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1.  Comparative evaluation of tableting compression behaviors by methods of internal and external lubricant addition: Inhibition of enzymatic activity of trypsin preparation by using external lubricant addition during the tableting compression process 
AAPS PharmSci  2001;3(3):32-42.
This study evaluated tableting compression by using internal and external lubricant addition. The effect of lubricant addition on the enzymatic activity of trypsin, which was used as a model drug during the tableting compression process, was also investigated. The powder mixture (2% crystalline trypsin, 58% crystalline lactose, and 40% microcrystalline cellulose) was kneaded with 5% hydroxypropyl cellulose aqueous solution and then granulated using an extruding granulator equipped with a 0.5-mm mesh screen at 20 rpm. After drying, the sample granules were passed through a 10-mesh screen (1680 μm). A 200-mg sample was compressed by using 8-mm punches and dies at 49, 98, 196, or 388 MPa (Mega Pascal) at a speed of 25 mm/min. The external lubricant compression was performed using granules without lubricant in the punches and dies. The granules were already dry coated by the lubricant. In contrast, the internal lubricant compression was performed using sample granules (without dry coating) containing 0.5% lubricant. At 98 MPa, for example, the compression level using the external lubricant addition method was about 13% higher than that for internal addition. The significantly higher compressing energy was also observed at other MPas. By comparison, the friction energy for the external addition method calculated based on upper and lower compression forces was only slightly larger. The hardness of tablets prepared using the internal addition method was 34% to 48% lower than that for the external addition method. The total pore volume of the tablet prepared using the external addition method was significantly higher. The maximum ejection pressure using the no-addition method (ie, the tablet was prepared using neither dry-coated granules nor added lubricant) was significantly higher than that of other addition methods. The order was as follows: no addition, external addition, and then internal addition. The ejection energy (EE) for internal addition was the lowest; for no addition, EE was the highest. In the dissolution test, the tablets obtained using external addition immediately disintegrated and showed faster drug release than those prepared using internal addition. This result occurred because the water penetration rate of the tablet using the external addition was much higher. The trypsin activity in tablets prepared using the external addition method was significantly higher than that produced using the internal addition method at the same pressure. All these results suggest that the external addition method might produce a fast-dissolution tablet. Because the drug will be compressed using low pressure only, an unstable bulk drug may be tableted without losing potency.
doi:10.1208/ps030320
PMCID: PMC2751015  PMID: 11741271
Tableting; Trypsin; Preparation; Compression; Dissolution
2.  Allometric scaling of xenobiotic clearance: Uncertainty versus universality 
AAPS PharmSci  2001;3(4):30-43.
Statistical analysis and Monte Carlo simulation were used to characterize uncertainty in the allometric exponent (b) of xenobiotic clearance (CL). CL values for 115 xenobiotics were from published studies in which at least 3 species were used for the purpose of interspecies comparison of pharmacokinetics. The b value for each xenobiotic was calculated along with its confidence interval (CI). For 24 xenobiotics (21%), there was no correlation between log CL and log body weight. For the other 91 cases, the mean±standard deviation of the b values was 0.74±0.16; range: 0.29 to 1.2. Most (81%) of these individual b values did not differ from either 0.67 or 0.75 at P=0.05. When CL values for the subset of 91 substances were normalized to a common body weight coefficient (a), the b value for the 460 adjusted CL values was 0.74; the 99% CI was 0.71 to 0.76, which excluded 0.67. Monte Carlo simulation indicated that the wide range of observed b values could have resulted from random variability in CL values determined in a limited number of species, even though the underlying b value was 0.75. From the normalized CL values, 4 xenobiotic subgroups were examined: those that were (i) protein, and those that were (ii) eliminated mainly by renal excretion, (iii) by metabolism, or (iv) by renal excretion and metabolism combined. All subgroups except (ii) showed a b value not different from 0.75. The b value for the renal excretion subgroup (21 xenobiotics, 105 CL values) was 0.65, which differed from 0.75 but not from 0.67.
doi:10.1208/ps030429
PMCID: PMC2751218  PMID: 12049492
allometric scaling; body-weight exponent; clearance; metabolism; metabolic rate; pharmacokinetics; Monte Carlo simulation; power law
3.  pH-Dependent dissolving nano- and microparticles for improved peroral delivery of a highly lipophilic compound in dogs 
AAPS PharmSci  2001;3(1):92-99.
