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1.  Mathematical modeling of surface-active and non-surface-active drug transport in emulsion systems 
AAPS PharmSci  2000;2(3):102-113.
Mathematical models were developed for the prediction of surface-active and non- surface-active drug transport in triphasic (oil, water, and micellar) emulsion systems as a function of micellar concentration. These models were evaluated by comparing experimental and simulated data. Fick's first law of diffusion with association of the surface-active or complexation nature of the drug with the surfactant was used to derive a transport model for surface-active drugs. This transport model assumes that the oil/water (O/W) partitioning process was fast compared with membrane transport and therefore drug transport was limited by the membrane. Consecutive rate equations were used to model transport of non- surface-active drugs in emulsion systems assuming that the O/W interface acts as a barrier to drug transport. Phenobarbital (PB) and barbital (B) were selected as surface-active model drugs. Phenylazoaniline (PAA) and enzocaine (BZ) were selected as non- surface-active model drugs. Transport studies at pH 7.0 were conducted using side-by-side diffusion cells and bulk equilibrium reverse dialysis bag techniques. According to the surface-active drug model, an increase in micellar concentration is expected to decrease drug-transport rates. Using the Microft EXCEL program, the non- surface-active drug model was fitted to the experimental data for the cumulative amount of the model drug that disappeared from the donor chamber. The oil/continuous phase partitioning rates (k1) and the membrane transport rates (k2) were estimated. The predicted data were consistent with the experimental data for both the surface-active and non- surface-active models.
doi:10.1208/ps020331
PMCID: PMC2761141  PMID: 11741247
2.  Effect of nonionic surfactant on transport of surface-active and non-surface-active model drugs and emulsion stability in triphasic systems 
AAPS PharmSci  2000;2(3):91-101.
The effect of surfactant concentration on transport kinetics in emulsions using surface-active (phenobarbital, barbital) and non- surface-active is determined. Mineral oil was chosen as the oil phase and the nonionic surfactant polyoxyethylene-10-oleyl-ether (Brij 97) was chosen as the emulsifier. Model drug transport in the triphasic systems was investigated using side-by-side diffusion cells mounted with hydrophilic dialysis membranes (molecular weight cutoffs 1 kd and 50 kd) and a novel bulk equilibrium reverse dialysis bag technique. Emulsion stability was determined by droplet size analysis as a function of time, temperature, and the presence of model drugs, using photon correlation spectroscopy. Mineral oil/water (O/W) partition coefficients and aqueous solubilities were determined in the presence of surfactant. The transport rates of model drugs in emulsions increased with an increase in Brij 97 micellar concentrations up to 1.0% wt/vol and then decreased at higher surfactant concentrations. The transport profiles of the model drugs appeared to be governed by model drug O/W partition coefficient values and by micellar shape changes at higher surfactant concentrations.
Total transport rates of phenobarbital and barbital were faster than those of phenylazoaniline and benzocaine. Excess surfactant affected the transport rates of the model drugs in the emulsions depending on drug surface activity and lipophilicity.
doi:10.1208/ps020330
PMCID: PMC2761140  PMID: 11741246
3.  Independence of substituent contributions to the transport of small-molecule permeants in lipid bilayer 
AAPS PharmSci  2000;2(2):40-52.
Purpose: To explore the independence of functional group contributions to permeability of nonelectrolytes across egg lecithin bilayers. Methods. The transport rates were measured of a series of α-substituted p-methylhippuric acids (-H,-Cl,-OCH3,-CN,-OH,-COOH, and-CONH2) across egg lecithin lipid bilayers, in the form of large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) at 25EC. Intrinsic permeability coefficients (PHA) were calculated from apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) measured as a function of pH. Group contributions to the free energy of transfer from water into the barrier domain, Δ(ΔGE)P,X, were calculated for the substituents and compared to the contributions of these groups when attached to p-toluic acid measured earlier. The Δ(ΔGE)P,X values from permeability data were also correlated with Δ(ΔGE)PC,X values of partitioning from water into organic solvents to determine the physicochemical selectivity of the barrier domain. Results. Papp values in LUVs were found to vary approximately linearly with the fraction of neutral permeant over a pH range of 5.5 to 10.5, suggesting that the transport of the ionized species is negligible over this pH range. The Δ(ΔGE)P,X values from the 2 series of compounds appear to be the same, indicating that the functional group contributions are independent. 1,9-Decadiene was found to be the most similar to the chemical environment of the barrier domain. Conclusions. Functional group contributions to transport across egg lecithin bilayers appear to be independent of the compound to which they are attached, even though the thickness of the barrier domain in lipid bilayers is approximately the same as the extended length of the permeant.
doi:10.1208/ps020214
PMCID: PMC2751028  PMID: 11741230
4.  No evidence for the involvement of the multidrug resistance-associated protein and/or the monocarboxylic acid transporter in the intestinal transport of fluvastatin in rats 
AAPS PharmSci  2000;2(3):62-68.
