine if significant relationships exist between cytokines and HIV in genital tract secretions from 57 HIV-seropositive Rwandan women. Genital tract secretions were obtained by cervicovaginal lavage (CVL). Ten different cytokines in CVL were measured by multiplex Cytometric Bead Arrays. HIV RNA in CVL and plasma were measured by quantitative PCR. In univariate analysis, genital tract HIV RNA was significantly associated with plasma HIV RNA and several of the cytokines, while in multivariate analysis, genital tract HIV RNA was only significantly associated with plasma HIV RNA and IL-6. This association of IL-6 with HIV RNA levels suggests that IL-6 is an indicator for conditions that induce HIV expression and that IL-6 may contribute to induction of HIV expression in the genital tract.
doi:10.1089/aid.2008.0004
PMCID: PMC2792594  PMID: 18671479
5.  Positive Association between HIV RNA and IL-6 in the Genital Tract of Rwandan Women 
Abstract
Infections and inflammation in the genital tract can influence HIV expression or HIV susceptibility. The goal of this study was to determine if significant relationships exist between cytokines and HIV in genital tract secretions from 57 HIV-seropositive Rwandan women. Genital tract secretions were obtained by cervicovaginal lavage (CVL). Ten different cytokines in CVL were measured by multiplex cytometric bead arrays. HIV RNA in CVL and plasma were measured by quantitative PCR. In univariate analysis, genital tract HIV RNA was significantly associated with plasma HIV RNA and several of the cytokines, while in multivariate analysis, genital tract HIV RNA was significantly associated only with plasma HIV RNA and IL-6. This association of IL-6 with HIV RNA levels suggests that IL-6 is an indicator for conditions that induce HIV expression and that IL-6 may contribute to induction of HIV expression in the genital tract.
doi:10.1089/aid.2008.0004
PMCID: PMC2792594  PMID: 18671479

Results 1-5 (5)