RR01, a new highly lipophilic drug showing extremely low water solubility and poor oral bioavailability, has been incorporated into pH-dependent dissolving particles made of a poly(methacrylic acid-co-ethylacrylate) copolymer. The physicochemical properties of the particles were determined using laser-light-scattering techniques, scanning electron microscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography, and x-ray powder diffraction. Suspension of the free drug in a solution of hydroxypropylcellulose (reference formulation) and aqueous dispersions of pH-sensitive RR01-loaded nanoparticles or microparticles were administered orally to Beagle dogs according to a 2-block Latin square design (n =6). Plasma samples were obtained over the course of 48 hours and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The administration of the reference formulation resulted in a particularly high interindividual variability of pharmacokinetic parameters, with low exposure to compound RR01 (AUC0–48h of 6.5 μg.h/mL and coefficient of variation (CV) of 116%) and much higher Tmax, as compared to both pH-sensitive formulations. With respect to exposure and interindividual variability, nanoparticles were superior to microparticles (AUC0–48h of 27.1 μg.h/mL versus 17.7 μg.h/mL with CV of 19% and 40%, respectively), indicating that the particle size may play an important role in the absorption of compound RR01. The performance of pH-sensitive particles is attributed to their ability to release the drug selectively in the upper part of the intestine in a molecular or amorphous form. In conclusion, pH-dependent dissolving particles have a great potential as oral delivery systems for drugs with low water solubility and acceptable permeation properties.
doi:10.1208/ps030108
PMCID: PMC2751240  PMID: 11741259
Nanoparticles; Microparticles; Oral Administration; Poor Water Solubility; pH-Sensitive Polymer
4.  Estimation of capping incidence by indentation fracture tests 
AAPS PharmSci  2001;3(1):54-65.
The purpose of this study was to predict the capping tendencies of pharmaceutical powders by creating indentation fracture on compacts. Three sets of binary mixtures containing different concentrations of each ingredient were used in the study. The binary mixtures were chosen to represent plastic-plastic, plastic-brittle, and brittle-brittle combination of materials. The mixtures were tableted at different pressures and speeds on Prester®, a tablet press simulator. These mixtures were also compacted on the Instron® Universal Testing Machine 4502. Static indentation tests were done on these compacts at different depths until surface cracking and chipping were observed. The extent of surface cracking and chipping was observed from light microscope and scanning electron microscope images. A rank order correlation was observed between lamination susceptibility and the depth at which indentation failure occurred. It was concluded that indentation fracture tests could provide a useful estimate of lamination properties of pharmaceutical powders.
doi:10.1208/ps030105
PMCID: PMC2751237  PMID: 11741256
Indentation Fracture; Capping
5.  Influence of drug release properties of conventional solid dosage forms on the systemic exposure of highly soluble drugs 
AAPS PharmSci  2001;3(3):86-92.
This study was designed to theoretically investigate the influence of drug release properties, characterized by the disintegration of a solid dosage form and dissolution of drug particles, on the systemic exposure of highly soluble drugs in immediate release products. An absorption model was developed by considering disintegration of a solid dosage form, dissolution of drug particles, gastrointestinal transit flow, and intestinal absorption processes. The absorption model was linked to a conventional pharmacokinetic model to evaluate the effect of disintegration and dissolution on the peak exposure (Cmax) and total exposure of area under the curve (AUC). Numerical methods were used to solve the model equations. The simulations show that the effect of disintegration of a dosage form and dissolution of drug particles depend on the permeability of a drug, with a low-permeability drug having a greater effect. To provide similar exposure to an oral solution formulation, a solid dosage form containing a low-permeability drug would need to dissolve more rapidly than a solid dosage form containing a high-permeability drug. It was shown theoretically for poorly permeable drugs that the disintegration rate constant has to be greater than 9 hour−1 (equivalent to approximately 90% in 30 minutes) to make both AUC and Cmax ratios higher than .9, ensuring the confidence interval of .80 to 1.25. The rapid in vitro release requirement of at least 85% dissolved in 30 minutes is sufficient for highly soluble and highly permeable drugs. However, for highly soluble and poorly permeable drugs, the appropriate in vitro release requirement seems to be 90% dissolved in 30 minutes.
doi:10.1208/ps030324
PMCID: PMC2751019  PMID: 11741275
Small intestinal transit; dissolution; disintegration; absorption modeling; bioequivalence
6.  Low molecular weight protamine as nontoxic heparin/low molecular weight heparin antidote (III): Preliminary in vivo evaluation of efficacy and toxicity using a canine model 
AAPS PharmSci  2001;3(3):24-31.