Fluvastatin, an amphiphilic anion, shows a nonlinear increase in effective intestinal permeability (Peff) with increasing lumenal concentrations in rats. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether or not this observation could be attributed to an efflux-mediated transport by the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP). In parallel, we investigated the possible involvement of the monocarboxylic acid transporter (MCT) in the rapid intestinal absorption of fluvastatin. Single-pass perfusions were performed in the ileum and colon of the rat, with and without the presence of well-established inhibitors/substrates for the MRP (probenecid) and the MCT (nicotinic acid). The results suggest that neither the MRP nor the MCT are involved to any significant extent in the absorption process of fluvastatin in the rat intestine. Thus, the previously reported concentration-dependent Peff of fluvastatin in these intestinal regions of the rat is probably not attributable to saturation of any efflux mediated by MRP.
doi:10.1208/ps020327
PMCID: PMC2761137  PMID: 11741242
Fluvastatin; Drug Absorption; Intestinal Efflux; Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein; Monocarboxylic Acid Transporter
5.  Recovery of human skin impedance in vivo after lontophoresis: Effect of metal ions 
AAPS PharmSci  2000;2(3):38-44.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the counter-ion (cation) on the recovery of human skin impedance after iontophoresis in vivo. A series of metal chloride aqueous solutions (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, and MgCl2) was investigated: first at the same concentration (133 mmol/L) and then at the same ionic strength as a NaCl solution at 133 mmol/L. The influence of hydration alone was also examined as a control. The recovery of human skin impedance was followed in the frequency range 1–1,000 Hz, over a 30-minute period after iontophoresis during which 3 impedance spectra were recorded. The results revealed that at t=30 minutes post-iontophoresis, skin impedance was approximately 3 times greater than the value immediately after the cessation of current passage. However, the results showed that the nature of the cation had no effect on recovery, regardless of whether the ions were at the same concentration or at an equivalent ionic strength. A simple parallel RC-equivalent circuit model for skin was used to determine the resistive (R) and capacitive (C) contributions to skin impedance. An analysis of variance on the calculated R and C values did not show any differences between the electrolytes used at the 2 different ionic strengths.
doi:10.1208/ps020323
PMCID: PMC2761134  PMID: 11741239
6.  Targeted prodrug design to optimize drug delivery 
AAPS PharmSci  2000;2(1):48-58.
Classical prodrug design often represents a nonspecific chemical approach to mask undesirable drug properties such as limited bioavailability, lack of site specificity, and chemical instability. On the other hand, targeted prodrug design represents a new strategy for directed and efficient drug delivery. Particularly, targeting the prodrugs to a specific enzyme or a specific membrane transporter, or both, has potential as a selective drug delivery system in cancer chemotherapy or as an efficient oral drug delivery system. Site-selective targeting with prodrugs can be further enhanced by the simultaneous use of gene delivery to express the requisite enzymes or transporters. This review highlights evolving strategies in targeted prodrug design, including antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy, genedirected enzyme prodrug therapy, and peptide transporter-associated prodrug therapy.
doi:10.1208/ps020106
PMCID: PMC2751001  PMID: 11741222
7.  Comparison of the rates of deamidation, diketopiperazine formation, and oxidation in recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor and model peptides 
AAPS PharmSci  2000;2(1):42-47.
In this work, we examine the way in which stability information obtained from studies on small model peptides correlates with similar information acquired from a protein. The rates of deamidation, oxidation, and diketopiperazine reactions in model peptide systems were compared to those of recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF). The N-terminal residues of rhVEGF, a potent mitogen in angiogenesis, are susceptible to the aforementioned reactions. The degradation of the peptides L-Ala-L-Pro-L-Met (APM) and Gly-L-Gsn-L-His-L-His (GQNHH), residues 1–3 and 8–12 of rh VEGF, respectively, and rhVEGF were examined at pH 5 and 8 at 37°C. Capillary electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) stability-indicating assays were developed to monitor the degradation of the penta- and tripeptides, respectively. The degradation of rhVEGF was determined by tryptic mapping and quantified by RP-HPLC. The rates of degradation of both peptides and the protein followed apparent first-order kinetics and increased with increasing pH. The tripeptide APM underwent diketopiperazine formation (Ala-Prodiketopiperazine) and oxidation of the Met residue, whereas the pentapeptide GQNHH degraded via the deamidation pathway. The results indicate that the rates of deamidation and oxidation of the protein are comparable to those observed in the model peptides at both pH values. However, the rate of the diketo-piperazine reaction was slower in the protein than in the model peptide, which may be the result of differences in the cis-trans equilibrium of the X-Pro peptide bonds in the 2 molecules.
doi:10.1208/ps020105
PMCID: PMC2751000  PMID: 11741221
8.  Nonlinearity detection: Advantages of nonlinear mixed-effects modeling 
AAPS PharmSci  2000;2(3):114-123.
