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1.  Effect of Persistency of First-Line HIV Antiretroviral Therapy on Clinical Outcomes 
Abstract
Persistency is the time from initiation to discontinuation of therapy. Previous research has described factors that affect the persistency of initial antiretroviral therapy (ART); however, the impact of persistency on clinical outcomes is unknown. A retrospective study was conducted of treatment-naive HIV patients initiating ART between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010 at an academic medical center. Descriptive statistics and Cox proportional hazards regression models with persistency as a time‐varying covariate were fit for (1) immunologic failure (subsequent CD4 lower than initial CD4); (2) development of an opportunistic infection (OI) or malignancy; and (3) mortality. Analyses were repeated with an interaction term of persistency (per 180 days) and time (before and after 1 year of ART). Among 879 patients who started ART, the mean age was 38 years (±10) and most patients were racial/ethnic minority (59%), males (80%), and with baseline CD4 <200 cells/mm3 (52%). There were 100 deaths, 94 OIs/malignancy, and 183 immunologic failures; the mean persistency=723 days. In multivariable modeling, increased persistency decreased the overall and long-term hazard for immunologic failure (0.84 per 180 additional days; 0.70–1.00; 0.045). Increased persistency exhibited a potential trend toward decreased hazard for the occurrence of OI/malignancy (0.91; 0.80–1.03; 0.124) overall and after 1 year. Persistency exhibited a trend toward less risk of mortality in the first year of ART (0.42; 0.17–1.06; 0.067). In this study of the relationship between initial ART persistency and clinical outcomes, increased persistency was associated with a decreased hazard for the development of immunologic failure, a trend toward a decreased hazard for OI/malignancy, and a trend toward a decreased risk of first year mortality. Given these findings, the relationship between persistency and clinical outcomes merits further study.
doi:10.1089/aid.2012.0241
PMCID: PMC3607971  PMID: 23151191
2.  Maraviroc Observational Study: The Impact of Expanded Resistance Testing and Clinical Considerations for Antiretroviral Regimen Selection in Treatment-Experienced Patients 
Abstract
Maraviroc (MVC) use has trailed that of other post-2006 antiretroviral therapy (ART) options for treatment-experienced patients. We explored the impact of free tropism testing on MVC utilization in our cohort and explored barriers to MVC utilization. The Maraviroc Outcomes Study (MOS) is an investigator-initiated industry-sponsored trial where consecutive ART-experienced patients receiving routine care with viral loads ≥1,000 copies/ml, and whose provider requested resistance testing and received standardized resistance testing (SRT; phenotype, genotype, coreceptor/tropism). Sociodemographic, clinical, and ART characteristics of those receiving SRT were compared to a historical cohort (HC). Subsequently, providers were surveyed regarding factors influencing selection of salvage ART therapy. The HC (n=165) had resistance testing 7/08–9/09, while prospective SRT (n=83) patients were enrolled 9/09–8/10. In the HC, 92% had genotypes, 2% had tropism assays, and 62% (n=102) changed ART after resistance testing (raltegravir 37%, etravirine 25%, darunavir 24%, MVC 1%). In the SRT cohort, 57% (n=48) changed regimens after standardized resistance testing (darunavir 48%, raltegravir 40%, and etravirine 19%). CCR5-tropic virus was identified in 43% of the SRT group, and MVC was used in 10% [or 20% of R5 tropic patients who underwent a subsequent regimen change (n=25)], a statistically significant (p=0.01) increase in utilization. The factors most strongly influencing utilization were unique patient circumstances (60%), clinical experience (55%), and potential side effects (40%). The addition of routine tropism testing to genotypic/phenotypic testing was associated with increased MVC utilization, raising the possibility that tropism testing may present a barrier to MVC use; however, additional barriers exist, and merit further evaluation.
doi:10.1089/aid.2012.0157
PMCID: PMC3608020  PMID: 22881368
3.  Short Communication Routine HIV Testing in the Emergency Department: Assessment of Patient Perceptions 
Abstract
The CDC released revised HIV testing guidelines in 2006 recommending routine, opt-out HIV testing in acute care settings including emergency departments (ED). Patient attitudes have been cited as a barrier to implementation of routine HIV testing in the ED. We assessed patients' perceptions of HIV testing in the ED through a contextual qualitative approach. The study was conducted during a 72-h period. All adults presenting to the ED without life-threatening trauma or psychiatric crisis completed a standardized questionnaire. The questionnaire explored HIV testing history, knowledge of testing resources, and qualitative items addressing participant perceptions about advantages and disadvantages to ED testing. After completion of the interview, participants were offered a free, confidential, rapid HIV test. Among 329 eligible individuals approached, 288 (87.5%) completed the initial interview. Participants overwhelmingly (n=247, 85.8%) reported support for testing and identified increased knowledge (41%), prevention (12.5%), convenience (11.8%), and treatment (4.9%) among the advantages. Fear and denial about one's HIV status, reported by <5% of patients, were identified as the most significant barriers to ED testing. Bivariate analysis determined race and ethnicity differences between individuals completing the interview and those who refused (p<0.05). Among individuals consenting for testing (n=186, 64.6%), no positives were detected. Most patients support HIV testing in the ED, noting knowledge of status, prevention, convenience, and linkage to early treatment as distinct advantages. These data are of particular benefit to decision makers considering the addition of routine HIV testing in EDs.