Heparin employed in cardiovascular surgeries often leads to a high incidence of bleeding complications. Protamine employed in heparin reversal, however, can cause severe adverse reactions. In an attempt to address this clinical problem, we developed low molecular weight protamine (LMWP) as a potentially effective and less toxic heparin antagonist. A homogeneous 1880-d peptide fragment, termed LMWP-TDSP5 and containing the amino acid sequence of VSRRRRRRGGRRRR was derived directly from protamine by enzymatic digestion of protamine with thermolysin. In vitro studies demonstrated that TDSP5 was capable of neutralizing various anticoagulant functions of both heparin and commercial low molecular weight heparin preparations. In addition, TDSP5 exhibited significantly reduced crossreactivity toward mouse sera containing antiprotamine antibodies. TDSP5 showed a decrease in its potential in activating the complement system. All of these findings suggested the possibility of markedly reduced protamine toxicity for TDSP5.
In this article, we conducted preliminary in vivo studies to further demonstrate the feasibility and utility of using LMWP as a nontoxic clinical protamine substitute. Dogs were chosen as test animals because they were known to magnify the typical human response to protamine. By using a full spectra of biological and clinical assays for heparin, including the anti-IIa and anti-Xa chromogenic assays and the activated partial, thromboplastin time and TCT clotting assays, TDSP5 showed that it could completely neutralize all these different anticoagulant functions of heparin in dogs. Although administration of protamine in dogs produced a significant reduction in mean arterial blood pressure (−14.9 mm Hg) and elevation in pulmonary artery systolic pressure (+5.0 mm Hg), the use of TDSP5 in dogs did not elicit any statistically significant change in any of the variables measured. Furthermore, the use of LMWP also significantly reduced the protamine-induced transient thrombocytopenic and granulocytopenic responses. The white blood cell counts and platelet counts decreased to 82.1% and 60.0% of baseline, respectively, in dogs given intravenous protamine compared to 97.8% and 88.6% of baseline in dogs receiving TDSP5. These preliminary findings indicated that LMWP could potentially provide an effective and safe means to control both heparin- and protamine-induced complications.
doi:10.1208/ps030319
PMCID: PMC2751014  PMID: 11741270
Heparin Neutralization; Protamine Toxicity; aPTT/TCT Heparin Clotting Assays; Anti-IIa Anti-Xa Chromogenic Assays; Hemodynamic/Hematologic Responses
7.  Application of confocal laser scanning microscopy in characterization of chemical enhancers in drug-in-adhesive transdermal patches 
AAPS PharmSci  2001;4(1):11-18.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the application of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) in the examination of the embedment and the release characteristics of chemical permeation enhancers from transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDSs) of the “drug-in-adhesive” type. The enhancer lauric acid and a lauric acid fluorescing probe of the Bodipy type were incorporated into TDDSs consisting of an acrylic, a polyisobutylene, or a silicone polymer adhesive. Three-dimensional confocal images of the distribution were obtained before and during release into an aqueous medium. The images showed that the lauric acid fluorescing probe was homogeneously embedded in all the adhesives except for 1 polyisobutylene. The release profiles and release rate constants of the lauric acid fluorescing probe were consistent with data from a release study of lauric acid performed using conventional measurements of the released amounts. This indicated that lauric acid was distributed in a homogeneous manner. Furthermore, it was possible to illustrate the mechanics of the diffusion process inside the TDDS and compare these patterns with theoretically drawn profiles, based on Ficks law of diffusion. CLSM was demonstrated to be an excellent tool to study how enhancers are incorporated and diffuse into a TDDS.
doi:10.1208/ps040103
PMCID: PMC2751288  PMID: 12049487
confocal laser scanning; microscopy; chemical enhancers; diffusion; drug-in-adhesive patches; release mechanism
8.  Maltodextrin-based proniosomes 
AAPS PharmSci  2001;3(1):1-8.