The purpose of this study was to address the question of whether the use of nonlinear mixed-effect models has an impact on the detection and characterization of nonlinear processes (pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic) in rich data obtained from a few subjects. Simulations were used to assess the difference between applying population analysis, ie, nonlinear mixed-effects models as implemented in NONMEM, and the standard 2-stage (STS) method as the data analysis method for detection and characterization of nonlinearities. Three situations were considered, 2 pharmacokinetic and 1 pharmacodynamic. Both the first-order (FO) and FO conditional estimation (FOCE) algorithms were used for the population analyses. Within each situation, rich data were simulated for 8 subjects at multiple dose levels. The true nonlinear model and a simpler linear model were fit to each data set using each of the STS, FO, and FOCE methods. Criteria were prespecified to determine when each data analysis method detected the true nonlinear model. For all 3 simulated situations, the application of population analysis with the FOCE algorithm enabled the detection and characterization of the true nonlinear models in at least a 4-fold lower dose level than the STS approach. For both of the pharmacokinetic settings, population analysis with the FO algorithm performed much more poorly than the STS approach. The superior detection and characterization of nonlinearities provided by population analysis with the FOCE algorithm should allow drug developers to better predict and define how a drug should be used in clinical practice in such situations.
doi:10.1208/ps020332
PMCID: PMC2761142  PMID: 11741248
Population Analysis; Nonlinear Mixed-Effects Modeling; Nonlinear Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics; Study Design
9.  An interactive algorithm for the assessment of cumulative cortisol suppression during inhaled corticosteroid therapy 
AAPS PharmSci  2000;2(3):28-37.
The objective of the study was to develop an algorithm based on a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling approach to quantify and predict cumulative cortisol suppression (CCS) as a surrogate marker for the systemic activity of inhaled corticosteroid therapy. Two Excel spreadsheets, one for single dose and another for steady-state multiple doses of inhaled steroids, were developed for predicting CCS. Four of the commonly used inhaled steroids were chosen for the purposes of simulation: fluticasone propionate (EP), budesonide (BUD), flunisolide (FLU), and triamcinolone acetonide (TAA). Drug-specific PK and PD parameters were obtained from previous single- and multiple-dose studies. In cases in which multiple-dose data were not available, the single-dose data were extrapolated. The algorithm was designed to calculate CCS based on 5 input parameters: name of drug, dose, dosing interval, time(s) of dosing, and type of inhaler device. In addition, a generalized algorithm was set up to calculate CCS based on clearance, volume of distribution, absorption rate, protein binding, pulmonary deposition, oral bioavailability, and unbound EC50 of the corticosteroid of interest. The spreadsheet allowed predictions of CCS for single doses as well as steady-state conditions. A simple method has been developed that facilitates comparisons between various drugs and dosing regimens and has the potential to significantly reduce the number of comparative clinical trials to be performed for evaluating the short-term systemic activity of inhaled corticosteroids).
doi:10.1208/ps020322
PMCID: PMC2761133  PMID: 11741238
10.  Influence of degree of polymerization on behavior of cellulose during homogenization and extrusion/spheronization 
AAPS PharmSci  2000;2(3):18-27.
The study objective was to investigate the influence of the degree of polymerization (DP) of cellulose materials (microcrystalline cellulose [MCC] and powder cellulose [PC]) on the behavior of these materials during homogenization and extrusion/spheronization processes. Suspensions of the cellulose types with different DP values were homogenized using a high-pressure homogenizer. The particle size, agglomeration index, and apparent viscosity of these suspensions was determined at different times after pouring. Additionally, these different cellulose types were processed into pellets using the extrusion/spheronization, method, and the water content and power consumption as a function of the DP were determined. Cellulose types with a high DP value showed greater particle size after homogenization, than the types with a low DP value. In contrast, no relevant relationship between the apparent viscosity and DP could be observed. During the extrusion process, water content in the extrudate and pellet porosity were increased as the DP was increased for the extrudates produced at the same level of power consumption. MCC types with various DPs compared with PC provided a novel way of understanding the role of cellulose in the extrusion process. The DP showed a remarkable influence on the physicochemical properties of the cellulose materials and, consequently, on the behavior of these materials during the extrusion/spheronization process. It is postulated that the sponge model is more appropriate for the cellulose type with high DP (PC), whereas the gel model is more applicable to cellulose types with lower DP (MCC).
doi:10.1208/ps020321
PMCID: PMC2761132  PMID: 11741237
11.  Particle size analysis of concentrated phospholipid microemulsions: II. Photon correlation spectroscopy 
AAPS PharmSci  2000;2(3):1-10.
