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1.  Darunavir Is a Good Third-Line Antiretroviral Agent for HIV Type 1-Infected Patients Failing Second-Line Protease Inhibitor-Based Regimens in South India 
Abstract
Eleven protease mutations have been associated with reduced susceptibility to darunavir. In this study of 87 HIV-1-infected patients experiencing virological failure to second-line regimens containing protease inhibitors boosted with ritonavir (viral load >1,000 HIV RNA copies/ml), we observed a low prevalence (3%) of ≥3 darunavir resistance-associated mutations, indicating that this drug may be a good option for third-line antiretroviral therapy in southern India.
doi:10.1089/aid.2011.0334
PMCID: PMC3581023  PMID: 23045961
2.  Unusual Insertion and Deletion at Codon 67 and 69 of HIV Type 1 Subtype C Reverse Transcriptase Among First-Line Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment-Failing South Indian Patients: Association with Other Resistance Mutations 
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses  2012;28(12):1763-1765.
Abstract
We report a high frequency of drug resistance mutations among patients with unusual insertions or deletions at the β3–β4 hairpin-loop-coding region of HIV-1 subtype C reverse transcriptase, during failure of first-line antiretroviral therapy containing only reverse transcriptase inhibitors in Chennai, India.
doi:10.1089/aid.2011.0331
PMCID: PMC3505055  PMID: 22404052
3.  The Relatedness of HIV Epidemics in the United States–Mexico Border Region 
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses  2010;26(12):1273-1277.
Abstract
Phylogeography can improve the understanding of local and worldwide HIV epidemics, including the migration of subepidemics across national borders. We analyzed HIV-1 sequences sampled from Mexico and San Diego, California to determine the relatedness of these epidemics. We sampled the HIV epidemics in (1) Mexico by downloading all publicly available HIV-1 pol sequences from antiretroviral-naive individuals in GenBank (n = 100) and generating similar sequences from cohorts of injection drug users and female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico (n = 27) and (2) in San Diego, California by pol sequencing well-characterized primary (n = 395) and chronic (n = 267) HIV infection cohorts. Estimates of population structure (FST), genetic distance cluster analysis, and a cladistic measure of migration events (Slatkin–Maddison test) were used to assess the relatedness of the epidemics. Both a test of population differentiation (FST = 0.06; p < 0.01) and a cladistic estimate of migration events (84 migrations, p < 0.01) indicated that the Tijuana and San Diego epidemics were not freely mixing. A conservative cluster analysis identified 72 clusters (two or more sequences), with two clusters containing both Mexican and San Diego sequences (permutation p < 0.01). Analysis of this very large dataset of HIV-1 sequences suggested that the HIV-1 epidemics in San Diego, California and Tijuana, Mexico are distinct. Larger epidemiological studies are needed to quantify the magnitude and associations of cross-border mixing.
doi:10.1089/aid.2010.0021
PMCID: PMC3011998  PMID: 20977301
5.  A Novel Codon Insert in Protease of Clade B HIV-1 
A novel combination of three codon inserts in the pol coding region of HIV-1 RNA was identified in a highly antiretroviral experienced study subject with HIV-1 infection. A one codon insert was observed in the protease region between codon 40 and 41 simultaneously with a two codon insert present in the reverse transcriptase region at codon 69.
doi:10.1089/aid.2008.0310
PMCID: PMC2749665  PMID: 19397401
6.  A Novel Codon Insert in Protease of Clade B HIV Type 1 
Abstract
A novel combination of three codon inserts in the pol coding region of HIV-1 RNA was identified in a highly antiretroviral experienced study subject with HIV-1 infection. A one codon insert was observed in the protease region between codon 40 and 41 simultaneously with a two codon insert present in the reverse transcriptase region at codon 69.
doi:10.1089/aid.2008.0310
PMCID: PMC2749665  PMID: 19397401

Results 1-6 (6)