Niosomes are nonionic surfactant vesicles that have potential applications in the delivery of hydrophobic or amphiphilic drugs. Our lab developed proniosomes, a dry formulation using a sorbitol carrier coated with nonionic surfactant, which can be used to produce niosomes within minutes by the addition of hot water followed by agitation. The sorbitol carrier in the original proniosomes was soluble in the solvent used to deposit surfactant, so preparation was tedious and the dissolved sorbitol interfered with the encapsulation of one model drug. A novel method is reported here for rapid preparation of proniosomes with a wide range of surfactant loading. A slurry method has been developed to produce proniosomes using maltodextrin as the carrier. The time required to produce proniosomes by this simple method is independent of the ratio of surfactant solution to carrier material and appears to be scalable. The flexibility of the proniosome preparation method would allow for the optimization of drug encapsulation in the final formulation based on the type and amount of maltodextrin. This formulation of proniosomes is a practical and simple method of producing niosomes at the point of use for drug delivery.
doi:10.1208/ps030101
PMCID: PMC2751233  PMID: 11741252
Niosomes; Proniosomes; Maltodextrin; Slurry method
9.  Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the human M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor gene 
AAPS PharmSci  2001;3(4):57-61.
The gene encoding the human muscarinic receptor, type 1 (CHRM1), was genotyped from 245 samples of the Coriell Collection (Coriell Institute for Medical Research, Camden, NJ). Fifteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were discovered, 9 of which are located in the coding region of the receptor. Of these, 8 represent synonymous SNPs, indicating that CHRM1 is highly conserved in humans. Only a single allele was found to contain a nonsynonymous SNP, which encodes an amino acid change of Cys to Arg at position 417. This may have functional consequences because a C417S point mutation in rat M1 was previously shown to affect receptor binding and coupling. Furthermore, 0 of 4 SNPs within CHRM1 previously deduced from sequencing of the human genome were found in this study despite a prediction that a majority of such inferred SNPs are accurate. The consensus sequence of CHRM1 obtained in our study differs from the deposited reference sequence (AC NM_000738) in 2 adjacent nucleotides, leading to a V173M change, suggesting a sequencing error in the reference sequence. The extraordinary sequence conservation of the CHRM1 gene-coding region was unexpected as M1-knockout mice show only minimal functional impairments.
doi:10.1208/ps030431
PMCID: PMC2751220  PMID: 12049494
pharmacogenetics; muscarinic acetylcholine; receptor; single nucleotide polymorphism; G protein coupled receptor; CHRM1
10.  Time-and concentration-dependent penetration of doxorubicin in prostate tumors 
AAPS PharmSci  2001;3(2):69-77.
The penetration of paclitaxel into multilayered solid tumors is time- and concentration-dependent, a result of the drug-induced apoptosis and changes in tissue composition. This study evaluates whether this tissue penetration property applies to other highly protein-bound drugs capable of inducing apoptosis. The penetration of doxorubicin was studied in histocultures of prostate xenograft tumors and tumor specimens obtained from patients who underwent radical prostatectomy. The kinetics of drug uptake and efflux in whole tumor histocultures were studied by analyzing the average tumor drug concentration using high-pressure liquid chromatography. Spatial drug distribution in tumors and the drug concentration gradient across the tumors were studied using fluorescence microscopy. The results indicate that drug penetration was limited to the periphery for 12 hours in patient tumors and to 24 hours in the more densely packed xenograft tumors. Subsequently, the rate of drug penetration to the deeper tumor tissue increased abruptly in tumors treated with higher drug concentrations capable of inducing apoptosis (i.e., >5 μm), but not in tumors treated with lower concentrations. These findings indicate a time- and concentration-dependent penetration of doxorubicin in solid tumors, similar to that of paclitaxel. We conclude that doxorubicin penetration in solid tumors is time- and concentration-dependent and is enhanced by drug-induced cell death.
doi:10.1208/ps030215
PMCID: PMC2779556  PMID: 11741266
Doxorubicin; Delivery; Apoptosis; Solid Tumor
11.  Visualization of the lipid barrier and measurement of lipid pathlength in human stratum corneum 
AAPS PharmSci  2001;3(2):48-56.