The solvated droplet size of concentrated water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsions prepared frome egg and soy lecithin/water/isopropyl myristate and containing short-chain alcohol cosurfactants has been determined using photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS). The effect of increasing the water volume fraction (from 0.04 to 0.26) on the solvated size of the w/o droplets at 298 K has been investigated at 4 different surfactant/cosurfactant weight ratios (Km of 1∶1, 1.5∶1, 1.77∶1, and 1.94∶1); in all cases the total surfactant/cosurfactant concentration was kept constant at 25% w/w. In the case of the microemulsions prepared from egg lecthin, the diffusion coefficients obtained from PCS measurements were corrected for interparticulate interactions using a hard-sphere model that necessitated estimation of the droplet volume fractions, which in the present study were obtained from earlier total intensity light-scattering (TILS) studies performed on the same systems. Once corrected for hard-sphere interactions, the diffusion coefficients were converted to solvated radii using the Stokes-Einstein equation assuming spherical microemulsion droplets. For both egg and soy lecithin systems, no microemulsion droplets were detected at water concentrations less than 9 wt% regardless of the alcohol and Km used, suggesting that at low concentrations of added water, cosolvent systems were formed. At higher water concentrations, however, microemulsion droplets were observed. The changes in droplet size followed the expected trend in that for a fixed Km the size of the microemulsion droplets increased with increasing volume fraction of water. At constant water concentration, droplet size decreased slightly upon increasing Km. Interestingly, only small differences in size were seen upon changing the type of alcohol used. The application of the hard-sphere model to account for interparticulate interactions for the egg lecithin systems indicated that the uncorrected diffusion coefficients underestimated particle size by a factor of slightly less than 2. Reassuringly, the corrected droplet sizes agreed very well with those obtained from our earlier TILS study.
doi:10.1208/ps020319
PMCID: PMC2761130  PMID: 11741235
12.  Disposition of acetaminophen and indocyanine green in cystic fibrosis-knockout mice 
AAPS PharmSci  2000;2(2):109-116.
Drug treatment poses a therapeutic challenge in cystic fibrosis (CF) because the disposition of a number of drugs is altered in CF. Enhanced clearance of acetaminophen (APAP) and indocyanine green (ICG) have previously been reported in CF patients. The objective of the current study was to investigate if the CF-knockout mouse model (cftrm1UNC) shows altered pharmacokinetics similar to those seen in CF patients using the 2 model compounds APAP and ICG. Clearance (CL/F) of APAP and renal (CLR) and formation (CLf) clearance of acetaminophen glucuronide (AG) and acetaminophen sulfate (AS) were determined in CF-knockout mice following administration of APAP (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal). CLR of AS was 19.5 and 12.9 (mL/min per kg) and CLf of AS was 10.4 and 6.7 mL/min per kg for homozygous and heterozygous males, respectively, which was significantly different between groups. CLR of AG was 6.3 and 4.8 mL/min per kg and CLf of AG was 9.6 and 8.9 mL/min per kg for homozygous and heterozygous males, respectively, although not reaching statistical significance. No significant differences were noted in either ClR or CLf of AG and AS in female CF mice. Plasma concentrations of ICG (10 mg/kg, intravenous) were determined over 0 to 15 minutes. Homozygous females showed a higher apparent volume of distribution (96 mL/kg) relative to heterozygous females (72 mL/kg). Similar to CF patients, a trend toward a lower Cmax was noted in homozygous male and female mice. However, contrary to human data, no significant differences in CL of ICG were noted. These results suggest that the CF-knockout mice have potential as a model for studying altered drug disposition in CF patients.
doi:10.1208/ps020218
PMCID: PMC2751032  PMID: 11741234
13.  Stereoselective pharmacokinetics of ifosfamide in male and female rats 
AAPS PharmSci  2000;2(2):98-108.
The stereoselective pharmacokinetics of ifosfamide (IF) were investigated in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Following intravenous administration of IF deuterium-labeled pseudoracemates into rats at 40 mg/kg, IF enantiomers and their metabolites, 4-hydroxyIF (HOIF), N2-dechloroethylIF (N2D), N3-dechloroethylIF (N3D), and isophosphoramide mustard (IPM) were quantitated in plasma and urine using gas chromatographic-mass spectrometry techniques with appropriately deuterium-labeled analogs as the internal standards. In addition, the intrinsic clearances of IF isomers in rat liver microsomes were estimated by the in vitro metabolism study. Following drug administration in male rats, (R)-IF exhibited a lower area under the curve value and a shorter half-life of 34.2 minutes than (S)-IF, which gave a half-life of 41.8 minutes. In female rats, the half-lives of (R)- and (S)-IF were found to be 62.1 and 75.1 minutes, respectively, significantly longer than those in male rats. No change in volume of distribution or renal clearance for IF enantiomers in all rats was observed, and the protein binding value was low, with no enantioselectivity. Both in vitro and in vivo studies showed that metabolism of (R)-IF proceeded in favor of the 4-hydroxylation pathway, whereas (S)-IF preferentially underwent N2- and N3-dechloroethylation. The observed stereoselectivity and gender difference in pharmacokinetics of IF in the rat are mainly attributed to its stereoselective metabolism.
doi:10.1208/ps020217
PMCID: PMC2751031  PMID: 11741233
14.  Light-scattering investigations on dilute nonionic oil-in-water microemulsions 
AAPS PharmSci  2000;2(2):16-26.