doi:10.1089/aid.2011.0074
PMCID: PMC3316117  PMID: 21790474
4.  The Role of Toxicity-Related Regimen Changes in the Development of Antiretroviral Resistance 
Abstract
In an effort to evaluate factors associated with the development of antiretroviral (ARV) resistance, we assessed the prevalence of toxicity-related regimen changes and modeled its association to the subsequent development of ARV resistance in a cohort of treatment-naive individuals initiating ARV therapy (ART). A retrospective analysis of patients initiating ART was conducted at the UAB 1917 Clinic from 1 January 2000 to 30 September 2007. Cox proportional hazards models were fit to identify factors associated with the development of resistance to ≥1 ARV drug class. Among 462 eligible participants, 14% (n=64) developed ARV resistance. Individuals with ≥1 toxicity-related regimen change (HR=3.94, 95% CI=1.09–14.21), initiating ART containing ddI or d4T (4.12, 1.19–14.26), and from a minority race (2.91, 1.16–7.28) had increased risk of developing resistance. Achieving virologic suppression within 12 months of ART initiation (0.10, 0.05–0.20) and higher pretreatment CD4 count (0.85 per 50 cells/mm3, 0.75–0.96) were associated with decreased hazards of resistance. Changes in ART due to drug intolerance were associated with the subsequent development of ARV resistance. Understanding the role of ARV drug selection and other factors associated with the emergence of ARV resistance will help inform interventions to improve patient care and ensure long-term treatment success.
doi:10.1089/aid.2010.0291
PMCID: PMC3192056  PMID: 21342052
5.  Darunavir Outcomes Study: Comparative Effectiveness of Virologic Suppression, Regimen Durability, and Discontinuation Reasons for Three-Class Experienced Patients at 48 Weeks 
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses  2010;26(12):1279-1285.
Abstract
Several new antiretroviral (ARV) agents for treatment experienced HIV-infected patients have been approved since June 2006, including darunavir (DRV) and raltegravir (RAL). While efficacious in clinical trials, the effectiveness, durability, and tolerability of these new ARVs remains understudied in the context of routine clinical care. The Darunavir Outcomes Study is a prospective cohort study of three-class ARV-experienced patients changing regimens at the 1917 Clinic after 1/7/2006. All treatment decisions were at the discretion of primary providers. Multivariate (MV) logistic regression for 48 week VL <400c/ml and Cox models for regimen durability were completed. Propensity score methods controlled for sociodemographics. Among 108 patients, mean age of 46, 48% were white, 80% male, with prior exposure to a mean 10.5 ARVs. Overall, 64% of patients achieved 48-week VL <400 c/ml. In MV modeling DRV/rll (OR = 5.77;95%CI = 1.62–20.58) and RAL (OR = 3.84;95%CI = 1.23–11.95) use increased odds of 48-week suppression. Use of these agents exhibited a trend towards prolonged regimen durability in Cox models. Among those highly ARV-experienced, regimens containing DRV/r and/or RAL were more likely to achieve 48-week VL <400 c/ml and exhibited a trend towards prolonged durability. New agents have transformed the treatment landscape for ARV-experienced patients, with effectiveness in routine clinical care mirroring efficacy in clinical trials.
doi:10.1089/aid.2010.0059
PMCID: PMC3011996  PMID: 20961276
6.  Short-Term Discontinuation of HAART Regimens More Common in Vulnerable Patient Populations 
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses  2008;24(11):1347-1355.
Abstract
The durability of HAART regimens is often limited by antiretroviral toxicity and nonadherence, which lead to virologic failure. We sought to determine sociodemographic and psychosocial patient factors predictive of short-term discontinuation of HAART regimens overall and stratified by the reason for discontinuation. A retrospective cohort study of the UAB 1917 Clinic Cohort evaluated short-term HAART regimen discontinuation (within 12 months of regimen initiation) between 1/1995 and 8/2004 classified as (1) gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity, (2) non-GI toxicity, (3) virologic failure or nonadherence (VF/NA), (4) loss to follow-up, and (5) other. Multivariable multinomial logistic regression models accounting for dependent observations were fit to assess the relationship between patient factors and type-specific regimen discontinuation. Among the 738 study participants, 1026 of 1852 HAART regimens (55%) were discontinued within 12 months of initiation. In multivariable analysis, discontinuation for GI toxicity was more common in patients lacking private health insurance and those with a history of intravenous (IV) drug use, whereas non-GI toxicity was more common in younger patients and females. African-American patients and those with a history of IV drug use were more likely to stop a regimen due to VF/NA. Loss to follow-up was more common in younger patients, individuals who were uninsured, and those with a history of IV drug use. Short-term discontinuation of HAART regimens is more common in vulnerable populations that bear a disproportionate burden of the U.S. HIV/AIDS epidemic. More vigilant monitoring of patient populations at higher risk of toxicity and virologic failure may allow for improved HAART regimen durability.
doi:10.1089/aid.2008.0083
PMCID: PMC2928492  PMID: 19032064

Results 1-6 (6)