Detailed models of solute transport through the stratum corneum (SC) require an interpretation of apparent bulk diffusion coefficients in terms of microscopic transport properties. Modern microscopy techniques provide a tool for evaluating one key property—lipid pathway tortuosity—in more detail than previously possible. Microscopic lipid pathway measurements on alkali expanded human SC stained with the lipid-soluble dyes methylene blue, Nile red, and oil red O are described. Brightfield, differential interference contrast, fluorescence, and laser scanning confocal optics were employed to obtain 2-dimensional (2-D) and 3-dimensional (3-D) images. The 2-D techniques clearly outlined the corneocytes. Confocal microscopy using Nile red yielded a well-delineated 3-D structure of expanded SC. Quantitative assessment of the 2-D images from a small number of expanded SC samples led to an average value of 3.7 for the ratio of the shortest lipid-continuous pathway to the width of the membrane. This was corrected for the effect of alkaline expansion to arrive at an average value of 12.7 for the same ratio prior to swelling.
doi:10.1208/ps030213
PMCID: PMC2779554  PMID: 11741264
Stratum Corneum; Alkaline Expansion; Microscopy; Lipid Pathlength; Tortuosity
12.  Preparation and characterization of gelatin surface modified PLGA microspheres 
AAPS PharmSci  2001;3(2):14-24.
This study optimized conditions for preparing and characterizing gelatin surface modified poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) copolymer microspheres and determined this systems interaction with fibronectin. Some gelatin microspheres have an affinity for fibronectin-bearing surfaces; these miscrospheres exploit the interaction between gelatin and fibronectin. PLGA copolymer microspheres were selected because they have reproducible and slowrelease characteristics in vivo. The PLGA microspheres were surface modified with gelatin to impart fibronectin recognition. Dexamethasone was incorporated into these microspheres because dexamethasone is beneficial in chronic human diseases associated with extra fibronectin expression (eg, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory disorders, rheumatoid arthritis). The gelatin surface modified PLGA microspheres (prepared by adsorption, conjugation, and spray coating) were investigated and characterized by encapsulation efficiency, particle size, in vitro release, and affinity for fibronectin. The gelatincoated PLGA microspheres had higher interaction with fibronectin compared with the other gelatin surface modified PLGA microspheres (adsorption and conjugation). Dexamethasone was released slowly (over 21 days) from gelatin surface modified PLGA microspheres.
doi:10.1208/ps030211
PMCID: PMC2779555  PMID: 11741261
Microspheres; Surface Modification; Gelatin; Fibronectin; PLGA; Dexamethasone
13.  Spatial expression patterns of peptide transporters in the human and rat gastrointestinal tracts, Caco-2 In Vitro cell culture model, and multiple human tissues 
AAPS PharmSci  2001;3(1):100-111.
This study sought to identify the spatial patterns of expression of peptide transporter 1 (PepT1), peptide transporter 3 (PTR3), peptide/histidine transporter 1 (PHT1), and the human peptide transporter 1 (HPT-1) mRNA in complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries of the human and rat gastrointestinal tracts (GIT), Caco-2 in vitro cell culture model, and in a human multiple tissue panel. Human PTR3 and PHT1 are putative peptide transporters recently discovered. Using sequence-specific primers designed to amplify regions of PepT1, PTR3, PHT1, and HPT-1, we were able to identify the expression of mRNA for each of these transporters in human cDNA panels (Clontech, Palo Alto, CA), the rat GIT, and in Caco-2 cDNA libraries by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern Blot analysis. These studies suggest that in the human GIT, PepT1 appears to be localized predominantly in the duodenum, with decreasing expression in the jejunum and ileum. In contrast, PTR3 and HPT-1 were widely expressed in the human GIT, with predominant expression in the different regions of the colon. PHT1 appeared to be expressed in low levels throughout the human GI tract. Interestingly, the mRNAs for all 4 peptide transporters were expressed in Caco-2 cells throughout 30 days of culture. PepT1, PTR3, PHT1, and HPT-1 were also widely expressed in the rat GIT. Human tissue cDNA panel screening suggests that PTR3 and PHT1 are more uniformly expressed, whereas PepT1 and HPT-1 demonstrated site-specific expression. These results suggest that PepT1, PTR3, PHT1, and HPT-1 all may act to facilitate the diffusion of peptides and peptide-based pharmaceuticals in the GIT, PTR3, PHT1, and HPT-1 expressions in Caco-2 cell monolayers strongly suggest that their function needs to be further elucidated and their contribution to peptide transport not ignored. Taken together, these results demonstrate the potential for molecular biological characterization in localizing active transporter systems that can potentially be targeted for enhancing the absorption of peptide-based pharmaceuticals.
doi:10.1208/ps030109
PMCID: PMC2751241  PMID: 11741260
Peptide Transport; PepT1; PTR3; PHT1; HPT-1; GI Tract; Human Digestive cDNA Panel; Human Tissue cDNA Panel; Caco-2 Cells
14.  Physical chemical stability of warfarin sodium 
AAPS PharmSci  2001;3(1):18-25.