Dilute 3-component nonionic oil-in-water microemulsions formulated with either a polyoxyethylene surfactant (C18∶1E10 or C12E10) or the alkylamine-N-oxide surfactant, DDAO (C12AO), and containing either a triglyceride or an ethyl ester oil have been examined using dynamic and static light-scattering techniques. Analysis of the results showed distinct differences in the tested oils mode of incorporation into the microemulsion droplets, with both the molecular volume of the oil and the hydrophobic chain length of the surfactant being important. For example, microemulsions formulated by C18∶1E10 and containing one of the larger molecular volume oils (that is, either a triglyceride, Miglyol 812, or soybean oil) or the ethyl ester of fatty acid oil, ethyl oleate, exhibited first a decrease and then an increase in hydrodynamic size and surfactant aggregation number, suggesting that the asymmetric C18∶1E10 micelles became spherical upon the addition of a small amount of oil and grew thereafter because of further oil being incorporated into the core of the spherical microemulsion droplet. A similar conclusion of sphericity could not be drawn for microemulsions stabilized by C18∶1E10 and containing one of the oils smaller in molecular volume (namely tributyrin, ethyl butyrate, or ethyl caprylate) where neither the aggregation number nor the hydrodynamic radius changed much upon the addition of oil. This result suggested that these oils were preferentially located in the interfacial surfactant monolayer, behaving in much the same way as a cosurfactant. A different trend of results, however, was seen for microemulsions prepared using C12E10 and C12AO, most likely because these surfactants produced approximately spherical micelles. In this case, the microemulsions containing the oils larger in molecular volume tended to exhibit an increase in surfactant aggregation number and hydrodynamic size, suggesting the growth of spherical micelles, while the smaller oils (in particular ethyl butyrate) caused a significant decrease in surfactant aggregation number incompatible with their being incorporated into the centre of the droplet, suggesting that the oils were being located in the interfacial surfactant monolayer. These results suggest that the various oils are incorporated into the microemulsions in very different ways.
doi:10.1208/ps020212
PMCID: PMC2751026  PMID: 11741228
15.  Relationship between steady-state pharmacokinetics and hemodynamic effects of inhaled isobutyl nitrite in conscious rats 
AAPS PharmSci  2000;2(2):8-15.
Our objective was to examine the pharmacokinetic/hemodynamic properties of inhaled isobutyl nitrite (ISBN) in rats. ISBN is one of the volatile organic nitrites that has been used primarily as a drug of abuse. Recent studies indicate, however, that these compounds may be superior to organic nitrates for cardiovascular use because they do not produce vascular tolerance. Rats inhaled ISBN over an exposure range of 20 to 1200 ppm for 1 hour. The effects of ISBN on blood pressure and heart rate were determined and blood concentrations of ISBN were analyzed with use of gas chromatography. Apparent steady-state blood levels of ISBN were achieved during inhalation and were linear with exposure concentration (blood concentration: 0.05 to 3.5 μM: exposure concentration: 23 to 1177 ppm; r2=0.92). Inhaled ISBN caused rapid, dose-dependent, and parallel reductions in systolic and diastolie pressure, while heart rate increased maximally to 22%. A sigmoid Emax model could describe the mean arterial pressure effect of inhaled ISBN (Emax=55%; EC50=0.51 μM). After inhalation, blood pressure and heart rate quickly returned to baseline, without any withdrawal rebound effect. Inhaled ISBN produced a rapid onset of action on heart rate and blood pressure, and these effects were sustained over 60 minutes of exposure. Abrupt drug withdrawal did not lead to hemodynamic rebound. The blood pressure effects were related to ISBN blood concentration by the sigmoid Emax model. These results provide new information on the pharmacokinetic pharmacodynamic relationship of a representative nitrite inhalant.
doi:10.1208/ps020211
PMCID: PMC2751025  PMID: 11741227
16.  Comparative evaluation of the degree of indomethacin crystallinity by chemoinfometrical fourie-transformed near-infrared spectroscopy and conventional powder X-ray diffractiometry 
AAPS PharmSci  2000;2(1):80-87.
A chemoinfometrical method for evaluating the degree of crystallinity based on fourie-transformed near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy was established and compared with the conventional powder X-ray diffraction method. Powder X-ray diffraction profiles and FT-NIR spectra were recorded for 11 kinds of standard materials with various degrees of crystallinity obtained by physically mixing crystalline and amorphous indomethacin (IMC). Chemoinfometric analysis was performed on the FT-NIR spectral data sets by multiple linear regression (MLR) (MLR-Set-Up Search program). The crystalline and amorphous forms showed significant NIR spectral peaks. MLR analysis was performed based on normalized NIR spectra sets for standard samples of known crystallinity. A calibration equation was determined to minimize the root mean square error of prediction. The predicted crystallinity values were reproducible and had a smaller standard deviation. The values of crystallinity predicted by X-ray powder diffractometry and FT-NIR spectrometry suggested a satisfactory correlation between the 2 techniques. The results indicated that FT-NIR spectroscopy provides for an accurate quantitative analysis of crystallinity compared with conventional X-ray diffractometry.
doi:10.1208/ps020109
PMCID: PMC2751004  PMID: 11741225
17.  Genomic structure of proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter hPEPT1 and pH-sensing regulatory splice variant 
AAPS PharmSci  2000;3(1):66-79.
Proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter PEPT1 facilitates the transport of dipeptides and peptoid drugs (including antibiotics) across the cell membranes of endothelial and epithelial cells. Substrate transport by the proton symport is driven by pH gradients, while the profile of pH sensitivity is regulated by a closely related protein. hPEPT1-RF. We investigated the genomic structure of hPEPT1 and hPEPT1-RF. Analysis of the high-throughput genomic sequence (HTGS) database revealed that hPEPT1 and hPEPT1-RF are splice variants encoded by the same gene located in chromosome 13, consisting of 24 exons. hPEPT1 is encoded by 23 exons and hPEPT1-RF by 6 exons. Coding sequences of hPEPT1-RF share 3 exons completely and 2 exons partially with hPEPT1. The genomic organization of hPEPT1 shows high similarity with its mouse orthologue. Exon-intron boundaries occur mostly in the loops connecting transmembrane segments (TMSs), suggesting a modular gene structure reflecting the TMS-loop repeat units in hPEPT1. The putative promoter region of hPEPT1 contains TATA boxes and GC-rich regions and a potential insulin responsive element.
doi:10.1208/ps030106
PMCID: PMC2751238  PMID: 11741257
Peptide transporter; Genomic structure; Splice variant
18.  A combination of iontophoresis and the chelating agent 1, 10 phenanthroline act synergistically as penetration enhancers 
AAPS PharmSci  2000;2(4):19-23.
The peroxovanadium compound VO(O2)2, 1,10 phenanthroline (bpV (phen)) is capable of lowering blood glucose levels. It is not available in oral form, but it is effective when delivered transdermally. Iontophoresis can significantly reduce the lag time of this response in vivo when compared with passive penetration. To better mimic in vivo insulin release, we explored the effects of various iontophoretic current durations on dermal penetration of bpV(phen). Iontophoretic transport was not related to total applied charge, as steady-state flux was equivalent for current durations ranging from 15 minutes to 9 hours. We hypothesized that the unexpectedly large transport after just 15 minutes of current was caused by an increase in passive penetration of bpV(phen) induced by iontophoresis. Iontophoretic pretreatment with the chelating agent 1,10 phenanthroline increased passive penetration of bpV(phen), whereas neither the nonchelating isomer 1,7 phenanthroline nor the less potent chelator EDTA were effective. The use of 1,10 phenanthroline as a penetration enhancer for other chemicals was examined with the amino acids alanine and leucine. Fifteen minutes of 1,10 phenanthroline iontophoresis enhances alanine transport 11.4-fold over passive, whereas the 1,7 phenanthroline increased transport by a factor of 4.6 and the iontophoretic control of ethanol by 1.9. Surprisingly, phenanthroline did not enhance 3H leucine penetration. The reasons for this selectivity are not clear and warrent further investigation. Overall, the data suggest that chelating agents, specifically 1,10 phenanthroline, may be used as penetration enhancers for the delivery of certain compounds.
doi:10.1208/ps020435
PMCID: PMC2751285  PMID: 11741251
Transdermal; Skin; Iontophoresis; Vanadium; Diabetes
19.  Effect of chloroquine on phagolysosomal fusion in cultured guinea pig alveolar macrophages: Implications in drug delivery 
AAPS PharmSci  2000;2(4):12-18.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chloroquine on phagolysosomal fusion (PLF) in cultured guinea pig alveolar macrophages (AMs). This technique may be of significance for antitubercular drugs, because the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is linked to evasion of PLF. Guinea pig AMs were obtained from anesthetized animals after exsanguination. The AMs were cultured at a density of 1×106 cell/mL in 24-well plates after attachment to 13-mm coverslips. Culture conditions were at 37°C, with 95% air/5% CO2 in Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) 1640 medium with 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum. Rhodamine-dextran (70 kd) was incubated with the cells at 0.25 mg/mL for 24 hours to label the lysosomes. Chloroquine treatment where indicated was performed at 10–20 μ g/mL for 1 hour. Fluorescent BioParticles were then added, and PLF was monitored by formation of an organge-yellow fluorescence on fusion of green fluorescent BioParticles with rhodamine-labeled lysosomes. PLF endpoints were measured by scoring for the percentage of orange-yellow cells in the field of view. Image analysis to measure the intensity of the orange-yellow color was performed by obtaining a, b values for 5×5 pixel areas using the Photo Adobe program 4.0.1.