Crystalline warfarin sodium is an isopropanol clathrate containing 8.3% isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and 0.57% water upon receipt. The hygroscopicity and impact of moisture on IPA status as well as on the stability of the clathrate was studied at different relative humidities. The IPA loss and water uptake were simultaneous but they did not exchange at 1:1 molar ratio. At 58% relative humidity (RH) or below, the exchange process was insignificant. At 68% RH or above, the clathrate tended to lose IPA while absorbing water and reverting to the amorphous state. The rate of IPA loss and moisture uptake was a function of RH. The thermal stability of the crystalline warfarin sodium was also examined. Physical change occurred after isothermal storage for 24 hours at 80°C and 11 hours at 120°C. The rate of IPA loss was temperature dependent.
doi:10.1208/ps030103
PMCID: PMC2751235  PMID: 11741254
warfarin sodium; isopropyl alcohol; clathrate; amorphous; crystallinity; physical stability; thermal stability
15.  Delivery of antibiotics to the eye using a positively charged polysaccharide as vehicle 
AAPS PharmSci  2001;3(4):87-93.
The positively charged polysaccharide chitosan is able to increase precorneal residence time of ophthalmic formulations containing active compounds when compared with simple aqueous solutions. The purpose of the study was to evaluate tear concentration of tobramycin and ofloxacin after topical application of chitosan-based formulations containing 0.3% wt/vol of antibiotic and to compare them with 2 commercial solutions: Tobrex® and Floxal®, respectively. The influence of the molecular weight, deacetylation degree, and concentration of 4 different samples of chitosan on pharmacokinetic parameters (area under the curve values [AUCeff] and time of efficacy [teff]) of tobramycin and ofloxacin in tears was investigated over time. It was demonstrated that the 2 chitosan products of high molecular weight (1350 and 1930 kd) and low deacetylation degree (50%) significantly increased antibiotic availability when compared to the controls, with AUCeff showing a 2-to 3-fold improvement. The time of efficacy of ofloxacin was significantly increased from about 25 minutes to 46 minutes by the chitosan of higher Mw (1930 kd) at a concentration of 0.5% wt/vol, whereas a similar performance was achieved by a chitosan of low Mw (580 kd) at a concentration of 1.5% wt/vol in the case of tobramycin.
doi:10.1208/ps030434
PMCID: PMC2751223  PMID: 12066799
Chitosan; hydrogel; ophthalmic application; antibiotic; pharmacokinetics
16.  A national survey of U.S. pharmacists in 2000: Assessing nonresponse bias of a survey methodology 
AAPS PharmSci  2001;3(4):76-86.
The first objective of this study was to assess the existence of nonresponse bias to a national survey of licensed pharmacists conducted in 2000. Three methods were used to assess nonresponse bias. The second objective of the study was to examine reasons why sampled licensed pharmacists did not respond to the national survey of licensed pharmacists. We used data from 2204 respondents to a national survey of pharmacists and from 521 respondents to a survey of nonrespondents to the national survey. We made comparisons between respondents for 5 variables: employment status, gender, age, highest academic degree, and year of initial licensure. Chi-square tests were used to examine differences in the 5 variables between respondents to the first mailing and second mailing of the survey, early and late respondents to the survey, and respondents to the survey and respondents to the nonrespondent survey. There were no significant differences between first mailing and second mailing respondents, but there were differences in each variable except year of licensure between early and late respondents. These differences likely were due to regional bias possibly related to differences in mailing times. There were differences between respondents and nonrespondents in terms of employment status and year of licensure. The main reasons for not responding to the survey were that it was too long or that it was too intrusive. Overall, the survey methodology resulted in a valid sample of licensed pharmacists. Nonresponse bias should be assessed by surveying nonrespondents. Future surveys of pharmacists should consider the length of the survey and the address where it is sent.
doi:10.1208/ps030433
PMCID: PMC2751222  PMID: 12049496
Pharmacy Workforce; Survey Methods; Nonresponse Bias
17.  The cytoplasmic escape and nuclear accumulation of endocytosed and microinjected HPMA copolymers and a basic kinetic study in hep G2 cells 
AAPS PharmSci  2001;3(4):62-75.