The results indicated that the rate of PLF was enhanced by chloroquine. Thus, chloroquine may be used to potentiate the effects of rifampicin. This may be confirmed by studies involving similar dual fluorophore labeling techniques of fluorescein-labeled formulation in macrophages infected with M. tuberculosis. Preliminary studies with the rhodamine-labeled formulation confirmed cellular uptake and persistence for up to 7 days in culture.
doi:10.1208/ps020434
PMCID: PMC2751284  PMID: 11741250
20.  CYP2D6 Genotyping as an alternative to phenotyping for determination of metabolic status in a clinical trial setting 
AAPS PharmSci  2000;2(4):1-11.
The emerging application of pharmacogenomics in the clinical trial setting requires careful comparison with more traditional phenotyping methodologies, particularly in the drug metabolism area where phenotyping is used extensively. The research objectives of this study were 1) to assess the utility of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) genotyping as an alternative to traditional phenotyping as a predictor of poor metabolizer status; 2) to identify issues for consideration when implementing CYP2D6 genotyping in clinical trials; and 3) to outline the advantages and disadvantages of CYP2D6 genotyping compared with phenotyping. DNA samples obtained from 558 previously phenotyped individuals were blindly genotyped at the CYP2D6 locus, and the genotype-phenotype correlation was then determined. The CYP2D6 genotyping methodology successfully predicted all but 1 of the 46 poor metabolizer subjects, and it was determined that this 1 individual had a novel (presumably inactive) mutation within the coding region. In addition, we identified 2 subjects with CYP2D6 genotypes indicative of poor metabolizers who had extensive metabolizer phenotypes as determined by dextromethorphan/dextrorphan ratios. This finding suggests that traditional phenotyping methods do not always offer 100% specificity. Our results suggest that CYP2D6 genotyping is a valid alternative to traditional phenotyping in a clinical trial setting, and in some cases may be better. We also discuss some of the issues and considerations related to the use of genotyping in clinical trials and medical practice.
doi:10.1208/ps020433
PMCID: PMC2751283  PMID: 11741249
Cytochrome P450 2D6; Pharmacogenomics; Drug Metabolism; Genotyping
21.  Assessing the cost-effectiveness of pharmacogenomics 
AAPS PharmSci  2000;2(3):80-90.
The use of pharmacogenomics to individualize drug therapy offers the potential to improve drug effectiveness, reduce adverse side effects, and provide cost-effective pharmaceutical care. However, the combinations of disease, drug, and genetic test characteristics that will provide clinically useful and economically feasible therapeutic interventions have not been clearly elucidated. The purpose of this paper was to develop a framework for evaluating the potential cost-effectiveness of pharmacogenomic strategies that will help scientists better understand the strategic implications of their research assist in the design of clinical trials, and provide a guide for health care providers making reimbursement decisions. We reviewed concepts of cost-effectiveness analysis and pharmacogenomics and identified 5 primary characteristics that will enhance the cost-effectiveness of pharmacogenomics: 1) there are severe clinical or economic consequence that are avoided through the use of pharmacogenomics, 2) monitoring drug response using current methods is difficult, 3) a well-established association between genotype and clinical phenotype exists, 4) there is a rapid and relatively inexpensive genetic test, and 5) the variant gene is relatively common. We use this framework to evaluate several examples of pharmacogenomics. We found that pharmacogenomics offers great potential to improve patients' health in a cost-effective manner. However, pharmacogenomics will not be applied to all currently marketed drugs, and careful evaluations are needed on a case-by-case basis before investing resources in research and development of pharmacogenomic-based therapeutics and making reimbursement decisions.
doi:10.1208/ps020329
PMCID: PMC2761139  PMID: 11741245
22.  Conditionally immortalized brain capillary endothelial cell lines established from a transgenic mouse harboring temperature-sensitive simian virus 40 large T-antigen gene 
AAPS PharmSci  2000;2(3):69-79.
Five immortalized brain capillary endothelial cell lines (TM-BBB1-5) were established from 3 transgenic mice harboring temperature-sensitive simian virus 40 large T-antigen gene (Tg mouse). These cell lines expressed active large T-antigen and grew well at 33°C with a doubling time of about 20 to 30 hours. TM-BBBs also grew at 37°C but not at 39°C. However, growth was restored when the temperature of the culture was lowered to 33°C Although significant amounts of large T-antigen were shown to be present in the cell culture at 33°C, there was less of this complex at 37°C and 39°C. TM-BBBs expressed the typical endothelial marker, von Willberand factor and exhibited acetylated lowdensity lipoprotein uptake activity. The alkaline phosphatase and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase activity in TM-BBBs were −10% and 50% to 80% of brain capillary fraction of normal mice, respectively. D-Mannitol transport in the both apical-to-basal and basal-to-apical directions across the TM-BBB was 2-fold greater than for inulin. TM-BBBs were found to express GLUT-1 but not GLUT-3, and exhibited concentration-dependent 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3-OMG) uptake activity with a Michaelis-Menten constant of 6.59±1.16 mmol/1. Moreover, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) with a molecular weight of −170 kDa was expressed in all TM-BBBs. Both mdr 1a and mdr 1b mRNA were detected in TM-BBB4 using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. [3H]-Cyclosporin A uptake by TM-BBB was significantly increased in the presence of 100 μmol/1 verapamil and vincristine, suggesting that TM-BBB exhibits efflux transport activity via P-gp In conclusion, conditional brain capillary endothelial cell lines were established from Tg mice. This cell line expresses endothelial markers and transporters at the BBB and is able to regulate cell growth, due to the amount of active large T-antigen in the cell, by changing the culture temperature.
doi:10.1208/ps020328
PMCID: PMC2761138  PMID: 11741243
Blood-Brain Barrier; Temperature-Dependent Cell Growth; Mouse Brain Capillary Endothelial Cell Line; P-glycoprotein; GLUT-1
23.  Aerosol delivery of muramyl dipeptide to rodent lungs 
AAPS PharmSci  2000;2(3):53-61.
Tuberculosis is the single most serious infectious disease worldwide. The respiratory tract is the primary site of infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). A number of immunogenic components of the cell wall of MTB, if delivered to the lungs as aerosols, can be used to study the local immune response. The site of deposition of these aerosols can be employed to control their residence time in the lungs. Muramyl dipeptide (MDP) aerosols were delivered to alveolar macrophages in the lungs of rodents. Guinea pig macrophages harvested by bronchoalveolar lavage were examined by differential interference contrast microscopy for morphological changes indicative of activation. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was analyzed for the presence of alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG), and total protein content. Rat alveolar macrophages were studied for the production of nitric oxide, by induction of nitric oxide synthase. Twenty-four hours following exposure to an aerosol of MDP, alveolar macrophages exhibited morphological characterstics (spreading and pseudopodia), enzyme activity (NAG 50% above control), and production of the reactive intermediate nitric oxide. Rat macrophages subjected to aerosol exposure to MDP when challenged with a second dose of MDP or lipopolysaccharide exhibited a linear dose response as measured by nitric oxide production. These studies indicate that the topical delivery of an MTB bacterial cell wall component. muramyl dipeptide, results in activation of alveolar macrophages. This approach may be useful in elucidating elements of the immune response to MTB.
doi:10.1208/ps020325
PMCID: PMC2761136  PMID: 11741241
Aerosols; Muramyl Dipeptide; Alveolar Macrophages
24.  Direct pelletization in a rotary processor controlled by torque measurements. II: Effects of changes in the content of microcrystalline cellulose 
AAPS PharmSci  2000;2(3):45-52.
In the present study we investigated the effect of changes in the content of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) on a direct pelletization process in a rotary processor in which the liquid addition was terminated once a certain increase in torque was produced. Nine different mixtures of MCC and lactose with MCC contents varying from 10% to 100% (w/w) were pelletized using 6 different torque increase levels, and the changes in pellet characteristics were investigated. The pellet characteristics investigated were pellet shape, size, and size distribution as well as the water content of the pellets at the end of liquid addition. To produce spherical agglomerates with suitable characteristics in a reproducible way, a content of a least 20% (w/w) MCC was found necessary. Linear correlations were found between the MCC content and the water content and between the torque incraase and the water content, showing that the torque increase is suitable to control the process. A higher torque increase or a higher MCC content was found to increase the water content independently of each other.
doi:10.1208/ps020324
PMCID: PMC2761135  PMID: 11741240
25.  Human membrane transporter database: A web-accessible relational database for drug transport studies and pharmacogenomics 
AAPS PharmSci  2000;2(3):11-17.
The human genome contains numerous genes that encode membrane transporters and related proteins. For drug discovery, development, and targeting, one needs to know which transporters play a role in drug disposition and effects. Moreover, genetic polymorphisms in human membrane transporters may contribute to interindividual differences in the response to drugs. Pharmacogenetics, and, on a genome-wide basis, pharmacogenomics, address the effect of genetic variants on an individual's response to drugs and xenobiotics. However, our knowledge of the relevant transporters is limited at present. To facilitate the study of drug transporters on a broad scale, including the use of microarray technology, we have constructed a human membrane transporter database (HMTD). Even though it is still largely incomplete, the database contains information on more than 250 human membrane transporters, such as sequence, gene family, structure, function, substrate, tissue distribution, and genetic disorders associated with transporter polymorphisms. Readers are invited to submit additional data. Implemented as a relational database, HMTD supports complex biological queries. Accessible through a Web browser user interface via Common Gateway Interface (CGI) and Java Database Connection (JDBC) (http://128.218.208.23/transporter/trans.html),
HMTD also provides useful links and references, allowing interactive searching and downloading of data. Taking advantage of the features of an electronic journal, this paper serves as an interactive tutorial for using the database, which we expect to develop into a research tool.
doi:10.1208/ps020320
PMCID: PMC2761131  PMID: 11741236

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