The development of macromolecules as drugs and drug carriers requires knowledge of their fate in cells. To this end, we studied the internalization and subcellular fate of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymers in Hep G2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma) cells. Semiquantitative fluorometry confirmed that galactose was an effective ligand for receptor-mediated endocytosis for Hep G2 cells. The rate of internalization of a galactose-targeted copolymer was almost 2 orders of magnitude larger than that of the nontargeted copolymer. Confocal fluorescent microscopy of both fixed and live cells revealed that the polymer entered the cells by endocytosis. After longer incubation times (typically >8 hours), polymer escaped from small vesicles and distributed throughout the cytoplasm and nuclei of the cells. Polymer that entered the cytoplasm tended to accumulate in the nucleus. Microinjection of the HPMA copolymers into cells' cytoplasm and nuclei indicated that the polymers partitioned to the nucleus. The data from fixed cells was confirmed by microscopy of live, viable cells. To examine the effect of the fluorescent dye on the intracellular fate, polymers with fluorescein, Oregon Green 488, Lissamine rhodamine B, and doxorubicin were tested; no significant differences were observed.
doi:10.1208/ps030432
PMCID: PMC2751221  PMID: 12049495
HPMA copolymer; subcellular trafficking; endocytosis; microinjection; confocal fluorescent microscopy
18.  Receptor binding studies of soft anticholinergic agents 
AAPS PharmSci  2001;3(4):44-56.
Receptor binding studies were performed on 24 soft anticholinergic agents and 5 conventional anticholinergic agents using 4 cloned human muscarinic receptor subtypes. The measured pKi values of the soft anticholinergic agents ranged from 6.5 to 9.5, with the majority being in the range of 7.5 to 8.5. Strong correlation was observed between the pKis determined here and the pA2 values measured earlier in guinea pig ileum contraction assays. The corresponding correlation coefficients (r2) were 0.80, 0.73, 0.81, and 0.78 for pKi(m1), pKi(m2), pKi(m3), and pKi(m4), respectively. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies were also performed, and good characterization could be obtained for the soft anticholinergics containing at least 1 tropine moiety in their structure. For these compounds, the potency as measured by the pKi values was found to be related to geometric, electronic, and lipophilicity descriptors. A linear regression equation using ovality (Oe), dipole moment (D), and a calculated log octanol-water partition coefficient (QLogP) gave reasonably good descriptions (r=0.88) for the pKi(m3) values.
doi:10.1208/ps030430
PMCID: PMC2751219  PMID: 12049493
drug design; soft drugs; receptor binding; metabolism; drug evaluation; muscarinic antagonists
19.  Electronic and resonance effects on the lonization of structural analogues of efavirenz 
AAPS PharmSci  2001;3(4):26-29.
The solubility of 4 analogues of efavirenz was studied as a function of pH. The study evaluated the ionization behavior and determined the relative contribution of electronegative substituents versus resonance effects on the pKa value of the cyclic carbamate. The most profound lowering effect on the pKa was due to the presence of multiple electronegative substituents and in particular the trifluoromethyl and acetylene groups. The presence of chlorine on the benzoxazinone ring was found to have a slight impact on the pKa, although to a lesser extent. In the absence of any functional groups on the benzoxazinone ring system, the pKa shifted to a value of 13.2, which is 3 pH units above that of efavirenz and more closely correlates with typical literature values for cyclic carbamates.
doi:10.1208/ps030428
PMCID: PMC2751217  PMID: 12049491
pKa; Ionization; Benzoxazinone; Carbamate; Solubility; Efavirenz Analogs
20.  Skeletal effects of parathyroid hormone (1–34) in ovariectomized rats with or without concurrent administration of salmon calcitonin 
AAPS PharmSci  2001;3(4):19-25.
This study evaluated the effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH) infusion alone or in combination with salmon calcitonin (sCT) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats and compared it with daily PTH injections alone or in combination with sCT infusion. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into 6 groups and were either bilaterally ovariectomized or underwent a sham operation; they were then treated for 4 weeks, beginning the day after surgery. Each group of OVX rats received either PTH infusion (group 1), PTH+sCT infusion (group 2), sCT infusion+daily PTH injection (group 3), or daily PTH injection (group 4). One group each of OVX (group 5) and sham-operated rats (group 6) received daily injections of vehicle alone. PTH was injected at 80 μg/kg/day and infused at 40 μg/kg/day, whereas sCT was infused at 10 μg/kg/day. The animals were sacrificed 28 days after treatment, and cancellous bone volume was measured in the tibial metaphysis. Similar to daily PTH injections, continuous infusion of PTH alone increased cancellous bone volume significantly over that seen in vehicle-treated OVX and sham-operated rats. Although cancellous bone volume after continuous infusion of PTH+sCT was also significantly higher than that seen in vehicle-treated OVX and sham-operated rats, the increase was significantly lower than with the other 3 nonvehicle treatments. The increase in cancellous bone volume after administration of sCT infusion along with daily PTH injections was not different from that with daily PTH injections alone. Thus, at the doses tested, the beneficial effects of PTH injection were not apparently improved by PTH infusion or by combination with sCT.
doi:10.1208/ps030427
PMCID: PMC2751216  PMID: 12049490
Salmon calcitonin; human parathyroid hormone (1–34); infusion; ovariectomized rats; cancellous bone volume
21.  Selected physical and chemical properties of commercial Hypericum perforatum extracts relevant for formulated product quality and performance 
AAPS PharmSci  2001;3(4):1-18.
Objective. The complex composition-activity relationship of botanicals such as St John's Wort (SJW) presents a major challenge to product development, manufacture, and establishment of appropriate quality and performance standards for the formulated products. As part of a larger study aimed at addressing that challenge, the goals of the present study are to (1) determine and compare the phytochemical profiles of 3 commercial SJW extracts; (2) assess the possible impact of humidity, temperature, and light on their stability; and (3) evaluate several physical properties important to the development of solid dosage forms for these extracts. Methods. An adapted analytical method was developed and validated to determine phytochemical profiles and assess their stability. The extract physical properties measured were particle size (Malvern Mastersizer), flow (Carr's compressibility index; minimum orifice diameter), hygroscopicity (method of Callahan et al), and low-pressure compression physics (method of Heda et al). Results. The phytochemical properties differed greatly among the extracts and were extremely sensitive to changes in storage conditions, with marked instability under conditions of elevated humidity. All extracts exhibited moderate to free-flow properties and were very hygroscopic. Compression properties varied among the extracts and differed from a common use excipient, microcrystalline cellulose. Conclusions. Three commercial sources of SJW extracts exhibited different physical and chemical properties. Standardization to 1 or 2 marker compounds does not ensure chemical equivalence nor necessarily equivalent pharmacological activity. Flow and compression properties appear suitable for automatic capsule-filling machines, but hydroscopicity and the moisture sensitivity of the phytochemical profile are concerns.
doi:10.1208/ps030426
PMCID: PMC2751215  PMID: 12049489
Hypericum perforatum; St John's Wort; Nutraceuticals
22.  Comparison of the gravimetric, phenol red, and 14C-PEG-3350 methods to determine water absorption in the rat single-pass intestinal perfusion model 
AAPS PharmSci  2001;3(3):93-97.
This study was undertaken to determine whether the gravimetric method provided an accurate measure of water flux correction and to compare the gravimetric method with methods that employ nonabsorbed markers (eg, phenol red and 14C-PEG-3350). Phenol red, 14C-PEG-3350, and 4-[2-[[2-(6-amino-3-pyridinyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]amino]ethoxy]-methyl ester, (R)-benzene acetic acid (Compound I) were co-perfused in situ through the jejunum of 9 anesthetized rats (single-pass intestinal perfusion [SPIP]). Water absorption was determined from the phenol red. 14C-PEG-3350, and gravimetric methods. The absorption rate constant (ka) for Compound I was calculated. Both phenol red and 14C-PEG-3350 were appreciably absorbed, underestimating the extent of water flux in the SPIP model. The average ±SD water flux (μg/h/cm) for the 3 methods were 68.9±28.2 (gravimetric), 26.8±49.2 (phenol red), and 34.9±21.9 (14C-PEG-3350). The (average±SD) ka for Compound I (uncorrected for water flux) was 0.024±0.005 min−1. For the corrected, gravimetric method, the average±SD was 0.031±0.001 min−1. The gravimetric method for correcting water flux was as accurate as the 2 “nonabsorbed” marker methods.
doi:10.1208/ps030325
PMCID: PMC2751020  PMID: 11741276
intestinal perfusion model; permeability; rat; water flux; multiple linear regression
24.  UGT1A1 polymorphism predicts irinotecan toxicity: Evolving proof 
AAPS PharmSci  2001;3(3):3.
doi:10.1208/ps0303_commentary2
PMCID: PMC2751010  PMID: 11783426

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